Information Systems / Edition 3

Information Systems / Edition 3

by Steven Alter
     
 

ISBN-10: 0201351099

ISBN-13: 9780201351095

Pub. Date: 10/14/1998

Publisher: Pearson

A true understanding of information systems requires more than memorizing hundreds of technical buzzwords. The third edition of Professor Steven Alter's highly successful Information Systems goes beyond the buzzwords by using a practical, widely applicable approach for analyzing systems from a business professional's viewpoint. The work-centered analysis (WCA) method

Overview

A true understanding of information systems requires more than memorizing hundreds of technical buzzwords. The third edition of Professor Steven Alter's highly successful Information Systems goes beyond the buzzwords by using a practical, widely applicable approach for analyzing systems from a business professional's viewpoint. The work-centered analysis (WCA) method is integrated throughout the book, providing a unifying vision for the material. The text also comes to life through examples within the chapters, true-to-life cases that open and close the chapters, and a Web site (http://hepg.awl.com keyword: Alter)that provides additional cases.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780201351095
Publisher:
Pearson
Publication date:
10/14/1998
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
523
Product dimensions:
8.85(w) x 11.18(h) x 1.07(d)

Table of Contents

The Challenge of Applying IT Successfully
1(32)
Opening Case: Amazon. Com: An Online Bookstore
2(2)
Phases in Building and Maintaining Systems
4(2)
IT-Based Innovations in Every Business Function
6(10)
Product Design Systems
7(1)
Procurements Systems
8(2)
Manufacturing Systems
10(1)
Sales and Marketing Systems
11(2)
Delivery Systems
13(1)
Customer Service Systems
14(1)
Finance Systems
14(2)
Dramatic Progress in Processing Data
16(7)
Greater Miniaturization, Speed, and Portability
18(2)
Greater Connectivity and Continuing Convergence of Computing and Communications
20(1)
Greater Use of Digitized Information and Multimedia
21(1)
Better Software Techniques and Interfaces with People
22(1)
Obstacles When Applying IT in the Real World
23(6)
Unrealistic Expectations and Techno-hype
23(1)
Difficulty Building and Modifying IT-Based Systems
24(1)
Difficulty Integrating IT-Based Systems
25(1)
Organizational Inertia and Problems of Change
26(1)
Genuine Difficulty Anticipating What Will Happen
27(2)
Chapter Conclusion
29(2)
Real World Cases
Dell Computer: Profiting From Mass Customization
31(1)
Pixar: Creating Computerized Animations
32(1)
Basic Concepts for Understanding Systems
33(40)
Opening Case: Resumix: Processing Resumes Without Paper
34(2)
The Need for Frameworks and Models
36(1)
Viewing Businesses as Systems
37(5)
Businesses as Systems Consisting of Business Proceses
38(1)
The Value Chain
39(1)
Business Processes and Functional Areas of Business
40(2)
Information Systems and Work Systems
42(2)
Which "System" Are We Talking About?
42(1)
Increasing Overlap between Information Systems and Work Systems
43(1)
Framework for Thinking About Any System in Business
44(6)
Customers
45(2)
Product
47(1)
Business Process
47(1)
Participants
48(1)
Information
48(2)
Technology
50(1)
Five Perspectives for Viewing a Work System
50(11)
Architecture: System Components and How They Operate Together
52(2)
Performance: How Well the System Operates
54(1)
Infrastructure: Essential Resources Shared with Other Systems
55(2)
Context: Organizational, Competitive, and Regulatory Environment Surrounding the System
57(2)
Risks: Foreseeable Things That Can Go Wrong
59(2)
Analyzing an IT-Enabled System from a Business Professional's Viewpoint
61(7)
The General Idea of Systems Analysis
61(3)
Work-Centered Analysis Method
64(2)
Limitations and Pitfalls
66(2)
Chapter Conclusion
68(3)
Real World Cases
Wake Forest University: Integrating Computers into a College Curriculum
71(1)
Armstrong World Industries: Adopting Sales Force Automation
72(1)
Business Processes
73(35)
Opening Case: Ford: Reengineering a Payment Process
74(1)
Process Modeling: Documenting Business Process Architecture
75(6)
Data Flow Diagrams
76(3)
Flowcharts and Structured English
