Impressionist Quartet: The Intimate Genius of Manet and Morisot, Degas and Cassatt

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Impressionist Quartet draws us into the inner lives of a core group of mid-nineteenth-century artists-Edouard Manet, Mary Cassatt, Edgar Degas, and Berthe Morisot-known, collectively, as the "Impressionists." Derided by critics, sneered at by contemporaries, their work sold for pittances. They were either marginalized or dismissed altogether by the French art establishment. And, to some degree, their iconic works have eclipsed them.

Portraying them as individuals and as fellow ...

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Overview

Impressionist Quartet draws us into the inner lives of a core group of mid-nineteenth-century artists-Edouard Manet, Mary Cassatt, Edgar Degas, and Berthe Morisot-known, collectively, as the "Impressionists." Derided by critics, sneered at by contemporaries, their work sold for pittances. They were either marginalized or dismissed altogether by the French art establishment. And, to some degree, their iconic works have eclipsed them.

Portraying them as individuals and as fellow conspirators in a new way of seeing and representing the world, Jeffrey Meyers brings to life this most popular and influential group of painters in the entire history of art. The result is an accessible and wonderfully illuminating book that offers readers a fresh way of looking at these artists and the priceless, timeless masterpieces they created.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
PRAISE FOR SOMERSET MAUGHAM: A LIFE
"The perfect subject for a biography . . . Meyers knows how to select his details . . . and arrange them into a well-paced narrative." -THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER

"[Meyers] mounts a persuasive defense of Maugham's art." -THE NEW YORKER

Publishers Weekly
The author of biographies of Joseph Conrad and Somerset Maugham, Meyers highlights here the intertwined lives of four Impressionist painters. Commencing with Edouard Manet (1832-1883), Meyers chronicles the artist's angst-ridden life as a bohemian and social rebel whose paintings were repeatedly rejected by the French art establishment. Berthe Morisot (1841-1895) is chiefly investigated in relation to Manet, with whom Meyers suggests she was romantically involved; she ultimately married Manet's brother (Manet was already married). Meyers's discussions of Morisot's paintings are engaging and unpretentious, as are his interpretations of all of the artists' works. The author pays more attention to Edgar Degas (1834-1917) than he does to American-born expat Mary Cassatt (1844-1926), whom he characterizes as a prickly, self-effacing woman with a formidable array of off-putting qualities who painted overly hygienic children. While Degas valued Cassatt as an artist and friend, Meyers says, he found her physically unappealing. As a glimpse into the context and dramas surrounding some of the world's most famous paintings, Meyers's book is lively and subjective, but not always entirely convincing. (May) Copyright 2005 Reed Business Information.
Library Journal
Who better than celebrated biographer Meyers to revisit these greats, reminding us of the individuals behind the art. Copyright 2005 Reed Business Information.
Kirkus Reviews
The prolific biographer (Somerset Maugham, 2004, etc.) moves from his familiar journey among writers and actors to the dangerous realm of Impressionist painters. Meyers's rambling, four-subject biography promises to illuminate the intimacies of Edouard Manet, Berthe Morisot, Edgar Degas and Mary Cassatt. Many have speculated that the two male artists enjoyed sexual as well as artistic relationships with their female disciples, and Meyers wants it to be true. He examines contemporary and modern secondary sources (the two couples' letters were all burned), recording every connection. Regrettably, he conveys little understanding of precisely why these connections are important in his formulaic trek from anecdote to anecdote. The serial descriptions of paintings are similarly unenlightening. Several works receive new interpretations, but they're seldom persuasive. Meyers's reading of Manet's portrait of his parents as insulting and castigating, for example, contradicts the subjects' and the artist's documented pleasure with it. The author oscillates between taking his research at face value and overinterpreting it. Meyer dismisses Morisot's husband (Manet's brother) as superficial, on the basis of a letter declaring that he misses his wife's "lovely chatter and pretty plumage." As examples of the Morisot family's malicious snobbery, the author cites two letters written decades apart describing two separate people as fat. He accurately portrays Degas and Cassatt as mercurial, complex people who often changed their minds and temporarily feuded with friends, but Meyers reads these qualities as character flaws. For the most part, he seeks scandal in the personal relationships of the four withoutfinding much of it. While there may have been something illicit between Manet and his sister-in-law, Meyers spends a lot of time outlining his evidence of a sexual connection between Degas and Cassatt, then anticlimactically concludes: not. Disappointing art history, unrealized scandal.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780151010769
  • Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
  • Publication date: 5/16/2005
  • Pages: 368
  • Product dimensions: 6.32 (w) x 9.26 (h) x 1.21 (d)

Meet the Author

Jeffrey Meyers is the author of numerous books on literature, film, and art, including biographies of Katherine Mansfield, Joseph Conrad, and Somerset Maugham. He lives in Berkeley, California..

