Immunopathology of Insulin: Clinical and Experimental Studies

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642806100
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 12/15/2011
  • Series: Monographs on Endocrinology Series , #6
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1971
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 188
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.44 (d)

Table of Contents

A. Introduction.- B. Brief Review of the Immunology of Insulin.- I. Antigenicity of Insulin.- II. Humoral Antibodies Against Insulin and Their Demonstration.- 1. Immunological Reactions and Serologic Methods.- 2. Neutralization of the Biological Effect of Insulin..- 3. Binding of 131lodine-labelled Insulin.- 4. The Types of Insulin Antibodies.- III. Cell Mediated Immunity Against Insulin.- 1. Some General Aspects of Cell Mediated Immunity.- 2. Previous Immunocytological Studies.- IV. The Clinical Symptoms of the Immune Response to Insulin.- 1. Insulin Allergy.- a) The Clinical Picture.- b) Frequency.- c) Etiology and Pathogenesis.- 2. Insulin Resistance.- a) Clinical Picture.- b) Frequency.- c) Methods for Measurement of Insulin-neutralizing Antibodies.- d) Relationships between Maximum Insulin-binding Capacity of the Serum and the Daily Requirement of Insulin.- V. Proinsulin and Newer Concepts in Insulin Immunology.- C. Investigations of Insulin Allergy in Diabetes.- I. Investigations of Delayed Insulin Allergy.- 1. Introductory Remarks.- 2. Cytological Investigations.- a) Immunofluorescence.-—) The Different Techniques of Immunofluorescence.-—) Principles of Labelling with Fluorochromes.-—) The Biological Characteristics of FITC Insulin.-—) The Immunological Characteristics of FITC Insulin.-—) The Conjugation of Insulin with FITC.-—)The Conjugation of Insulin Antibodies with FITC.-—) The Isolation of Blood Leucocytes.-—) Separation of Lymphocytes and Granulocytes.-—) The Application of Immunofluorescence to Blood Cells.-—) The Specificity Tests for Immunofluorescence.-—) The Evaluation of the Cytologic Preparations.- b) Immune Adherence.-—) Introductory Remarks.-—) Technique.-—) The Specificity Tests for Immune Adherence.-—) The Evaluation of the Cytologic Preparations.- c) Lymphocyte Transformation.-—) Introductory Remarks.-—) Technique.-—) Evaluation of the Cell Preparations.- d) The Cytology of the Peripheric Blood Cells.- 3. The Intracutaneous Skin Test.- 4. Histological and Immunofluorescent Studies in Skin Biopsies.- 5. Investigations of Humoral Insulin Antibodies.- a) Insulin-Neutralizing Antibodies.-—) Measurement of the Maximal Insulin-binding Capacity.-—) Passive Hemagglutination.- b) Skin-sensitizing Antibodies (Reagin).-—) Remarks.-—) The “Allergic Serum Transfer Test” (AST Test).- c) The Investigation of Cytophilic Antibodies.- 6. Results.- a) Case Reports.- b) Summary of the Findings.-—) Clinical Picture.-—) Antigen-binding by Sensitized White Blood Cells.-—) Behaviour of Serum Antibodies.-—) Cytophilic Antibodies.-—) Histological Findings of Skin Biopsies..-—) Findings with Lymphocyte Transformation.- 7. Discussion.- 8. Summary and Recommended Therapeutic Measures.- II. Investigations of Immediate Allergy to Insulin.- III. Coexistence of Insulin Allergy and Insulin Resistance.- D. Investigations of the Delayed Immune Reaction and Formation of Antibody to Insulin in Experimental Animals.- I. Investigations of the Delayed Immune Reaction to Insulin in Guinea Pigs.- 1. Material and Methods.- a) Animals, Mode of Sensitization, Skin Test.- b) Cytological Examination of Peripheral White Blood Cells.- c) Transfer Test.- d) Migration Inhibition Test.- e) Studies of Humoral Antibodies to Insulin.- 2. Results.- a) Cytological Investigations of the White Cells.- b) Transfer Experiments.- c) Migration Inhibition Test.- d) Humoral Antibodies.- 3. Discussion.- 4. Summary.- II. Investigations of the Production of Humoral Antibodies.- 1. Material and Methods.- a) Mode of Immunization.- b) Detection of Antibody-forming Cells in the Peripheral Blood.-—) Isolation of Blood Cells.-—) Plaque Technique (According to Cunningham).- c) Binding of 131Iodine-labelled Insulin.- d) Passive Hemagglutination.- e) Immunohistological Techniques.- f) Histological Techniques.- 2. Results.- a) Antibody-forming Cells in Blood.- b) Humoral Antibodies.-—) Binding of 131lodine-labelled Insulin.-—) Passive Hemagglutination.-—) Binding of Insulin in Pancreatic Tissue..-—) The Effect of Labelling with FITC on the Immunological Properties of Insulin and Insulin Antibodies.- c) Immunofluorescence Studies of Various Organs.-—) Local Granulomatous Tissue.-—) Regional Lymph Nodes.-—) Spleen.-—) Bone Marrow.-—) Liver.-—)Kidney.-—) Pancreas.- d) Histological Studies.- 3. Discussion.- a) Blood Cells Producing Antibodies to Insulin.- b) Characteristics of the Humoral Insulin Antibodies in Guinea Pigs.- c) The Localization of Antigen and Antibody Formation.- d) The Kidney in Long-term Immunization with Insulin.- 4. Summary.- E. Appendix: Studies of Insulin-immunized Sheep.- I. Statement of Purpose.- II. Results.- III. Discussion.- IV. Summary.- F. General Summary.- References.
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