Innovation Was Not Enough: A History of the Midwestern Universities Research Association (Mura)

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More About This Textbook


This book presents a history of the Midwestern Universities Research Association (MURA) during its lifetime from the early 1950s to the late 1960s. MURA was responsible for a number of important contributions to the science of particle accelerators, including the invention of fixed field alternating gradient accelerators (FFAG), as well as contributions to accelerator orbit theory, radio frequency acceleration techniques, colliding beams technology, orbit instabilities, computation methods, and designs of accelerator magnets and linear accelerator cavities. A number of students were trained by MURA in accelerator techniques, and went on to important posts where they made further contributions to the field. The authors were all members of the MURA staff and themselves made many contributions to the field. No other such history exists, and there are relatively few publications devoted to the history of particle accelerators.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9789812832832
  • Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 10/29/2009
  • Pages: 268
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface vii

Author's Biographies ix

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Chapter 2 Historical Background 7

2.1 The Early History of Accelerators 7

2.2 Accelerator Physics in the Midwest 10

2.3 The Coming of Strong Focusing 11

2.4 The Desire for a New Accelerator Laboratory in the Midwest 12

Chapter 3 The Early MURA Years, 1953-1956 15

3.1 The Beginnings of MURA 151

3.2 The Invention of FFAG 20

3.3 MURA Studies 26

3.4 Theory of Radio Frequency Acceleration 34

3.5 Nonlinear Dynamics 41

3.6 The Radial Sector Model 46

3.7 The Spiral Sector Model 52

3.8 MURA Computing 59

3.9 Colliding Beams 63

3.10 Collective Instabilities 68

3.11 Conferences 72

Chapter 4 The Madison Years, 1956-1963 83

4.1 Formation of the MURA Organization 83

4.2 The Move to Madison 84

4.3 Space Charge 87

4.4 Injection and Extraction 88

4.5 The 50 MeV Two-Way Model 90

4.6 MURA Proposals 95

4.7 The 1959 Workshop; Synchrotrons Catch Up 99

4.8 The Directorship of Bernard Waldman 101

4.9 The Panel and Their Recommendations 106

4.10 MURA Responds 117

Chapter 5 The Last Years of MURA, 1963-1967 119

5.1 The End of MURA 119

5.2 The ZGS Tuneup and Improvement Program 121

5.3 Linacs 126

5.4 Magnet Development 129

5.5 Cosmic Rays 130

5.6 Bubble Chambers 132

5.7 The Electron Storage Ring 133

5.8 The Physical Sciences Laboratory; the Synchrotron Radiation Center 134

5.9 Fermilab 137

5.10 Cyclotrons and Nonscaling FFAGs Today and Tomorrow 139

5.11 MURA's Last Gasp 142

Chapter 6 Consequences and Reflections 145

6.1 Innovations 146

6.2 Innovation Was Not Enough 152

6.3 Personal Note 156

Bibliography 157


A Glossary 171

B MURA Reports 183

C MURA Archives 225

D MURA Personnel 231

E List of Illustrations with Acknowledgments 239

F The Ramsey Panel, Lyndon Johnson, and the End of MURA, as Seen in Washington David Z. Robinson) 243

Name Index 249

Subject Index 253

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