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Read an Excerpt

INDEFINABLE FINESSE
1832-1858

~ EDOUARD MANET, the notorious creator of sexually daring paintings, was beloved by his friends and despised by the critics and the public. In the 1860s, when he began his career, he was handsome, charming and always fashionably dressed in his carefully tailored jacket, light-colored trousers and tall, wide-brimmed hat. Burning to succeed, and sure that he knew the direction painting should go, he worked with models in his studio, met friends in the Louvre and in private galleries, talked art and politics in the Paris salons and cafés. The crusading novelist Emile Zola, an early defender of his art, noted his "keen, intelligent eyes, [his] restless mouth turning ironic now and again; the whole of his expressive, irregular face has an indefinable finesse and vigor about it." Armand Silvestre, a contemporary critic, described Manet's appealing character and caustic wit. He was "a kind of dandy. Blond, with a sparse, narrow beard which was forked at the end, he had in the extraordinary vivacity of his gaze, in the mocking expression on his lips-his mouth was narrow-lipped, his teeth irregular and uneven-a very strong dose of the Parisian street urchin. Although very generous, and very good-hearted, he was deliberately ironic in conversation, and often cruel. He had a marvelous command of the annihilating and devastating phrase."

Antonin Proust, his faithful friend since childhood, emphasized Manet's courtly manners. He was of "medium height and muscular build. He had a lithe charm which was enhanced by the elegant swagger of his walk. No matter how much he exaggerated his gait or affected the drawl of the Parisian urchin, he was never in the least vulgar. One was conscious of his breeding." Manet, easily astonished and easily amused, had a character as dazzling as his appearance. Despite his sharp tongue, nervous outbursts and fits of depression, he impressed distinguished friends like Baudelaire and Mallarmé. He told Zola that "he adored society and discovered secret pleasures in the perfumes and brilliant delights of evening parties."1 Théodore Duret, who met Manet in Madrid in 1865 and became his friend, summed him up as essentially "a man of the world, refined, courteous, polished...fond of frequenting salons, where he was remarked and admired for his verve and his flashing wit."

The art dealer René Gimpel suggested his physical charm, remembering how the very smoothness of "his beard, well kept, brushed, curled, soft and caressing, [was] almost uniquely suitable for love." The journalist Paul Alexis defined the sensitivity and responsiveness that made so many women fall in love with him. Manet was "one of the five or six men of present-day Parisian society who still know how to talk to a woman. The rest of us...are too bitter, too distracted, too deep in our obsessions: our forced gallantries make us resemble bears dancing the polka."

One story synthesizes Manet's delightful personality and delicate wit. When a collector bought his Bunch of Asparagus and was so pleased with the painting that he paid an additional 200 francs, Manet painted another still life, of a single asparagus spear, and sent it along with a note that read: "There was one missing from your bunch."2 Manet's social graces and artistic genius attracted many followers. He would need all his courage and self-confidence, all the loyalty and support of family and friends, to face years of official rejection, critical hostility and public neglect.

II

AS A CHILD Edouard showed little sign of the academic talent so prized in France. Intended by his father to be a lawyer, he studied first at the Institut Poiloup and then-from the age of twelve to sixteen-at the Collège Rollin. "'This child is feeble,' the headmaster noted on Edouard's report card, 'but he shows zeal, and we hope he will do well.'" Here he met his future biographer, Antonin Proust, who later described Manet's boredom and misery in that oppressively grim atmosphere. The Collège, at one time a girls' reform school, had become a typically austere school for boys:

[There was] an ill-lit, prison like room, stinking of smoky lamps in the evening, furnished in the most primitive manner with narrow, rough benches, screwed so close to desks that they crushed your chest. We were packed in there like sardines. There was nothing on the walls, not even a map....

The only lesson which interested him at college, apart from gymnastics and the drawing lessons which he took from time to time, was history.

A few years later his reports had marginally improved, from "feeble" to "distracted," "slightly frivolous" and "not very studious." Relying on his own memories, Proust declared that "Edouard was as happy at home as he was unhappy at the Collège Rollin,"3 but this was not true.

