In Search of Peace and Prosperity: New German Settlements in Eighteenth-Century Europe and America / Edition 1

In Search of Peace and Prosperity: New German Settlements in Eighteenth-Century Europe and America / Edition 1

by Hartmut Lehmann

ISBN-10: 0271019298

ISBN-13: 9780271019291

Pub. Date: 01/28/2000

Publisher: Penn State University Press

This volume brings together essays by leading German and American historians on the subject of the eighteenth-century German emigration. Scholars have traditionally studied the nineteenth century, when the overwhelming majority of German emigrants came to the New World. In this book, contributors focus on an earlier period, when Germans were moving to a variety of


This volume brings together essays by leading German and American historians on the subject of the eighteenth-century German emigration. Scholars have traditionally studied the nineteenth century, when the overwhelming majority of German emigrants came to the New World. In this book, contributors focus on an earlier period, when Germans were moving to a variety of destinations: Russia, Prussian Lithuania, and various other German territories as well as North America.

What drove men and women from different regional and social backgrounds to leave their homes during this time? Some migrations were forced, as for the Mennonites, the Salzburger emigrants, and the French Huguenots; some were voluntary and determined by the wish for one's own land and greater social and economic opportunity. In all groups, religion was a prominent motivator and primary element of social identification and cohesion. Inevitably, migrants carried with them traditional skills and other indispensable cultural "baggage." A key strength of this book is that contributors emphasize the mutual exchanges that occurred among cultures.

In Search of Peace and Prosperity grew out of a conference at Penn State University under the sponsorship of the German Historical Institute in Washington, D. C. Contributors are Rosalind J. Beiler, Jon Butler, Andreas Gestrich, Mark Häberlein, Thomas Klingebiel, Hartmut Lehmann, Thomas Müller-Bahlke, A. Gregg Roeber, Mack Walker, Hermann Wellenreuther, Carola Wessel, Renate Wilson, and Marianne S. Wokeck.

Product Details

Penn State University Press
Publication date:
Max Kade German-American Research Institute
Edition description:
New Edition
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

