The Influence of Race and Racial Identity in Psychotherapy: Toward a Racially Inclusive Model / Edition 1

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The Influence of Race and Racial Identity in Psychotherapy

Conventional wisdom has it that race and racial identity are, at best, marginal factors in personality development. In light of the fact that in many cultures race is the ultimate measure of inclusion or exclusion, this view seems about as sensible as the claim that dietary habits have little or nothing to do with physical development. Equally strange is the belief held by many schools of thought that race is important only when a patient brings it into the therapeutic process, and if the patient happens to be a person of color, the issue of race is merely a ploy for avoiding more critical intrapsychic issues.

In this groundbreaking book, Robert T. Carter stands conventional wisdom on its head and elevates race to the position of prominence it deserves to occupy in modern psychological thought. With a wealth of empirical evidence to support his claims, he clearly demonstrates the decisive role that race plays in personality development and the powerful influence it has on the therapeutic process. Just as importantly, he presents the first Racially Inclusive Model of Psychotherapy, a rigorous conceptual framework which affords clinicians a deeper awareness of how racial issues affect their dealings with patients and a means of integrating that knowledge into their practices.

The book begins with a critical overview, in which the author clearly shows that race has always been excluded from theories of personality development; he then explores the shortcomings inherent in the tendency to substitute ethnicity and culture for race. In the following discussion of race and personality, Carter presents models of racial identity for all racial groups, and offers numerous case studies which help validate the notion of variable psycho-social resolutions within racial groups, where each resolution functions as an independent world view.

Clinicians will be particularly fascinated by later discussions of the ways, both overt and covert, in which racial awareness influences psychotherapeutic interactions. Carter presents a model of how a client's awareness of race and that of his or her therapist can clash or intertwine to bring about varying dyadic relationships which, in turn, influence therapist/client strategies, affective responses, and outcomes.

The final section of the book is devoted to practical applications. The author draws on his experiences and those of his colleagues to develop guidelines on how to apply the knowledge gained from the foregoing theoretical and empirical discussions.

The Influence of Race and Racial Identity in Psychotherapy is an indispensable working resource for all mental health professionals.

COUNSELING THE CULTURALLY DIFFERENT Theory and Practice Second Edition—Derald Wing Sue and David Sue

This revised edition combines a conceptual framework for multicultural counseling and proven methods for students and professionals alike to understand the needs of specific culture groups. Focusing on the interplay between counselor and client, the book prepares the professional for the conflicts that may arise from cross-cultural counseling by providing guidelines, discussions, and case examples of clients from different social, economic, political, and racial backgrounds. 1990 (0-471-84269-9) 336 pp.


Edited by Lillian Comas-DĂ­az and Ezra E. H. Griffith

This book provides clinical guidelines for working with clients from different ethnic backgrounds and cultures and focuses on the clinical approach for assessment and treatment. It provides an examination of relevant ethnosociocultural factors and discusses clinical issues with special ethnic groups. Its purpose is to enhance the importance of cross-cultural mental health care and spread the ideas of some of the field's leading practitioners. 1988 (0-471-83231-6) 400 pp.

A PERILOUS CALLING: The Hazards of Psychotherapy Practice

Edited by Michael B. Sussman

Written in a series of first-person narratives by psychotherapists, this book offers readers unparalleled insight into the psychotherapist's deepest concerns and conflicts. It reveals the perils of practice and explores how some psychotherapists have learned to cope with them. In reading this book, patients, loved ones, and friends of the psychotherapist will gain a deeper understanding of the psychotherapist's life and the effect that the practice has on their own mental health. 1995 (0-471-05657-X) 352 pp.

The book contains black-and-white illustrations.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471571117
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 8/24/1995
  • Series: Wiley Series on Personality Processes Series , #183
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 320
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.88 (d)

Meet the Author

ROBERT T. CARTER, PhD, is a faculty member of Columbia University's Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. He is also Professor of Psychology and Education and a research associate in the Institute of Urban and Minority Education, Teachers College, Columbia University. Dr. Carter is currently on the editorial boards of the Journal of Counseling and Development, Journal of Counseling Psychology, and The Counseling Psychologist. In addition, Dr. Carter is the author and coauthor of numerous book chapters and journal articles.

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Table of Contents



Race in Psychological Theory and Practice.

Overview of the Social and Historical Basis of Beliefs About Race in Psychotherapy.

Psychotherapy with Visible Racial/Ethnic Groups: The Cultural Difference Paradigm.



Race and Identity Development.

Visible Racial/Ethnic Identity Theories.

White Racial Identity.

Biracial Identity and Questions and Concerns About Racial Identity Status Development.

Race and Psychotherapy: A Process Model.



Racial Identity and Psychosocial Correlates.

Does Race or Racial Identity Influence the Therapy Process?

Relationship Types: An Examination of Qualitative Aspects of Therapeutic Process and Outcome.

Case Studies: Evidence of Race in Psychotherapy.



Race and Psychotherapy: Clinical Applications in a Sociocultural Context.

Assessing Race Using the Racially Inclusive Model in Clinical Treatment.

Race and Psychotherapy: Training Applications.

A Call to the Mental Health Profession.




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