Manet "came from one of those austerely high-minded and pious families," the art critic John Richardson observed, "which traditionally provided the French state with the most eminent of its public servants." They were also, as Baudelaire wrote (with some exaggeration) of his own parents, "idiots or maniacs, in grand apartments, all of them victims of terrible passions." Manet's ancestors had made money, bought land, and established solid positions in the learned professions and in upper-class society. His father Auguste (born in 1797) was a supervisor of personnel in the Ministry of Justice, where he gathered files on prospective judges, and rose rapidly through the administrative ranks to become a judge in the civil court. He sat on the bench with two other judges to hear "cases that included contested wills, paternity suits, legal separations, negligence charges, and copyright violations." On his mother's side Manet had some connections with Napoleonic royalty. His maternal grandfather, Joseph Fournier, a successful merchant in Sweden, had helped Napoleon's marshal Jean Bernadotte to become crown prince and then King Charles XIV of Sweden. Bernadotte became godfather to Manet's mother, Eugénie Désirée, who was born in Gothenburg in 1811 and married Auguste Manet in 1831.

Auguste's salary and his wife's dowry, his investments and inherited property in Gennevilliers (on the Seine, north of Paris) provided a substantial income and a comfortable home. One critic called Auguste "a man of duty, sternly honest, unflaggingly virtuous. He was enormously self-righteous,"4 and had solidly bourgeois ambitions for his three sons. Edouard, the oldest, was born in Paris on January 23, 1832, followed by his brothers Eugène in 1833 and Gustave in 1835. The teenage Manet was unhappy at school and at home, where his father's disappointment in his son caused considerable friction. Fortunately, Edouard's uncle and neighbor, the artillery captain Edmond Fournier, encouraged his nephew's talent for drawing, took him to the Louvre on Sundays and gave him his first informal lessons in the history of art.

Copyright © 2005 by Jeffrey Meyers

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be mailed to the following address: Permissions Department, Harcourt, Inc.,
6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, Florida 32887-6777.

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Table of Contents

Contents
ILLUSTRATIONS VII
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS IX
INTRODUCTION XI

EDOUARD MANET
1. Indefinable Finesse, 1832-1858 1
2. Family Secrets, 1859-1864 13
3. Habitual Offender, 1859-1864 21
4. Electric Body, 1865-1870 35
5. Dining on Rats, 1870-1879 56
6. Absolute Torture, 1880-1883 73

BERTHE MORISOT
7. Friendly Medusa, 1841-1867 87
8. Morisot and Manet, 1868-1874 102
9. Making Concessions, 1874-1895 117

EDGAR DEGAS
10. Great Draftsman, 1834-1865 131
11. Tender Cruelty, 1866-1870 146
12. Touch of Ugliness, 1870-1874 160
13. Horses, Dancers, Bathers, Whores 171
14. Bankrupt, 1874-1879 190
15. Degas and Manet, 1861-1883 200
16. Wounded Heart, 1880-1888 216
17. Solitary Prospero, 1889-1917 232

MARY CASSATT
18. American Aristocrat, 1844-1879 247
19. Cassatt and Degas, 1877-1917 267
20. Peppery Lady, 1880-1926 288

NOTES 309
BIBLIOGRAPHY 337
INDEX 343

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First Chapter

INDEFINABLE FINESSE
1832-1858

~ EDOUARD MANET, the notorious creator of sexually daring paintings, was beloved by his friends and despised by the critics and the public. In the 1860s, when he began his career, he was handsome, charming and always fashionably dressed in his carefully tailored jacket, light-colored trousers and tall, wide-brimmed hat. Burning to succeed, and sure that he knew the direction painting should go, he worked with models in his studio, met friends in the Louvre and in private galleries, talked art and politics in the Paris salons and cafés. The crusading novelist Emile Zola, an early defender of his art, noted his "keen, intelligent eyes, [his] restless mouth turning ironic now and again; the whole of his expressive, irregular face has an indefinable finesse and vigor about it." Armand Silvestre, a contemporary critic, described Manet's appealing character and caustic wit. He was "a kind of dandy. Blond, with a sparse, narrow beard which was forked at the end, he had in the extraordinary vivacity of his gaze, in the mocking expression on his lips-his mouth was narrow-lipped, his teeth irregular and uneven-a very strong dose of the Parisian street urchin. Although very generous, and very good-hearted, he was deliberately ironic in conversation, and often cruel. He had a marvelous command of the annihilating and devastating phrase."

