Improving Import Food Safety

Overview

Food safety has been a global concern for many years. While global sourcing of foods and ingredients provides great opportunity for variety and diversity of cultural products, there are significant risks. Programs that regulate food safety and quality in countries around the world vary in their scope and effectiveness, with many being underfunded. Rapidly developing countries may lack the expertise, laboratory resources for testing, and established inspection programs to adequately promote the safety of foods. ...

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Overview

Food safety has been a global concern for many years. While global sourcing of foods and ingredients provides great opportunity for variety and diversity of cultural products, there are significant risks. Programs that regulate food safety and quality in countries around the world vary in their scope and effectiveness, with many being underfunded. Rapidly developing countries may lack the expertise, laboratory resources for testing, and established inspection programs to adequately promote the safety of foods. Rather, these countries may be more focused on providing enough food for their citizens. Lack of documentation or traceability in the exporting country can further exacerbate the situation. Of course, safety problems in food imported from more developed countries also occur, and the source of food borne disease outbreaks are found regularly within the United States.

Improving Import Food Safety gathers together vital information on the food safety programs of national governments, the food industry, and the testing industry. Chapters have been contributed by authors from the United States, Latin America, Europe, and Asia. Readers will learn about a variety of regulatory approaches to food safety at the federal and state levels in the United States, as well as in selected countries and within the food industry itself. They will also gain insights into the nature and source of safety problems, in addition to approaches to food safety around the world.

The book is divided into three sections:

  • Highlighting Key Issues: authors illustrate the millions of permutations for the origin of ingredients, discussing the difficulty if policing imports, providing a unique perspective on the economic situation in China and insight into development of support for small farm producers in Mexico.
  • Legal and Regulatory Issues/Structures in the USA and Abroad: describes the legal and regulatory system in the European Union, the United States, and China, plus a chapter addressing global approaches to fraud.
  • Potential Strategies to Improve Import Safety: presents strategies to deal with what are ultimately global issues, but on multiple levels. Perspectives are provided by authors from Industry, and industry trade association, academia, and a recently semi-retired, global ambassador or food safety.

Readers will find this book noteworthy because of the diverse topics and perspectives offered on the challenges of keeping food safe in a global economy. Authors come from a variety of backgrounds, and each has provided a unique perspective on this critical topic. The volume is aimed at importers and exporters of food and ingredients; food microbiologists, food safety and QC/QA personnel; regulatory and legal personnel in food manufacturing companies; food policy makers and regulatory officials and facility and graduate students in food science.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780813808772
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 1/9/2013
  • Series: Institute of Food Technologists Series , #83
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 368
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

The Editors

Wayne Ellefson, Covance Laboratories, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Lorna Zach, Center for Human Performance and Risk Analysis, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA and System Solutions for the Food Industry, Mt. Horeb, Wisconsin, USA.

Darryl Sullivan, Covance Laboratories, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

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Table of Contents

Contributors xiii

Preface xvii

Acknowledgment xix

Part I Highlighting Key Issues 1

Chapter 1 Emerging Global Food System Risks and Potential Solutions 3
Shaun Kennedy

Overview 3

Supply Chain Complexity 4

Increasing Role of Imports 6

Unusual Sources for Imports 7

Other Emerging Food Safety Risks 10

Economically Motivated Adulteration 11

Other Emerging Intentional Threats 13

Potential Solutions 15

Conclusions 19

References 19

Chapter 2 A Cooperative Federal–State Approach for Monitoring Imported Foods: Reviewing the New York State Model 21
Joe Corby

Introduction 21

State and Local Government Strengths 23

The New York Model for a Cooperative Federal–State Approach for Monitoring the Safety of Imported Food 25

Examples of Violative Imported Food Products Found in the Pilot Cooperative Project 35

Discussion 41

Conclusions 42

References 42

Chapter 3 The Impact of the Chinese Development Model on Food Safety 45
Wenran Jiang

Introduction 45

China’s Explosive Economic Growth and its Impact 46

China as a Growing Food Superpower 51

China’s Food Safety Regimes 53

China’s Food Safety Challenges 57

Conclusions 61

Notes 62

References 63

Chapter 4 The Role of Public–Private Partnerships on the Access of Smallholder Producers of Mexican Cantaloupe to Fresh Produce Export Markets 65
Belem Avendano, Clare Narrod, and Marites Tiongco

Foodborne Outbreaks and the Increasing Demand for Food Safety in Fruit and Vegetables 66