79(2)
Architectural Characteristics of a Business Process
81(12)
Degree of Structure
81(3)
Range of Involvement
84(1)
Level of Integration
85(3)
Complexity
88(1)
Degree of Reliance on Machines
89(1)
Attention to Planning, Execution, and Control
90(2)
Treatment of Exceptions, Errors, and Malfunctions
92(1)
Evaluating Business Process Performance
93(7)
Rate of Output
93(2)
Consistency
95(1)
Productivity
95(2)
Cycle Time
97(1)
Flexibility
98(1)
Security
99(1)
Is Management a Business Process?
100(3)
What Do Managers Do?
100(2)
What Types of Information Do Managers Need?
102(1)
Is Management Really a Process?
102(1)
Chapter Conclusion
103(3)
Real World Cases
Aucnet: Auctioning Used Cars Electronically in Japan
106(1)
Chrysler and Daimler Benz: Integrating Systems in an International Merger
107(1)
Information and Databases
108(40)
Opening Case: Boeing: A Database for Paperless Design
109(1)
Data Modeling: Documenting Information Architecture
110(4)
Entity-Relationship Diagrams
111(1)
Identifying the Data in Information Systems
112(2)
User's View of a Computerized Database
114(9)
Types of Data
114(2)
What Is a Database?
116(1)
Logical Versus Physical Views of Data
117(1)
Files
117(1)
Relational Database
118(2)
Multidimensional Databases
120(1)
Geographical Information Systems
121(1)
The Process of Accessing Data
121(2)
Database Management Systems
123(6)
Defining the Database and Access to Data
123(1)
Methods for Accessing Data in a Computer System
124(2)
Processing Transactions
126(1)
Controlling Distributed Databases
127(1)
Backup and Recovery
127(1)
Supporting Database Administration
128(1)
Text Databases and Hypertext
129(2)
Hypertext
129(1)
Browsers
129(1)
Indexes and Search Engines
130(1)
Evaluating Information Used in Business Processes
131(8)
Information Quality
134(3)
Information Accessibility
137(1)
Information Presentation
138(1)
Information Security
138(1)
Models as Components of Information Systems
139(3)
Mental Models and Mathematical Models
139(1)
What-If Questions
140(1)
Virtual Reality: The Ultimate Interactive Model?
141(1)
Chapter Conclusion
142(4)
Real World Cases
Whirlpool and Thomas & Betts: Managing Price and Product Information Effectively
146(1)
Centerville Home Care Registry: Finding Home Care Workers
147(1)
Communication, Decision Making, and Different Types of Information Systems
148(37)
Opening Case: Levi Strauss: Producing Jeans That Fit
149(1)
Basic Communication Concepts
150(4)
Social Context
150(1)
Personal, Impersonal, and Anonymous Communication
151(1)
Time, Place, and Direction of Communication
151(1)
Approaches for Improving Communication
152(2)
Basic Decision Making Concepts
154(7)
Steps in a Decicion Process
154(1)
Rationality and Satisficing
155(1)
Common Flaws in Decision Making
156(2)
Approaches for Improving Decision Making
158(3)
Roles of Different Types of Information Systems in Communication and Decision Making
161(17)
Office Automation Systems
161(3)
Communication Systems
164(5)
Transaction Processing Systems
169(2)
Management and Executive Information Systems
171(2)
Decision Support Systems
173(4)
Execution Systems
177(1)
Going Beyond the Information System Categories
178(2)
Chapter conclusion
180(3)
Real World Cases
U. S. House of Representatives: Patients' Bill of Rights Act of 1998
183(1)
Glaxo Wellcome: Accessing Unstructured Data Across a Multinational Enterprise
184(1)
Product, Customer, and Competitive Advantage
185(40)
Opening Case: Otis Elevator: Centralizing Repair Dispatching
186(1)
The Customer's View of the Product
187(5)
Combining Information, Physical, and Service Content
187(4)
Controllability and Adaptability
191(1)
The Customer's Cycle of Involvement with a Product
192(1)
The Customer's Criteria for Evaluating the Product
193(4)
Using Information Systems for Competitive Advantage
197(7)
Stategic Information Systems
198(2)
Competing by Increasing Value and Decreasing Cost
200(4)
Electronic Commerce
204(5)
Electronic Retailing
204(1)
Electronic Stock Trading
205(1)
Electronic Banking
205(1)
Electronic Publishing
206(1)
The Technical Side of Electronic Commerce
206(3)
Opportunities Across the Customer Involvement Cycle
209(9)
Determinig Requirements
209(3)
