In Two Minds: Dual Processes and Beyond

Overview


This book explores the idea that we have two minds - one that is automatic, unconscious, and fast, the other controlled, conscious, and slow. In recent years there has been great interest in so-called dual-process theories of reasoning and rationality. According to dual processs theories, there are two distinct systems underlying human reasoning - an evolutionarily old system that is associative, automatic, unconscious, parallel, and fast, and a more recent, distinctively human system that is rule-based, ...
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Overview


This book explores the idea that we have two minds - one that is automatic, unconscious, and fast, the other controlled, conscious, and slow. In recent years there has been great interest in so-called dual-process theories of reasoning and rationality. According to dual processs theories, there are two distinct systems underlying human reasoning - an evolutionarily old system that is associative, automatic, unconscious, parallel, and fast, and a more recent, distinctively human system that is rule-based, controlled, conscious, serial, and slow. Within the former, processes are held to be innate and to use heuristics which evolved to solve specific adaptive problems. In the latter, processes are taken to be learned, flexible, and responsive to rational norms.

Despite the attention these theories are attracting, there is still poor communication between dual-process theorists themselves, and the substantial bodies of work on dual processes in cognitive psychology and social psychology remain isolated from each other. This book brings together leading researchers on dual-processes to summarize the state of the art, highlight key issues, present different perspectives, explore implications, and provide a stimulus to further work.

It includes new ideas about the human mind both by contemporary philosophers interested in broad theoretical questions about mental architecture and by psychologists specialising in traditionally distinct and isolated fields. For all those in the cognitive sciences, this is a book that will advance dual-process theorizing, promote interdisciplinary communication, and encourage further applications of dual-process approaches.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"The edited book In Two Minds: Dual Processes and Beyond brings together scholars from a variety of disciplines to discuss both specific and generic dual process theories. The book details the many ways in which the history of science and of Western thought has characterized the mind as partitioned, providing greatly needed historical and philosophical perspectives...entries do an excellent job of introducing unique perspectives on specific dual or multiprocess theories....The intended audience for n Two Minds includes students and professionals who have an interest in human psychology and behavior."--PsycCRITIQUES

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780199230167
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • Publication date: 4/15/2009
  • Pages: 366
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Jonathan Evans has conducted a major research programme on thinking and reasoning since the 1970's. His publications include seven authored books and well over 150 scientific papers. His research includes study of cognitive biases in reasoning and judgement, and of the psychology of conditionals. He is one of the founders of the dual-process theory of reasoning and in recent years has extended this interest to broadly based dual-system theories of the mind. Keith Frankish is Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at The Open University. His research spans debates about the nature of belief, the structure of the mind, and consciousness. His publications include two authored books, three co-edited volumes, and numerous journal articles and book chapters. His 2004 book Mind and Supermind argued that a dual-systems perspective is implicit in everyday belief-desire psychology and explored the implications of this view for issues in philosophy of mind.

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Table of Contents

1 The duality of mind: An historical perspective Keith Frankish Frankish, Keith Jonathan St. B. T. Evans Evans, Jonathan St. B. T. 1

Pt. 1 Foundations

2 How many dual-process theories do we need? One, two, or many? Jonathan St. B. T. Evans Evans, Jonathan St. B. T. 33

3 Distinguishing the reflective, algorithmic, and autonomous minds: Is it time for a tri-process theory? Keith E. Stanovich Stanovich, Keith E. 55

4 Systems and levels: Dual-system theories and the personal-subpersonal distinction Keith Frankish Frankish, Keith 89

5 An architecture for dual reasoning Peter Carruthers Carruthers, Peter 109

6 The magical number two, plus or minus: Dual-process theory as a theory of cognitive kinds Richard Samuels Samuels, Richard 129

Pt. 2 Perspectives

7 Intuitive and reflective inferences Hugo Mercier Mercier, Hugo Dan Sperber Sperber, Dan 149

8 Dual-process theories: A metacognitive perspective Valerie A. Thompson Thompson, Valerie A. 171

9 Dual-process models: A social psychological perspective Eliot R. Smith Smith, Eliot R. Elizabeth C. Collins Collins, Elizabeth C. 197

10 Thinking across cultures: Implications for dual processes Emma E. Buchtel Buchtel, Emma E. Ara Norenzayan Norenzayan, Ara 217

11 The two systems of learning: An architectural perspective Ron Sun Sun, Ron Sean M. Lane Lane, Sean M. Robert C. Mathews Mathews, Robert C. 239

Pt. 3 Applications

12 Cognitive and social cognitive development: Dual-process research and theory Paul A. Klaczynski Klaczynski, Paul A. 265

13 What zombies can't do: A social cognitive neuroscience approach to the irreducibility of reflective consciousness Matthew D. LiebermanLieberman, Matthew D. 293

14 In two minds about rationality? Clare Saunders Saunders, Clare David E. Over Over, David E. 317

15 Reason and intuition in the moral life: A dual-process account of moral justification Leland F. Saunders Saunders, Leland F. 335

Name Index 355

Index 363

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