Infrared System Engineering / Edition 1

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This classic opens with a history of the development of the infrared portion of the spectrum, probes the system engineering process, and then examines the characteristics of the successful system engineer. The next eleven chapters delve deeply into the elements of infrared technology. Chapter 13 explains the functional relationships between the various system elements and the effects of their interactions when assembled into a system. In Chapter 14 the reader is invited to watch the development of an infrared search system for commercial jet transports.
Part II contains an in-depth treatment of the applications of infrared techniques to the solution of military, industrial, medical, and scientific problems. It contains nearly 1400 annotated references to the infrared literature of the world. The annotations summarize the content, describe the hardware, details its performance and examine the significant results. The references are carefully arranged, extensively indexed, and does not contain citations to the classified or report literature, a feature appreciated by most readers. For those readers having the necessary credentials, Appendix 4 is a guide to the unpublished and classified literature of the infrared.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471418504
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 1/28/1969
  • Series: Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 672
  • Product dimensions: 1.63 (w) x 6.00 (h) x 9.00 (d)

Table of Contents

Part I The Elements of the Infrared System

Chapter 1 Introduction to Infrared System Engineering

1.1 The Development of the Infrared Portion of the Spectrum

1.2 The Market for Infrared Devices

1.3 System Engineering

1.4 The System Engineer

1.5 The Infrared System and the Organization of This Book

1.6 The Literature of the Infrared

1.7 The Symbols and Abbreviations Used in This Book

Chapter 2 Infrared Radiation

2.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

2.2 Terminology Used in the Measurement of Radiant Energy

2.3 The Measurement of Radiant Flux

2.4 Thermal Radiation

Thermal Radiation Laws

2.5 Emissivity and Kirchhoff’s Law

2.6 Selective Radiators

Absorption Spectra of Gases

Absorption Spectra of Liquids and Solids

Molecular Emission Spectra

2.7 Aids for Radiation Calculations

Radiation Slide Rules

Charts and Monographs

Tables of Blackbody Functions

2.8 Other Blackbody Relationships

Efficiency of Radiation Production

Radiation Contrast

Chapter 3 Sources of Infrared Radiation

3.1 Blackbody-Type Sources

Theoretical Principles

Construction of a Blackbody-Type Source

3.2 Standards for Sources of Radiant Energy

3.3 General-Purpose Sources of Infrared

The Nernst Glower

The Globar

The Carbon Arc

The Tungsten Lamp

The Xenon Arc Lamp

The Laser

The Sun

3.4 Targets

The Turbojet Engine

The Turbofan Engine

The Boeing 707 Jet Transport


The Ramjet

The Rocket Engine

Aerodynamic Heating


Surface Vehicles

Stars and Planets

3.5 Backgrounds

The Earth

The Sky

Outer Space

Stars and Planets

Chapter 4 Transmission of Infrared Radiation Through the Earth’s Atmosphere

4.1 The Earth’s Atmosphere

4.2 Water Vapor

4.3 Carbon Dioxide

4.4 Other Infrared-Absorbing Gases

4.5 Field Measurements of Atmospheric Transmission

4.6 Laboratory and Analytical Methods of Predicting Atmospheric Transmission

4.7 Tables of Atmospheric Transmission Data

4.8 Scattering Effects in the Atmosphere

4.9 Transmission Through Rain

4.10 Atmospheric Scintillation

Chapter 5 Optics

5.1 Refraction and Reflection

5.2 Describing an Optical System

5.3 Factors Affecting Image Quality



5.4 Typical Optical Systems for the Infrared

Reflective Optics

Refractive Optics

