Including Adolescents with Disabilities in General Education Classrooms / Edition 1

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Written by a best-selling author team, this book focuses on secondary inclusive classrooms and the instructional strategies that ensure the learning success of all middle and secondary students.

Focused on research-based strategies, Teaching Adolescents in Middle and Secondary Inclusive Classrooms, 1e, shows how to accommodate and modify instruction for secondary students with special needs. Organized in two parts, it explains the developmental differences, disabilities, and social skills deficits that can impact adolescents and then offers specific ways to improve instruction.

Learn more about strategies such as co-teaching, differentiated instruction, strategies instruction, and peer-assisted learning. Understand how to implement strategies specific to literacy, math, science, self-determination and social skills. Reflect on study questions, closing cases and activities that provide real-life, diversity-rich examples of strategies in action.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780135014967
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 8/12/2011
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 368
  • Sales rank: 288,791
  • Product dimensions: 7.90 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr. Tom Smith is currently Dean of the College of Education and Health Professions, University of Arkansas, and University Professor of Special Education. Additionally, he has served as Executive Director of the Division on Autism and Developmental Disabilities of the Council for Exceptional Children for 20 years. Dr. Smith has authored and co-authored 27 textbooks, including a recently published sixth edition of Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings, co-authored with Ed Polloway, Jim Patton, and Carol Dowdy and published by Pearson. He has also published more than 40 articles in referenced journals, primarily focusing on students with mild disabilities and legal issues related to special education.

Dr. Barbara C. Gartin is 1982 graduate of the University of Georgia program in the Education of Exceptional Children and a University Professor of Special Education in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Arkansas. She has worked as a high school special education teacher in Georgia before joining the University of Arkansas faculty. Dr. Barbara Gartin has published numerous articles on issues related to behavior management, inclusion, and special education law. In 2002, she co-authored How to use differentiated instruction with students with developmental disabilities in the general education classroom for the Division on Developmental Disabilities (Council for Exceptional Children) with Nikki Murdick, Marcia Imbeau, and Darlene Perner. With Nikki Murdick and Terry Crabtree, she co-authored the first edition of Special Education Law in 2002 and the second edition in 2007, both published by Pearson Education. In 2006, she co-authored Families and Children with Special Needs: Parent and Professional Partnerships with Tom Smith, Nikki Murdick and Alan Hilton, which was also published by Pearson Education. Her research interests include legal issues in the provision of appropriate services for students with special needs, the educational implications of disability, especially rare syndromes, and issues of parent advocacy. She has served as the President of the Educational Division of AAIDD and as the President of the Division of Autism and Developmental Disabilities.

Dr. Nikki Murdick is a professor of Special Education in the Department of Educational Studies in the College of Public Services at Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO. Throughout her career she has worked as a classroom teacher, clinical behavior specialist, curriculum developer, parent advocate, and University professor. Dr. Murdick has published numerous articles on issues related to behavior management, inclusion, and special education legal concerns of students with cognitive and behavioral disabilities. She has co-authored a monograph on differentiated instruction, a text on Special Education Law, and a text on Families and Children with Special Needs: Parent and Professional Partnerships. Her research interests include legal issues in the provision of appropriate services for students with special needs, parent advocacy, and educational implications of disability that impact the educational success of students.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Adolescents with Disabilities

Types of Development

Intellectual Development

Physical Development

Emotional/Psychological Development

Social Development

Moral/Ethical Development

Adolescents with Disabilities

Intellectual Disability

Learning Disabilities

Behavioral/Emotional Disorders

Autism Spectrum Disorders: Autism and Asperger’s Syndrome

Low-Incidence Categories

Cerebral Palsy

Traumatic Brain Injury




Chapter 2: Services for Adolescents with Disabilities in Middle and Secondary Schools


Secondary Public Education

Organization of Secondary Education

Purpose of Secondary Schools

Secondary School Curricula

Diversity in Secondary Schools

Challenges in Secondary Schools

Teaching in Secondary Schools

Special Education Services in Secondary Schools

Traditional Services for Adolescents with Disabilities in Middle and Secondary Schools

Current Programming Models

Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Secondary Schools

The Inclusion Movement

Rationale Supporting Inclusion

Advantages and Disadvantages of Inclusion

Parent and Teacher Support for Inclusion

Legal Basis for Special Education Services

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

Section 504 and the ADA

Litigation and Special Education

Goals for Adolescents with Disabilities in Middle and Secondary Schools

Issues Facing Secondary Special Education

Dropping Out of School

Increasing Accountability

Role of Teachers




Chapter 3: The Special Education Process in Middle/Secondary Schools



Behaviors Suggesting Referral

Legal Requirements

Referral Meeting

Teacher’s Role in the Referral Process

Response to Intervention


Legal Requirements

Types of Assessment

Norm-References Tests

Criterion-Referenced Tests

Other Forms of Assessment

Selecting Types of Assessment

Teacher’s Role in the Assessment Process

Determining Eligibility

Individualized Educational Programming

Legal Requirements

The IEP Process

Behavior Intervention Planning

Legal Requirements

Transition Planning

Legal Requirements

Transfer of Rights

Facilitating IEP Participation

Facilitating Parental Involvement

Facilitating Student Involvement

Teacher’s Role in the IEP Process

Least Restrictive Environment

Legal Requirements

Continuum of Placement Options

Due Process

Role of Special Education and Classroom Teachers in the Special Education Process