Antonin Proust, his faithful friend since childhood, emphasized Manet's courtly manners. He was of "medium height and muscular build. He had a lithe charm which was enhanced by the elegant swagger of his walk. No matter how much he exaggerated his gait or affected the drawl of the Parisian urchin, he wasnever in the least vulgar. One was conscious of his breeding." Manet, easily astonished and easily amused, had a character as dazzling as his appearance. Despite his sharp tongue, nervous outbursts and fits of depression, he impressed distinguished friends like Baudelaire and Mallarmé. He told Zola that "he adored society and discovered secret pleasures in the perfumes and brilliant delights of evening parties."1 Théodore Duret, who met Manet in Madrid in 1865 and became his friend, summed him up as essentially "a man of the world, refined, courteous, polished...fond of frequenting salons, where he was remarked and admired for his verve and his flashing wit."

The art dealer René Gimpel suggested his physical charm, remembering how the very smoothness of "his beard, well kept, brushed, curled, soft and caressing, [was] almost uniquely suitable for love." The journalist Paul Alexis defined the sensitivity and responsiveness that made so many women fall in love with him. Manet was "one of the five or six men of present-day Parisian society who still know how to talk to a woman. The rest of us...are too bitter, too distracted, too deep in our obsessions: our forced gallantries make us resemble bears dancing the polka."

One story synthesizes Manet's delightful personality and delicate wit. When a collector bought his Bunch of Asparagus and was so pleased with the painting that he paid an additional 200 francs, Manet painted another still life, of a single asparagus spear, and sent it along with a note that read: "There was one missing from your bunch."2 Manet's social graces and artistic genius attracted many followers. He would need all his courage and self-confidence, all the loyalty and support of family and friends, to face years of official rejection, critical hostility and public neglect.

II

AS A CHILD Edouard showed little sign of the academic talent so prized in France. Intended by his father to be a lawyer, he studied first at the Institut Poiloup and then-from the age of twelve to sixteen-at the Collège Rollin. "'This child is feeble,' the headmaster noted on Edouard's report card, 'but he shows zeal, and we hope he will do well.'" Here he met his future biographer, Antonin Proust, who later described Manet's boredom and misery in that oppressively grim atmosphere. The Collège, at one time a girls' reform school, had become a typically austere school for boys:

[There was] an ill-lit, prison like room, stinking of smoky lamps in the evening, furnished in the most primitive manner with narrow, rough benches, screwed so close to desks that they crushed your chest. We were packed in there like sardines. There was nothing on the walls, not even a map....

The only lesson which interested him at college, apart from gymnastics and the drawing lessons which he took from time to time, was history.

A few years later his reports had marginally improved, from "feeble" to "distracted," "slightly frivolous" and "not very studious." Relying on his own memories, Proust declared that "Edouard was as happy at home as he was unhappy at the Collège Rollin,"3 but this was not true.

Manet "came from one of those austerely high-minded and pious families," the art critic John Richardson observed, "which traditionally provided the French state with the most eminent of its public servants." They were also, as Baudelaire wrote (with some exaggeration) of his own parents, "idiots or maniacs, in grand apartments, all of them victims of terrible passions." Manet's ancestors had made money, bought land, and established solid positions in the learned professions and in upper-class society. His father Auguste (born in 1797) was a supervisor of personnel in the Ministry of Justice, where he gathered files on prospective judges, and rose rapidly through the administrative ranks to become a judge in the civil court. He sat on the bench with two other judges to hear "cases that included contested wills, paternity suits, legal separations, negligence charges, and copyright violations." On his mother's side Manet had some connections with Napoleonic royalty. His maternal grandfather, Joseph Fournier, a successful merchant in Sweden, had helped Napoleon's marshal Jean Bernadotte to become crown prince and then King Charles XIV of Sweden. Bernadotte became godfather to Manet's mother, Eugénie Désirée, who was born in Gothenburg in 1811 and married Auguste Manet in 1831.

Auguste's salary and his wife's dowry, his investments and inherited property in Gennevilliers (on the Seine, north of Paris) provided a substantial income and a comfortable home. One critic called Auguste "a man of duty, sternly honest, unflaggingly virtuous. He was enormously self-righteous,"4 and had solidly bourgeois ambitions for his three sons. Edouard, the oldest, was born in Paris on January 23, 1832, followed by his brothers Eugène in 1833 and Gustave in 1835. The teenage Manet was unhappy at school and at home, where his father's disappointment in his son caused considerable friction. Fortunately, Edouard's uncle and neighbor, the artillery captain Edmond Fournier, encouraged his nephew's talent for drawing, took him to the Louvre on Sundays and gave him his first informal lessons in the history of art.


Copyright © 2005 by Jeffrey Meyers

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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