Acquiring the Product
212(3)
Using the Product
215(3)
Maintaining and Retiring the Product
218(1)
Being Realistic About What Information Systems Can Do
218(2)
Chapter Conclusion
220(3)
Real World Cases
Ernst & Young: Providing Consulting Through the Web
223(1)
Rosenbluth International: Using IT for Worldwide Travel Services
224(1)
Human and Ethical Issues
225(34)
Opening Case: U. S. Congress: Creating National Directory of New Hires
226(1)
Technology and People
227(3)
Human-Centered Design Versus Machine-Centered Design
227(2)
User Friendliness
229(1)
Technology as a Metaphor and Influence
230(1)
Positive and Negative Impacts on People at Work
230(9)
Health and Safety
231(2)
Autonomy and Power
233(2)
Use of Valued Skills
235(1)
Meaningfulness of Work
236(2)
Social Relationships
238(1)
Dependence on People for Information System Success
239(3)
Skills and Knowledge
239(1)
Involvement and Commitment
239(2)
Resistance to Change
241(1)
Unanticipated Innovations
242(1)
Systems and Ethics
242(11)
Ethical Versus Legal Issues
243(1)
Ethical Theories
244(1)
Privacy
245(3)
Accuracy
248(1)
Property
249(2)
Access
251(2)
Balancing Positive and Negative Impacts
253(1)
Chapter Conclusion
254(3)
Real World Cases
Visionics: Applying Facial Recognition Software in Driver Registration
257(1)
The White House: Electronic Privacy Issue
258(1)
Computer Hardware
259(39)
Opening Case: Massachusetts General Hospital: Pilot Project on Voice Recognition for Radiology Reports
260(2)
Performance of Information Technology
262(4)
Performance Variables for IT
262(2)
Bits and Bytes: Technical Terms for Describing and Measuring Technology Operation
264(1)
Technology Performance from a Business Viewpoint
265(1)
Overview of Computer Systems
266(10)
Basic Model of a Computer System
266(1)
Types of Computers
267(1)
Computer System Architectures
268(5)
Client-Server and Beyond
273(3)
Looking Inside the Black Box
276(8)
Coding Data for Processing by a Computer
276(4)
Machine Language
280(1)
Approaches for Increasing Computer Performance
280(4)
Data Input: Capturing Data
284(4)
Keyboards and Pointing Devices
284(2)
Optical Character Recognition
286(1)
Capturing Pictures, Sounds, and Video
286(2)
Storing and Retrieving Data
288(3)
Paper and Micrographics
288(1)
Magnetic Tapes and Disks
288(2)
Optical Disks
290(1)
Flash Memory
290(1)
Data Output: Displaying Data
291(2)
Screen Outputs
291(1)
Paper Outputs
291(1)
Audio Outputs
292(1)
Chapter Conclusion
293(3)
Real World Cases
Chicago Board of Trade: Giving Up on Stomp-Proof Handheld Terminals
296(1)
Media Lab: Trying to Produce a Book-Like Computer Display
297(1)
Software, Programming, and Artificial Intelligence
298(44)
Opening Case: IBM: Creating a Chess Program That Defeated the World Champion
299(2)
Types of Software
301(10)
Programming Viewed as a Business Process
302(1)
Programming as a Translation Process
303(1)
Organizing Ideas
304(1)
Testing Programs
305(2)
The Changing Nature of Programming
307(2)
The Trend Toward Object-Oriented Programming
309(2)
Four Generations of Programming Languages
311(6)
Machine Languages
311(1)
Assembly Languages
311(1)
Higher-Level Languages
312(4)
Fourth Generation Languages
316(1)
Other Major Developments in Programming
317(3)
Special-Purpose Languages
317(1)
Spreadsheets
317(1)
Computer Aided Software Engineering Systems
318(2)
Operating Systems
320(3)
Operating Systems for Personal Computers
321(1)
Operating Systems for Multi-User Computer Systems
322(1)
Why Operating Systems Are Important
322(1)
Steps Toward Programming Intelligence into Machines
323(13)
Natural Language Processing
324(1)
Expert Systems
325(4)
Neural Networks
329(3)
Fuzzy Logic
332(2)
Case-Based Reasoning
334(1)
Intelligent Agents
334(2)
Chapter Conclusion
336(3)
Real World Cases
U. S. Navy: A Y2K-like Problem with Global Positioning Satellites
339(1)
Cycorp: Building a Knowledge Base to Support Commonsense Reasoning
340(2)
Networks and Telecommunications
342(38)
Opening Case: FedEx: Maximizing the Value of Information
343(1)
Applying Telecommunications in Business
344(5)
Vital Role of Telecommunications
345(1)
Convergence of Computing and Communications
345(2)
Making Sense of the Terminology and Details
347(2)