Miscellaneous Considerations in the Choice of Optics

5.5 Auxiliary Optics

5.6 Methods of Generating Scan Patterns

5.7 Optical Materials for the Infrared

5.8 Antireflection Coatings

5.9 High-Reflection Coatings

5.10 Optical Filters

5.11 Collimators

Chapter 6 Optical Modulation

6.1 Optical Filtering for Background Discrimination

6.2 The Use of Reticles for Background Suppression

6.3 The Use of Reticles to Provide Directional Information

Rotating Reticles

Stationary Reticles

Two-Color Reticles

6.4 Tracking Systems Without Reticles

6.5 Comments on Reticle Design

6.6 Fabrication of Reticles

Chapter 7 Introduction to Detectors

7.1 How the Performance of a Detector is Described

7.2 Thermal Detectors

The Thermocouple

The Thermopile

The Bolometer

The Pneumatic or Golay Detector

The Calorimetric Detector

Problems of Blackening Thermal Detectors

7.3 Photon or Quantum Detectors

The Photoelectric Detector

The Photoconductive Detector

The Photovoltaic or p-n Junction Detector

The Photoelectromagnetic Detector

Spectral Response of Photon Detectors

Fabrication of Photon Detectors

7.4 The Comparison of Detectors

7.5 Optically Immersed Detectors

7.6 Imaging Detectors

Infrared Film

The Image Converter

The Vidicon

The Photothermionic Image Converter

The Evaporograph

The Infrared-Sensitive Phosphor

Chapter 8 Noise

8.1 Types of Noise

Johnson or Thermal Noise

Shot Noise

Partition Noise

1/f Noise

Generation-Recombination Noise

Radiation or Photon Noise

Temperature Noise

Summary - Noise in Detectors

8.2 Equivalent Noise Bandwidth

8.3 The Statistical Description of Noise

8.4 Meters for the Measurement of Noise

Peak-Responding Meter

Rms-Responding Meter

Average-Responding Meter

8.5 Noise Figure

Chapter 9 The Measurement of Detector Characteristics

9.1 Quantities To Be Measured

9.2 The Basic Detector Test Set

9.3 Use of the Basic Detector Test Set

Measurement of Detector Area

Determining the Operating Point of a Detector

Determining the Operating Point for a Detector that Requires Bias

Determining the Operating Point for a Self-Generating Detector

Calibrating the Amplification of the Test Set

Measurement of Frequency Response

Measurement of the Detector Noise Spectrum

Calculation of the Various Figures of Merit

9.4 The Measurement of Spectral Response

9.5 The Measurement of Time Constant

9.6 The Measurement of Detector Response Contours

Chapter 10 Modern Detectors and the Ultimate Limits on Their Performance

10.1 Background-Limited Photon Detectors

10.2 Limitations on the Performance of Thermal Detectors

10.3 Considerations in the Selection of a Detector

10.4 Engineering Data on Selected Detectors

Chapter 11 Techniques for Cooling Detectors

11.1 Packaging Cooled Detectors

11.2 Low-Temperature Coolants

11.3 Open-Cycle Refrigerators

Liquid-Transfer Refrigerators

Joule-Thomson Refrigerators

Solid-Refrigerant Coolers

Radiative-Transfer Coolers

Comparison of Typical Open-Cycle Refrigerators

11.4 Closed-Cycle Refrigerators

Joule-Thomson (Closed-Cycle) Refrigerators

Claude Refrigerators

Stirling Refrigerators

Refrigerators Using Other Refrigeration Cycles

Comparison of Typical Closed-Cycle Refrigerators

11.5 Solid-State Refrigerators

Thermoelectric Refrigerators

Thermomagnetic Refrigerators

11.6 Integrating the Detector and Refrigerator

Chapter 12 Signal Processing and Displays

12.1 General Considerations

12.2 Preamplifiers

Preamplifiers Using Vacuum Tubes

Preamplifiers Using Transistors

Preamplifiers Using Microelectronics

12.3 Additional Considerations in Signal Processing

12.4 Multiple-Channel Systems

12.5 Displays

Chapter 13 The Analysis of Infrared Systems

13.1 The Generalized Range Equation

Tradeoff Analysis

13.2 The Generalized Range Equation for a Background-Limited Detector

13.3 The Range Equation for Specific Types of Systems