Chapter 4: Transition Programming for Adolescents with Disabilities


Vertical Transition

Transitions Within Secondary School

Transitions out of School

Student-Centered Planning

Transition Curriculum

Postsecondary Education Goal

Vocational Goal

Postsecondary Independent Living Goal

Legal Requirements for Transition of Students with Disabilities

Transition Assessment for Planning

The Transition Planning Team

The Transition Plan

Age of Majority




Chapter 5: Home/Family Collaboration Communication in a Middle/Secondary Inclusive Classroom



Impact of Family Involvement

Standards and Family Involvement

Legal Mandate for Family Involvement

The Family

Characteristics of Families

Tips for Communicating with Families

Impact of a Child with Disabilities on the Family

Parents and Stress

Siblings and Stress

Extended Family and Stress

Professionals and Family Stress

Families from Diverse Backgrounds

Diversity in Family Structure

Tips for Working with Families with Diverse Family Structures

Diversity in Culture and Language

Tips for Working with Families with Culture and Language Differences

Developing a Culturally Sensitive Classroom

School and Family Collaboration

Encouraging Parental Participation




Chapter 6: Classroom Management and Adolescents with Disabilities


Components of Classroom Management

Organization of Classroom Space

Seating Arrangement

Classroom Climate

Classroom Norms

Developing Classroom Rules and Procedures

Planning and Conducting Instruction

Learning and Instructional Time

Maintaining Appropriate Behaviors

Positive Behavior Supports (PBS)

School-Wide Positive Behavioral Support

Empowering Students

Modeling Appropriate Behaviors

Reinforcing Appropriate Behaviors

Decreasing Inappropriate Behaviors

Responding to Minor Inattention and Misbehavior

Behavior Intervention Planning

Determining Underlying Causes





Chapter 7: Co-Teaching


Cooperative Teaching Model

Benefits of Co-Teaching

Research Base for Co-Teaching

Before Beginning a Co-Teaching Model

Strengthening Co-Teaching Relationships

Co-Teaching Models


One Teaching, One Observing

One Teaching, One Assisting

Station Teaching

Parallel Teaching

Alternative Teaching

Role of School Personnel in Co-Teaching

Role of Paraprofessionals

Role of Administration

Role of Other Professionals

Strategies Used in Implementing Co-Teaching

Evaluating Cooperative Teaching




Chapter 8: Differentiated Instruction


Evidence-Based Practices on Content Area Strategies

Differentiated Instruction

Key Concepts in Using Differentiation of Instruction





Learning Environment

Implementing Differentiation of Instruction in Middle and Secondary Classrooms




Chapter 9: Strategies Instruction


Teaching Students How to Use Strategies

The Strategic Instruction Model (SIM)

Student-Focused Interventions–Learning Strategies

Strategies to Acquire Information

Strategies for Storing and Retrieving Information

Strategies for Expressing Learned Materials




Chapter 10: Strategies for Teaching Content to Adolescents with Disabilities:

Reading and Language Arts


Instruction in Reading

Phonics and Phonemic Awareness




Instruction in Writing

Mechanics of Writing


Written Expression

Guiding Principles for Literacy Instruction

Strategies to Enhance Content Literacy

Phonics and Phonemic Awareness


DR-TA (Directed Reading-Thinking Activity)

Directed Reading Activity (DRA)



Question-Answer-Relationship (QAR)

Cluster Strategies

Semantic Feature Analysis (SFA)

Context-Structure-Sound-Reference (CSSR)

Language Arts and English

Instruction in Social Studies




Chapter 11 Strategies for Teaching Content to Adolescents with Disabilities:

Math and Science


Teaching Math to Students with Disabilities

Math Standards

Math Instructional Ideas

General Math Accommodations

Assessing Math Skills

Teaching Science to Students with Disabilities

Traditional Science Teaching Approaches

Other Science Teaching Methods

Accessibility and Science Labs

Connecting Math and Science Instruction

Integrated Curriculum




Chapter 12: Strategies for Teaching Social Skills to Adolescents with Disabilities


Importance of Social Skills

Social Skills and Individuals with Disabilities

Social Skills Deficits

Importance of Social Skills for Students with Disabilities

Social Skills Instruction

Assessment of Social Skills

Social Skills and Culture

Strategies to Teach Social Skills

Level 1–Structuring a Classroom Community

Level ii–Specific Strategies and Curriculum for Promoting Social Competence

Level III–Targeted Individual Interventions

Planning and Implementing Social Skills Interventions




Chapter 13: Strategies for Teaching Self-Determination Skills to Adolescents with Disabilities



Components of Self-Determination

Need for Self-Determination Skills

Teaching Self-Determination Skills

Self-Determination Preparation Programs

Student Involvement in the Educational Process

Age of Majority

Self-Determination Supports in Postsecondary Educational Settings




Chapter 14: Vocational/Technical Education for Adolescents with Disabilities



Vocational Rehabilitation

Special Education

Developmental Disabilities

Employment Services

Civil Rights

Assessing Vocational Needs of Adolescents with Disabilities

Vocational Assessment: Data Gathering

Vocational Assessment: Future Environments

Application of Academic Content to Real-Life Situations

Vocational Programs for Adolescents with Disabilities

School-Based Vocational Training

Postsecondary Education




Name Index

Subject Index

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