Part 1The Scene
1Contexts for Migration in the Early Modern World: Public Policy, European Migrating Experiences, Transatlantic Migration, and the Genesis of American Culture3
Society of estates and migration6
Idea and reality of governing and migration as protest movement10
The migrants' knowledge, views, and alternatives20
The migrants' range of experiences26
Migrants' prior experiences and ability to adjust to new conditions29
Migrants' world experiences and genesis of American culture33
Part 2New Settlements in Europe
2Huguenot Settlements in Central Europe39
Exodus and Refuge39
Huguenot immigration into German territories42
Settlement pattern and structure of refugee population50
Institutional pillars of German Refuge: congreation and Kolonie57
Acculturation and assimilation63
3The Salzburger Migration to Prussia: Causes and Choices68
The setting68
Necessary and sufficient causes69
The religious dimensions71
Prussian motives73
Migration and the migrants' role74
Results and consequences75
Causes again76
4German Religious Emigration to Russia in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries: Three Case Studies77
Russian immigration policies prior to 176377
The Herrnhut Unity of Brethren in Sarepta79
Mennonite settlements in New Russia86
Chiliastic Pietists in Russia92
Part 3Bridging the Atlantic
5The Spiritual Importance of the Eighteenth Century101
Importance of eighteenth century101
Revivalism in Great Britain104
Rediscovery of miracles105
Religion and medicine106
Emergence of voluntary organizations108
Church-state relations109
"African Spiritual Holocaust"111
Catholic experience112
The primacy of the eighteenth century113
6The Problem of the Eighteenth Century in Transatlantic Religious History115
Folk religion as problem of the eighteenth century116
Three major interpretations: Bonomi, Butler, and Ward118
Defining Pietism and its influence125
Science, religion, and enlightenment128
Denominations' sense of history130
Denominations' perception of enemies132
Christianity in the postrevolutionary period133
New historiographical trends and problems135
7Communication at Risk: The Beginnings of the Halle Correspondence with the Pennsylvania Lutherans139
Problem stated139
"Kurtz Nachricht" as example of function and Uses of Halle's communication system140
The Pietist communication network144
Extending the network to North America145
A. G. Francke's control of the network147
H. M. Muhlenberg and transatlantic communication149
Problems caused by distance and length of time: the example of Andreae150
Founding a press in America153
Halle's continuity of misunderstandings154
8Communication and Group Interaction Among German Migrants to Colonial Pennsylvania: The Case of Baden-Durlach156
Networks of local, transatlantic, and overseas communication156
Kinship ties and village discourse158
Local authorities160
Communication between the Old and the New World162
Limits of transatlantic communication165
Communication in the New World: participation in the local and regional market economy, construction of country roads, use of colonial newspapers, establishment of church congregations167
9From the Rhine to the Delaware Valley: The Eighteenth-Century Transatlantic Trading Channels of Caspar Wister172
A transatlantic commercial partnership172
A typical Philadelphia merchant's career174
Obstacles in German transatlantic commerce175
Land speculation and immigration178
Capital transactions and import of German merchandise179
Import of firearms made in Germany180
Glass production in the New World with glassmakers emigrating from the Old World182
Family members and immigrants as agents transporting German merchandise184
Ship captains, Newlanders, and transatlantic brokerage187
Part 4Settling and Settlements in the New World
10German Settlements in the British North American Colonies: A Patchwork of Cultural Assimilation and Persistence191
The influence of settlement conditions on the formation of specific German communities191
The German expatriate community193
The voluntary nature of expatriation194
The numerical insignificance of Germans in colonial America196
Selective ties between German settlements and their European lands of origin197
The reception of Germans in the American colonies198
Settlement patterns and community formation200
Immigration patterns and the distribution of settlement201
The importance of landed property205
The impact of family structure and religious beliefs on social organization206
Political participation211
Overcoming the difficulties associated with starting life in a new country by means of gradual integration213
11Land, Population, and Labor: Lutheran Immigrants in Colonial Georgia217
Religious persecution, colonial policy, population reform, and commercial interests217
Main strands in the history of early German colonial settlement in North America219
Networks of eighteenth-century Protestant mission221
Taking root: abundance of land and deficiency of population222
Need for complaisant farm and wage labor224
Servants and farmers228
Which way lies growth? further immigration from Europe, introduction of slavery or abandonment of originally planned replication of Pietist institutions of reform229
A question of bondage232
New arrivals: a change in the immigrants' attitudes and expectations235
German resignation to black slave labor237
Geographical expansion, land title, and ownership239
A different type of town243
12"We Do Not Want to Introduce Anything New": Transplanting the Communal Life from Herrnhut to the Upper Ohio Valley246
Moravian way of life247
Transplantation to a different culture249
Adjustments to Moravian regulations (Statuten)251
Reason for Indian conversions258
Relation to Indians outside the congregations259
End of the mission during the Revolutionary War261
Part 5Modern Perceptions of Past Worlds
13Recent Research on Migration265
Older research266
Lacunae in research on migration268
General migration studies269
Great Britain and Ireland272
Migration of social groups282
Young people283
Soldiers, merchants, nobility285
Emigration in and beyond Europe292
Immigration policy of rulers295
Private entrepreneurs as settlement promoters300
Research on acculturation302
Some conclusions303
14Transatlantic Migration, Transatlantic Networks, Transatlantic Transfer: Concluding Remarks307
New research on mass emigration307
Transatlantic networks308
Cross-national and cross-cultural comparison309
German settlers in eighteenth-century America311
Second and third generations of German-Americans313
Transatlantic communication314
Benjamin Franklin and Christopher Saur as rivals317
Pennsylvania Germans320
Elite culture and popular culture321
Varieties of popular beliefs323
Old World heritage and New World conditions325
Neighborhood relations328
Demographic patterns330
Testing macrohistorical hypotheses with the tool of microhistorical analysis331

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