Immunological and Inflammatory Functions of the Interleukin-1 Familyby Charles A. Dinarello
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More than any other cytokine family, the interleukin (IL)-1 family is closely linked to the innate immune response. This linkage became evident upon the discovery that the cytoplasmic domain of the IL-1 receptor type I is highly homologous to the cytoplasmic domains of all Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Thus, fundamental inflammatory responses such as the induction of cyclooxygenase type 2, increased expression of adhesion molecules, or synthesis of nitric oxide are indistinguishable responses of both IL-1 and TLR ligands. Both families nonspecifically affect antigen recognition and lymphocyte function. IL-1β is the most studied member of the IL-1 family because of its role in mediating autoinflammatory diseases. Although the TLR and IL-1 families evolved to assist in host defense against infection, unlike the TLR family, the IL-1 family also includes members that suppress inflammation, both specifically within the IL-1 family but also nonspecifically for TLR ligands and the innate immune response.
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