Immigration and Opportuntity: Race, Ethnicity, and Employment in the United States

Overview

The American dream of equal opportunity and social mobility still holds a powerful appeal for the many immigrants who arrive in this country each year. but if immigrant success stories symbolize the fulfillment of the American dream, the persistent inequality suffered by native-born African Americans demonstrates the dream's limits. Although the experience of blacks and immigrants in the United States are not directly comparable, their fates are connected in ways that are seldom recognized. Immigration and ...

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Overview

The American dream of equal opportunity and social mobility still holds a powerful appeal for the many immigrants who arrive in this country each year. but if immigrant success stories symbolize the fulfillment of the American dream, the persistent inequality suffered by native-born African Americans demonstrates the dream's limits. Although the experience of blacks and immigrants in the United States are not directly comparable, their fates are connected in ways that are seldom recognized. Immigration and Opportunity brings together leading sociologists and demographers to present a systematic account of the many ways in which immigration affects the labor market experiences of native-born African Americans.

With the arrival of large numbers of nonwhite immigrants in recent decades, blacks now represent less than 50 percent of the U.S. minority population. Immigration and Opportunity reveals how immigration has transformed relations between minority populations in the United States, creating new forms of labor market competition between native and immigrant minorities. Recent immigrants have concentrated in a handful of port-of-entry cities, breaking up established patterns of residential segregation,and, in some cases, contributing to the migration of native blacks out of these cities. Immigrants have secured many of the occupational niches once dominated by blacks and now pass these jobs on through ethnic hiring networks that exclude natives. At the same time, many native-born blacks find jobs in the public sector, which is closed to those immigrants who lack U.S. citizenship.

While recent immigrants have unquestionably brought economic and cultural benefits to U.S. society, this volume makes it clear that the costs of increased immigration falls particularly heavily upon those native-born groups who are already disadvantaged. Even as large-scale immigration transforms the racial and ethnic make-up of U.S. society—forcing us to think about race and ethnicity in new ways—it demands that we pay renewed attention to the entrenched problems of racial disadvantage that still beset native-born African Americans.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780871541512
  • Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
  • Publication date: 4/17/2003
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 437
  • Product dimensions: 8.90 (w) x 6.00 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

FRANK D. BEAN is professor of sociology and director of the Immigration Policy Research Project at the University of California, Irvine.

STEPHANIE BELL-ROSE was formerly legal counsel and program officer at the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

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Table of Contents


PART I SPATIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE AND LABOR
MARKETS n29
1 Immigration, Spatial and Economic Change, and
African American Employment 31
Frank U. Bean, Jennifer Van Hook, and
Mark A. Fossett
2 Mexican Immigration, Occupationa Niches, and
Labor-Market Competition: Evidence from Los
Angeles, Chicago, and Atlanta, 1970 to 1990 64
Michae/ I. Rosenfeld and Marta Tienda
3 Ethnic Concentrations and Labor-Market
Opportunities 106
Franklin D. Wilson
PART ENTREPRENEURSHIP, SOCIAL NETWORKS, AND LABOR
MARKETS 141
4 Entrepreneurship and Economic Progress in the
1990s: A Comparative Analysis of Immigrants and
African Americans 143
Alejandro Portes and Min Zhou
5 Minority Niches and Immigrant Enclaves in New
York and Los Angeles: Trends and Impacts 172
John R. Logan and Richard D. Alba
6 West Indians and African Americans at Work:
Structural Differences and Cultural Stereotypes 194
Mary C. Waters
7 Network, Bureaucracy, and Exclusion:
Recruitment and Selection in an Immigrant
Metropolis 228
RgrWaldinger
PART III MIGRATION, LABOR nMARKETS, AND POPUAIAHON
CHANGE 261
8 Newly Emerging Hispanic Communities in the
United States: A Spatial Analysis of Settlement
Patterns, In-Migration Fields, and Social
Receptivity 263
James H. Johnson Jr., Karen D. Johnson-Webb,
and Walter C. Farrell Jr.
9 New Black Migration Patterns in the United
States: Are They Affected by Recent Immigration? 311
William H. Frey
10 The Impact of Immigration on Residential
Segregation 345
Michael I. White and Jennifer E. Click
11 How Immigration and Intermarriage Affect the
Racial and Ethnic Composition of the U.S.
Population 373
Barry Edmonston and Jeffrey S. Passel
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