Production Trends of the Cantaloupe Industry in Mexico 71

Responses to Food Safety Problems Associated with Cantaloupe Outbreaks 74

Major Barriers to Market Access for Small Mexican Producers in the Cantaloupe Supply Chain 76

The Role of Private–Public Partnerships in Facilitating Smallholders to Overcome Barriers to Export Market Entry 78

Summary and Conclusions 81

Notes 82

References 83

Part II Legal and Regulatory Issues/Structures in the United States and Abroad 87

Chapter 5 Improving US Regulation of Imported Foods 89
Neal Fortin

Introduction 89

The Major Federal Agencies 91

The FDA Import Process 92

Prior Notice of Import 93

USDA’s Import System 98

Other Import Controls 100

Country-of-origin Labeling 103

Challenges Facing Import Regulation 104

International Standards – Codex 106

Conclusions 106

References 108

Chapter 6 EU Food Safety Regulation and Trust-enhancing Principles 111
Ellen Vos

Introduction 111

Food Regulation: Between Market and Safety 112

The EU’s Failings in Ensuring Food Safety 114

The EU’s New Regime on Food Safety Regulation 115

Restoring Trust in EU Decision-making on Foods 118

Concluding Remarks 125

Acknowledgment 126

Notes 126

References 129

Chapter 7 Experience of Food Safety Authorities in Europe and the Rapid Alert System 133
Roger Wood

Introduction 133

The EU Approach to Legislation in the Food Sector 134

Food Crises 135

Risk Assessment and Risk Management and the EFSA 136

The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed 141

Notes 148

Chapter 8 The Development of and Challenges Facing Food Safety Law in the People’s Republic of China 151
Yuanyuan Shen

Introduction 151

From “Food Hygiene” to “Food Safety”: A Brief History of the Development of China’s Food Safeguard System (1978–2009) 153

China’s Food Safeguard System Today 165

The Challenges China Faces in Food Safeguard Improvement 181

Conclusions 186

Acknowledgments 187

Notes 187

References 192

Chapter 9 Defining Food Fraud and the Chemistry of the Crime 195
John Spink

Introduction 195

Food Fraud 196

Diversion, Parallel Trade, and Gray Market 203

Criminology and the Chemistry of the Crime 204

Improving Import Food Safety 208

Conclusions 213

References 214

Part III Potential Strategies to Improve Import Safety 217

Chapter 10 Tracking and Managing the Next Crisis 219
Henry Chin, Nancy Rachman, and Maia Jack

Introduction 219

Tracking the Next Crisis 220

Issue Management Tools 227

Conclusion 233

Notes 234

Chapter 11 Food Product Tracing 235
Jennifer McEntire

Introduction 235

Current US Recordkeeping Requirements 236

Global Recordkeeping Guidance and Practices 237

Commercial Product Tracing Standards 238

Food Industry Factors Affecting Traceability 241

Recommendations for Product Tracing 244

Commingling – A Special Case for

Product Tracing 246

Traceability Versus Recall Ability 247

Product Tracing as a Food Safety Tool for Imports 247

References 248

Chapter 12 Improving the Safety of Imported Foods with Intelligent Systems: The Case of United States–Mexico Fresh Produce Supply Chain 251
William Nganje, Na Hu, Timothy Richards and Albert Kagan

Introduction 252

Assessment of Threat and Vulnerability 259

Data and Procedure 261

Optimal Control Procedure 263

Results and Discussion 265

Notes 269

Appendix 270

References 272

Chapter 13 Testing with Confidence in the Pursuit of Global Food Safety 275
Ronald L. Johnson and Robert E. Koeritzer

Introduction 275

AOAC® International: Official Methods of Analysis sm 279

Evolution of Method Development and Validation 280

AOAC Research Institute 280

Initial Step in AOAC Harmonization of Rapid Microbiological Test Kits 284

The AOAC Guidelines Under Revision 289

References 291

Chapter 14 Global Food Protection: A New Organization is Needed 293
William H. Sperber

Introduction 293

Background 294

Proposal 298

Conclusion 301

Note 302

References 302

Chapter 15 Summary and Recommendations for the Safety of Imported Foods 303
Lorna Zach, M. Ellin Doyle, Vicki Bierand Chuck Czuprynski

Introduction 305

Summary of Current Concerns 306

Recommendations to Improve the Safety of Imported Foods 316

Concluding Recommendations 321

Conclusion 328

Acknowledgments 328

Notes 329

References 329

Index 335

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