Infancy: Development From Birth to Age 3 / Edition 2

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For courses in Infancy and Early Childhood Development, with a focus on birth to age 3.

Infancy: Development from Birth to Age 3 helpsstudents understand the role of infant development research and how they may apply it to their own lives as well as the broader implications upon public policies. Students are also presented with the relevant historical information in many of the chapters to provide a broader perspective and highlight how far we’ve come in our understanding of the first 3 years of life. Issues of diversity and multicultural experience are also incorporated, illustrating how nature and nurture work together.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205734191
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 10/22/2010
  • Series: Pearson Custom Library: Psychology Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 512
  • Sales rank: 154,918
  • Product dimensions: 7.20 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Dana Gross, Ph.D., is a Professor of Psychology and Affiliated Faculty of Asian Studies and Linguistic Studies at St. Olaf College, where she teaches an advanced seminar on Infant Development, as well as courses in Research Methods, Developmental Psychology, and Human Development in East Asia. Dana Gross received her BA in Psychology from Smith College and her PhD in Child Psychology from the Institute of Child Development at the University of Minnesota. Dana’s research has been published in Child Development, Cognitive Development, and International Journal of Behavioural Development, among others. Most recently, she has been involved in field research in a high school-based parent education program for adolescent parents and their infant and toddler children. Dana has presented her work at numerous conferences, and served as consultant and co-author for several developmental textbooks.

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Table of Contents

Preface xi

Chapter 1: Beliefs About Babies: Historical Perspectives on Children and Childhood

Why Do We Study Infants?

Development as Transformation

Impact of Early Experience

Research Methods and Tools

Interdisciplinary Collaboration

Recurring Themes in the Study of Child Development

The Path of Development: Stages versus Continuous Change

Heredity and the Environment

Active or Passive Development?

Normal and Atypical Development

Culture and Context

Historical Perspectives on Infancy and Early Childhood

Historical Studies of Children and Childhood

Views of Children

Ancient Greece and Rome

Medieval Europe

The Renaissance

Colonial America

Family Life


The Development of Child Development

G. Stanley Hall

James Mark Baldwin

John B. Watson

Arnold Gesell

Child Research Institutes: Research and Dissemination

John Bowlby

Sharing the Results

Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion

Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion

Key Words

Chapter 2: Research Methods

Research Settings

Naturalistic Studies

Laboratory Studies

Research Designs

Case Studies and Single-Subject Research

Quasi-Experimental Studies

Experimental Studies

Research Designs for Studying Development

Longitudinal Research

Cross-Sectional Research

Microgenetic Research

Research Measures

Behavioral Responses

Psychophysiological Measures

Measures of Visual Behavior

Conditioned Behavior

Parental Reports

Archival Research

Issues in Research with Infants

Behavioral State

Inference and Interpretation

Ethical Concerns

Where Do Babies Come From?

Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion

Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion

Key Words

Chapter 3: Genetics, Conception, and Prenatal Development

Genetics and the Human Genome

Genetics and Disease

Genetics and Prenatal Development


Twins and Other Multiples

Sex Chromosome Abnormalities

Infertility and Assisted Reproduction

Prenatal Development

The Germinal Stage, Fertilization to 2 Weeks

The Embryonic Stage, 2 to 8 Weeks

The Fetal Stage, 8 Weeks to Birth (38 Weeks)



Birth Defects

Neural Tube Defects

Congenital Heart Defects

Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)


Maternal Blood Screening

Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)


Fetal Echocardiography

Fetal Therapy

Prenatal Influences


Alcohol and Drugs


Illicit Drugs





HIV and Other Infections

Preexisting Chronic Diseases

Rh Disease


Environmental Hazards

Paternal Influences

Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion

Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion

Key Words

Chapter 4: Birth and the Newborn

The Birth Process: Stages of Childbirth

The First Stage: Contractions, Dilatation, and Effacement

The Second Stage: Delivery of the Infant

The Third Stage: Placental Expulsion

Complications of Childbirth

Failure to Progress

Breech Presentation

Preterm Birth

Low Birthweight

Postdate Birth

Twins and Other Multiple Births

Childbirth Options

Medical Interventions

Induction of Labor

Electronic Fetal Monitoring

Pain Relief

Forceps and Vacuum Extraction


Cesarean Delivery

Hospital, Home, or Birth Center?

