Innocent III: Leader of Europe 1198-1216 / Edition 1

Innocent III: Leader of Europe 1198-1216 / Edition 1

by Jane E. Sayers
     
 

Innocent III (elected 1198, died 1216) has long been thought the greatest pope of the high Middle Ages. He launched the Fourth Crusade, sent an army against the Albigensians, and convened the Fourth Lateran Council. In his struggle with the most powerful monarchs of western Europe to assert the supremacy of the spiritual over the temporal power, he excommunicated King… See more details below

Overview

Innocent III (elected 1198, died 1216) has long been thought the greatest pope of the high Middle Ages. He launched the Fourth Crusade, sent an army against the Albigensians, and convened the Fourth Lateran Council. In his struggle with the most powerful monarchs of western Europe to assert the supremacy of the spiritual over the temporal power, he excommunicated King John, placed England under an interdict, forced Philip Augustus of France to take back the wife he had repudiated, and had the Emperor Otto IV deposed. But how solid is his reputation? To what extent was he personally responsible for the events of his reign? How far did he influence the massive changes of his time - the claim of the papacy to intervene in European affairs, and to act as universal arbiter and lawgiver? Were the great challenges that he met new? Was it particular circumstances that made it possible for him to leave his imprint on Europe? Who were his advisers? This book is the first reassessment of Innocent's career for nearly forty years. In it, Jane Sayers looks into Innocent's background and complex character. She examines his record as a temporal ruler struggling to establish a firm hold on the Papal States. She considers the influences on him, traces the development of his thought, and shows how he was influenced by the past. She stresses the important part that propaganda played in his dealings with secular rulers, and how firm belief in law led him to attempt the reform of the Church and the regulation of the behaviour of ordinary people through ecclesiastical legislation. Professor Sayers also explores Innocent's response to the rising challenge to orthodoxy - for, by the early thirteenth century, the idea of returning to the simplicity of the early Church, embracing poverty and dispensing with priests, swept over the Mediterranean lands, encouraging lay people to explore the possibilities of an alternative Christianity. Were these movements (Humiliati, Waldenses and Cathars

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780582083417
Publisher:
Addison-Wesley
Publication date:
04/06/1995
Series:
Medieval World Series
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
240
Product dimensions:
5.48(w) x 8.49(h) x 0.59(d)

Table of Contents

Editor's Preface
Preface
List of Maps
List of Abbreviations
Introduction1
The Pope's reputation and character1
The sources for the history of the pontificate7
Ch. 1Pope and the Papacy10
The forming of Innocent III's personality: influences and education10
Election23
Coronation27
The City of Rome29
The family33
The Papal Curia37
The College of Cardinals39
Ch. 2Politics, Power and Propaganda49
Politics49
Power: the Papal State, Rome and Sicily65
Economic strength71
Papal armies77
Policy80
The separate kingdoms82
Propaganda, information and diplomacy87
Ch. 3Law and Society94
Declaration and formation of the law94
Councils: the Fourth Lateran Council95
Decretals101
Bologna: the Law School and productions103
Clerks and laymen110
Marriage115
The Pope as judge: law courts118
Ch. 4Authority and Protest: The Christian Life125
The crisis of the Church125
Poverty139
Preaching141
The Waldenses and the Humiliati143
The Friars150
Heresy153
The Cathars155
The Albigensian Crusade160
Ch. 5The Papacy and the Wider World: The Frontiers of Christendom164
Jerusalem, the Near East and the crusading idea164
The Fourth Crusade172
The Children's Crusade176
The Spanish Reconquest178
The Baltic Crusades179
Sicily182
England184
The Greek Church185
Final Assessment189
Appendix: Chronology of Innocent III's Pontificate198
General Bibliography201
Maps205
Index214

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