Search Systems

Tracking Systems that Use Reticles

Tracking Systems that Use Pulse Position Modulation

13.4 Line-Scan Thermal Mapping Systems

13.5 Radiometry

13.6 The Specification of System Performance

Chapter 14 The Design of an Infrared Search System

14.1 Preliminary Studies

14.2 System Synthesis and Analysis

14.3 Tradeoff Studies and Final System Design

Part II The Applications of Infrared Techniques

Chapter 15 An Introduction to the Applications of Infrared Techniques

15.1 The Applications of Infrared Techniques

15.2 Miscellaneous References

Chapter 16 Military Applications of Infrared Techniques

16.0 General

16.1 Search, Track, and Ranging Applications

16.1.1 Search Systems

16.1.2 Track Systems

16.1.3 Search and Track Systems

16.1.4 Weapon Guidance

16.1.5 Navigation and Flight Control Systems

16.1.6 Ranging Systems

16.2 Radiometric Applications

16.2.1 Measurement of Flux

16.3 Spectroradiometric Applications

16.3.1 Target and Background Signatures

16.3.2 Miscellaneous

16.4 Thermal Imaging Applications

16.4.1 Reconnaissance

16.5 Applications Involving Reflected Flux

16.5.1 Applications of Image Converter Tubes

16.5.2 Infrared Photography

16.6 Applications Involving a Cooperative Source

16.6.1 Terrestrial Communications

16.6.2 Ranging

16.6.3 Infrared Countermeasures

16.6.4 Command Guidance

Chapter 17 Industrial Applications of Infrared Techniques

17.1 Search, Track, and Ranging Applications

17.1.1 Search Systems

17.2 Radiometric Applications

17.2.1 Measurement of Temperature

17.2.2 Position Sensing

17.3 Spectroradiometric Applications

17.3.1 Measurement of Temperature

17.3.2 Miscellaneous

17.4 Thermal Imaging Applications

17.4.1 Nondestructive Test and Inspection

17.5 Applications Involving Reflected Flux

17.5.1 Applications of Image Converter Tubes

17.5.2 Infrared Photography

17.5.3 Miscellaneous

17.6 Applications Involving a Cooperative Source

17.6.1 Intrusion Detection

17.6.2 Miscellaneous

Chapter 18 Medical Applications of Infrared Techniques

18.1 Search, Track, and Ranging Applications

18.1.1 Obstacle Detection (Passive)

18.2 Radiometric Applications

18.2.1 Measurement of Temperature

18.3 Spectroradiometric Applications

18.3.1 Miscellaneous

18.4 Thermal Imaging Applications

18.4.1 Diagnostic Assistance

18.5 Applications Involving Reflected Flux

18.5.1 Applications of Image Converter Tubes

18.5.2 Infrared Photography

18.5.3 Miscellaneous

18.6 Applications Involving a Cooperative Source

18.6.1 Obstacle Detection (Active)

Chapter 19 Scientific Applications of Infrared Techniques

19.1 Search, Track, and Ranging Applications

19.1.1 Search and Track Systems

19.1.2 Navigation and Flight Control Systems

19.2 Radiometric Applications

19.2.1 Measurement of Temperature

19.2.2 Measurement of Flux

19.2.3 World Weather Watch

19.3 Spectroradiometric Applications

19.3.1 Remote Sensing of the Earth and its Atmosphere

19.3.2 Remote Sensing of Astronomical Bodies

19.3.3 Instrumentation and Miscellaneous Applications

19.4 Thermal Imaging Applications

19.4.1 Earth Resource Surveys

19.4.2 Meteorological Applications

19.4.3 Lunar and Planetary Studies

19.4.4 Miscellaneous

19.5 Applications Involving Reflected Flux

19.5.1 Infrared Photography

19.5.2 Reflectance Properties of Materials

19.6 Applications Involving a Cooperative Source

19.6.1 Space Communications

19.6.2 Miscellaneous

Appendix 1 The Symbols and Abbreviations Used in This Book

a. Simple English Letter Symbols

b. Simple Greek Letter Symbols

c. Special and Composite Symbols

d. Selected Abbreviations

Appendix 2 Symbols and Nomenclature for Radiometry and Photometry

Appendix 3 Conversion Factors

Appendix 4 The Unpublished Literature of the Infrared


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