Birth Attendants and Settings

Hospital Versus Home Birth

Birth Centers

Neonatal Assessment

Assessment at Birth


Sensory Abilities

Adaptations during the Neonatal Period

Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion

Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion

Key Words

Chapter 5: Physical Growth, Health, and Nutrition

Physical Growth

Measuring and Predicting Growth

Failure to Thrive

Brain Development

Maltreatment, the Brain, and Shaken Baby Syndrome

Health and Safety

Newborn Screening

Screening for Lead Poisoning

Infant Mortality

Common Illnesses and Immunizations

Accidental Injuries

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

Nutrition and Feeding

Nutritional Requirements in Infancy

Breast Milk

Infant Formula

Nutritional Requirements in Toddlerhood

The Problem of Malnutrition

Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion

Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion

Key Words

Chapter 6: Sensation, Perception, and Motor Development

Sensory Abilities and Perceptual Development

Theories of Infant Perception

Empiricist Perspectives

Nativist Perspectives

Gestalt Perspectives

Ecological Perspectives

Dynamic Systems Perspectives


Newborn Abilities

Perceiving Objects

Perceiving Depth


Locating Sounds

Perceiving Sounds





Innate Preferences

Effects of Experience


Innate Preferences

Effects of Experience

Other Senses

Intermodal and Cross-Modal Perception

Intermodal Abilities

Cross-Modal Abilities

Motor Development

Reaching, Grasping, and Manipulating: Fine Motor Skills

Crawling and Walking: Gross Motor Skills

Implications for Parents and Caregivers

Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion

Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion

Key Words

Chapter 7: Cognition, Learning, and Intelligence

The Development of Play

Play with Objects

Social Play

Pretend/Symbolic Play

Piaget’s Theory: Constructing and Representing Knowledge

Sensorimotor and Preoperational Intelligence

Object Permanence

The A-not-B Error

Understanding and Using Representations of Space

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory: Learning as a Social Activity

The Zone of Proximal Development

Guided Participation

Cognitive Science Perspectives


Gaze Following, Joint Attention, and Theory of Mind



Defining and Testing Intelligence in Infancy

Traditional Tests

Information Processing Assessments

Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion

Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion

Key Words

Chapter 8: Language and Communication

Studying Language Development

Why Language Matters

Systems of Language

Theoretical Foundations

Prelinguistic Communication

Receptivity to Language

Speech Perception

Early Production: Babbling

Gestural Communication

Semantic Development

Milestones in the Acquisition of Meaning

One-Word Utterances

Individual Differences in Language Experience

Cultural and Linguistic Influences

Explaining Early Word Learning

Social and Pragmatic Cues

Constraints and Principles

Grammatical Cues

Contrasting Semantic Relations

The Acquisition of Grammar

Multiword Utterances

Grammatical Morphemes


Individual Differences in Early Grammar

Cross-Linguistic Studies of the Acquisition of Grammar

Atypical Language Development

Measuring Language Development

Early Language Delay

Language and Communication in Children with Autism

Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion

Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion

Key Words

Chapter 9: Relationships and Social Development

Infant-Caregiver Relationships

Patterns of Care and Interaction: Beliefs About Infants

Cross-Cultural Differences in Mothers’ Involvement

Father-Infant Caregiving and Interaction

Cross-Cultural Differences in Fathers’ Involvement

Disturbances in Infant-Caregiver Relationships

Postpartum Depression

Maltreatment: Abuse and Neglect

Early Institutionalization and Social Deprivation

Developing Trust, Becoming Attached

Bowlby’s Theory of Infant-Caregiver Attachment

Assessing Attachment Relationships

Attachment to Other Caregivers

Infants’ Influence on Attachment

Culture and Attachment

Attachment and Subsequent Development

Sibling Relationships

Becoming a Sibling

How Siblings Contribute to Development

Peer Relationships and Friendship

Peer Interactions


Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion

Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion

Key Words

Chapter 10: Temperament, Emotions, and the Self


Defining and Measuring Temperament

Using Parental Reports

Thomas and Chess’s Model

Rothbart’s Framework

Buss and Plomin’s Approach

Goldsmith’s Model

Temperament and Biology

Heart Rate

The Stress-Response System

Reactivity and Inhibition

Temperament and Attachment

Temperament and Personality


Expressing Emotions

Perceiving Emotions

Communicating with Emotions

Regulating Emotions

Developing and Using Social Emotions

The Self

Recognizing the Self

Evaluating the Self

Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion

Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion

Key Words

Chapter 11: Building Better Babies: Child Care and Early Intervention

Child Care

Maternal Employment

Parental Leave Policies

Policies in the United States

Policies in Other Countries

Child Care Arrangements

Effects of Child Care: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

The Sample

Patterns of Child Care Use

Defining Quality Child Care

Effects on the Infant-Parent Relationship

Effects on Social Development

Effects on Language and Cognitive Development

Including Children with Disabilities in Child Care

Early Intervention

Poverty as a Risk Factor: Implications for Prevention and Intervention

Early Intervention through Child Care and Preschool

The High/Scope Perry Preschool Project

The Abecedarian Project and Project CARE

The Infant Health and Development Project

The Chicago Longitudinal Study

Early Head Start

Measuring the Impact of Early Childhood Intervention

Pre-Kindergarten and Early Childhood Education

Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion

Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion

Key Words

Chapter 12: Babies of Today and Tomorrow: Music, Media, and Computers


Listening to Music

Music Perception

Singing to Infants

Making Music

Learning to Sing

Playing Instruments

The Mozart Effect


Television for Infants and Toddlers

Infant Perception of Video Images

Young Children’s Responses to Television

Barney & Friends


Computers in the Home

Computers in Early Childhood Classrooms

Interactive Books and Toys

Interactive Books

“Smart” Infant Toys

Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion

Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion

Key Words




Photo Credits

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