Inherently Safer Chemical Processes: A Life Cycle Approach / Edition 1

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Many traditional routes to safer processes add complex layers--systems that must actively intervene, or that require special operating procedures to avert a catastrophe. Inherently safer concepts provide risk reduction as a built-in characteristic of the process. This book, which includes a foreword by internationally noted safety expert and the originator of the inherently safer concept Trevor Kletz, presents the principles and strategies for applying inherently safer thinking from the start of the life cycle to the very end.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780816907038
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 2/1/1997
  • Series: A CCPS Concept Book Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 154
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.11 (h) x 0.66 (d)

Table of Contents




1. Introduction.

2. Philosophy.

2.1 A Way of Thinking.

2.2 The Role of Inherently Safer Design Concepts in Process Risk Management.

2.3 When Do We Consider Inherently Safer Options?

2.4 Inherent Safety Tradeoffs.

2.5 Resolving Inherent Safety Issues.

2.6 Inherently Safer Design Strategies.

2.7 Summary.

3. Inherently Safer Design Strategies.

3.1 Minimize


Reactive Distillation.

Storage and Material transfer.

Other Examples.

3.2 Substitute.

Reaction Chemistry.


3.3 Moderate.



Less Severe Process Conditions.

Secondary Containment—Dikes and Containment Building.

3.4 Simplicity.

Containment within Process Equipment.

Liquid Transfer.

Reactor Geometry.

Fail Safe Valves.

Distributed Control Systems.

Separation of Process Steps.

3.5 Summary.

4. Life Cycle Stages.

4.1 General Principles across All Life Cycle Stages.

4.2 Research.

Inherently Safer Synthesis.

Types of Hazards and Hazardous Events.

Tools for Hazards Identification.


4.3 Process Development.

Risk Ranking Tools.

Unit Operations—General.

Unit Operations—Specific.

4.4 Design and Construction.

Process Design Basis.


Process Control.

Supporting Facilities.

Other Design Considerations.

4.5 Operations, Maintenance, and Modifications.

4.6 Decommissioning.

5. Transportation.

5.1 Location Relative to Raw materials.

5.2 Shipping Conditions.

5.3 Transportation Mode and Route Selection.

5.4 Improves Transportation Containers.

5.5 Administrative Controls.

6. Human Factors.

6.1 Overview.

6.2 Operability and Personnel Safety.

6.3 Maintainability.

6.4 Error Prevention.

Knowledge and Understanding.

Control Design.

6.5 Error Recovery.

6.6 System Audits.

6.7 Organization Culture.

7. Inherent Safety Review Methods and Available Training.

7.1 Inherent Safety Reviews.

Inherent Safety Review Objectives.

Inherent Safety Review Timing.

Inherent Safety Review Team Composition.

Inherent Safety Review Process Overview.

Focus of the Different Inherent Safety Review.

Inherent Safety Review Initiates Project Human Factors/Ergonomics Effort.

Good Preparation Required for Effective Inherent Safety Reviews.

Reactive Chemical Screening.

Time Required for an Inherent Safety Review.

7.2 Inherent Safety Review Training.

7.3 Summary.

8. Future Initiatives.

8.1 Dissemination of Inherently Safer Technology.

Incorporating Inherently Safer Technology into Process Safety Management.

Encouraging Invention within the Chemical and Chemical Engineering Community.

Including Inherently Safer Technology into the Education of Chemists and Chemical Engineers.

8.2 Developing Inherently Safer Technology Databases and Libraries.

8.3 Developing Tools to Apply Inherently Safer Technology.

The Broad View and Life Cycle Cost Of Alternatives.

Benefits of Reliability Analysis.

Potential Energy.

A Table of Distances.

Quantitative Measures of Inherently Safer Technology.

Appendix: A Sample Inherently Safer Process Checklist.

1. Minimize.

2. Substitution/Elimination.

3. Moderate.

4. Simplify.

5. Location/Siting/Transportation.


9.1 Chapter References.

9.2 Additional Reading.


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