Functions and Components of Telecommunications Networks
349(12)
Basic Telecommunications Model
349(2)
Generating and Receiving Data
351(1)
Encoding and Decoding Data
352(3)
Directing Data from Source to Destination
355(1)
Moving the Data Through Transmission Media
356(5)
Types of Networks: A User's Viewpoint
361(8)
Telephone Networks
361(1)
Broadcast Networks
362(1)
Local Area Networks (LANs)
363(3)
Wide Area Networks (WANs)
366(1)
Value Added Networks (VANs)
367(2)
Telecommunications Standards
369(1)
Telecommunications Policy
370(5)
Chapter Conclusion
375(2)
Real World Cases
Network Solutions, Inc.: Maintaining Internet Domain Names
377(1)
France Telecom: Moving from Minitel to the Internet
378(2)
Information Systems Planning
380(40)
Openning Case: Owens Corning: Integrating Across Business Units
381(2)
The Process of Information System Planning
383(8)
What Is an Information System Plan?
383(1)
Challenges in IS Planning
384(2)
Principles for IS Planning
386(2)
Planning Role of the IS and User Departments
388(1)
Allocating Resources between New and Old Information Systems
389(1)
Project Roles of IS Professionals
390(1)
Strategic Alignment of Business and IT
391(13)
Consistency with Business Priorities
392(1)
Reengineering and Downsizing
393(1)
Enterprise-wide and Interorganizational Systems
394(1)
Information System Architecture
395(1)
Centralization Versus Decentralization
396(3)
Describing a Business-Driven IT Infrastructure
399(1)
Outsourcing
400(2)
International Issues
402(2)
Selecting Systems to Invest In
404(4)
Cost/Benefit Analysis
405(1)
Risks
406(1)
Financial Comparisons
406(2)
Project Management Issues
408(5)
Division of Labor between the IS Department and Users
408(1)
Keeping the Project on Schedule
409(4)
Systems Analysis Revisited
413(2)
Information Sources for Analyzing Systems
413(1)
Performing Interviews
413(2)
Chapter Conclusion
415(2)
Real World Cases
Cemex: Incorporating IT into a Cement Company's Strategy
417(1)
Unisource Worldwide: Scuttling an ERP Project
418(2)
Building and Maintaining Information Systems
420(37)
Opening Case: Microsoft Corporation: Building software Products
421(2)
Phases of Any Information System
423(3)
Initiation
423(1)
Development
424(1)
Implementation
424(1)
Operation and Maintenance
425(1)
Overview of Alternative Approaches for Building Information Systems
426(2)
Traditional System Life Cycle
428(7)
Initiation
429(1)
Development
429(3)
Implementation
432(2)
Operation and Maintenance
434(1)
Prototypes
435(5)
Phases
437(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages
439(1)
Application Packages
440(5)
Phases
441(3)
Advantages and Disadvantages
444(1)
End-User Development
445(4)
Phases
446(1)
Supporting the Users
447(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages
448(1)
Deciding Which Combination of Methods to Use
449(2)
Comparing Advantages and Disadvantages
449(1)
Combining System Development Approaches
450(1)
Chapter Conclusion
451(3)
Real World Cases
B-Tree Systems, Inc.: Verifying Embedded Systems
454(1)
FAA: Trying to Overhaul the Air Traffic Control System
455(2)
Information System Security and Control
457(36)
Opening Case: London Ambulance Service: A Major System Failure
458(1)
Threat of Project Failure
459(2)
Threat of Accidents and Malfunctions
461(6)
Threat of Computer Crime
467(5)
Theft
467(3)
Sabotage and Vandalism
470(2)
Factors That Increase the Risks
472(2)
The Nature of Complex Systems
472(1)
Human Limitations
473(1)
Pressures in the Business Environment
474(1)
Methods for Minimizing Risks
474(13)
Controlling System Development and Modifications
475(1)
Providing Security Training
476(1)
Maintaining Physical Security
476(1)
Controlling Access to Data, Computers, and Networks
477(6)
Controlling Transaction Processing
483(2)
Motivating Efficient and Effective Operation
485(1)
Auditing the Information System
486(1)
Preparing for Disasters
487(1)
Chapter Conclusion
487(3)
Real World Cases
PanAmSat: Recovering from a Satellite Failure
490(1)
King Soopers: Using Computer Access to Steal from an Employer
491(2)
Notes 493(9)
Photo Credits 502(1)
Company Index 503(3)
Author Index 506(3)
Glossary/Index 509

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