Inorganic Contaminants in the Vadose Zone

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642744532
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 12/14/2011
  • Series: Ecological Studies Series , #74
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 200
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.46 (d)

Table of Contents

A Processes and Principles of Pollutants Behavior in Reactive Porous Media.- Organo-Metal Complexes as Mobility-Determining Factors of Inorganic Toxic Elements in Porous Media.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Organic Substances in Natural Porous Media.- 3 Experimental Procedures.- 3.1 Origin and Properties of Samples.- 3.2 Monolith Lysimeter Experiments.- 3.3 Batch and Column Experiments.- 4 Results.- 4.1 Monolith Lysimeter Experiments.- 4.2 Batch Experiments.- 4.3 Column Experiments.- 5 Conclusions.- References.- Suitability of Sorption-Desorption Models to Simulate Partitioning and Movement of Ions in Soils.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Simple Approaches.- 3 Constrained Approaches.- 4 Pragmatic Approaches.- 5 Mechanistic Approaches.- 6 Simulation of Movement.- 7 Conclusions.- References.- Oxyanion Sorption on Soil Surfaces.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Sites of Reactions of Oxyanions.- 3 Inorganic Oxyanion Adsorption.- References.- The Effects of Micro-Scale Solute Movement on Biotic Transformations in Porous Media.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Types of Model.- 3 Mechanistic Models of Soil Processes.- 4 Micro-Scale Effects on Biotic Transformations.- 5 Micro-Scale Transport Processes in Artificial Porous Media.- 6 Micro-Scale Diffusion of Oxygen in Soil.- 7 Micro-Scale Diffusion of Enzyme Substrates in Soil.- 8 Micro-Scale Diffusion of Soil Acidity in Soil.- 9 Conclusions.- References.- Effect of Gels and Coatings on Clay Mineral Chemical Properties.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Micromorphological Evidence of the Presence of Coatings on Clays.- 3 Effect of Coatings on Clay Chemical Properties.- 3.1 Surface Characteristics of Amorphous Compounds.- 3.2 Effect of Coatings on Clay Electrical Charges.- 3.3 Effect of Gels or Coatings on Clay Adsorption Properties.- 4 Conclusion.- References.- B Behaviour of Specific Elements.- Fluoride Sorption and Mobility in Reactive Porous Media.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Materials and Methods.- 2.1 F Adsorption by K-Montmorillonite.- 2.2 F Sorption by Soils.- 2.3 F Movement in Water-Saturated Soil Columns.- 3 Results.- 3.1 F Adsorption by K-Montmorillonite.- 3.2 F Sorption by Soils.- 3.3 F Movement in Water-Saturated Soil Columns.- 4 Discussion.- References.- Cu, Zn, and Cd Availability in a Sludge-Amended Soil Under Controlled pH and Redox Potential Conditions.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Background.- 1.2 Literature Review: Soil Redox Effects on Plant Uptake of Metals.- 1.3 Objectives and Experimental Approach.- 2 Materials and Methods.- 2.1 Sludge and Soil Sources.- 2.2 Preliminary Study-Effect of Air or N2 Purging on Extractable Cu, Zn, and Cd in Soil/Sludge Mixtures of Various Ratios.- 2.3 Incubation of Sludge: Soil Suspensions Under Controlled pH and Redox Potential Conditions.- 2.4 Extraction Procedures for Chemical Availability Studies.- 2.5 Plant Uptake Studies.- 2.6 Experimental Incubations.- 2.7 Effect of Aerobic or Anaerobic Sewage Digestion Method on Plant Availability of Metals.- 3 Results and Discussion.- 3.1 Chemical Availability Studies — Preliminary Study with Air and N2 Purged Sludge/Soil Suspensions.- 3.2 Chemical Availability Studies — Controlled pH and Redox Potential.- 3.3 Plant Uptake Studies.- 3.4 Effect of Aerobic or Anaerobic Sewage Digestion Method on Plant Availability of Metals.- 4 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- Microbiological Aspects of Heavy Metal and Toxic Chemical Behaviour in Porous Media.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Microbiological Aspects.- 2.1 Influence on Microbial Communities.- 2.2 Influence on Microbial Functions.- 2.3 Influence on Microbial Interactions.- 3 Chemical Behaviour.- 3.1 Microbial Contributions to Availability.- 3.2 Relative Toxicity of Chemicals.- 3.3 Relative Stability of Chemicals.- 4 Environmental Influences on Chemical Behaviour.- 4.1 Biotic Influences on Degradation.- 4.2 Abiotic Influences on Degradation.- 5 Conclusions.- References.- C Management of Inorganic Pollutants.- Municipal Sludges and Utility Ashes in California and Their Effects on Soils.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Inorganic Chemical Composition of Fly Ash and Municipal Sludge in California.- 2.1 Fly Ash.- 2.2 Municipal Sewage Sludges.- 3 Movement of Toxic Chemical Constituents in Solid Waste Treated Soils.- 4 Physical Properties of Waste Treated Soils.- 4.1 Particle Size Analysis and Consistency Limits.- 4.2 Bulk Density, Hydraulic Conductivity, Water-Holding Capacity, and Modulus of Rupture.- 5 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- Toxic Element Accumulation in Soils and Crops: Protecting Soil Fertility and Agricultural Food-Chains.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Transfer of Sludge-Applied Trace Elements to Animals by Direct Ingestion of Sludge or Sludge-Amended Soil.- 2.1 Bioavailability of Elements in Ingested Sludge.- 3 “Soil-Plant Barrier” Protects the Food-Chain Against Most Toxic Elements.- 4 Interactions Among Dietary and Sludge Constituents Influence Microelement Impact on the Food-Chain.- 5 Assessing Potential Risk from Sludge-Applied Cadmium.- 5.1 Cd Bioavailability.- 5.2 Crop Cd Relationship with Soil Cd.- 5.3 Long Term Availability of Sludge-Applied Cd to Crops.- 6 Estimating Cd Transfer from Sludge-Amended Soils to Human Diets.- 7 Estimating Maximum Allowable Soil Cd Loading Based on Predicted Increase in Dietary Cd.- 7.1 The Revised “Worst-Case” Cd Transfer Estimate.- References.- Sources and Distribution of Pollutant Elements in the Environment, with Particular Reference to Sewage Sludges.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Sources of Inorganic Pollutants.- 3 Transformations Among the Pollutant Elements.- 4 Assessments of the Toxicity of Pollutant Elements in Soils, or Sludge Treated Soils.- 5 Conclusion.- References.- D Case Studies.- Advances in Management of Fertilizer Application and the Resulting Effect on the Pollutant Load in Soil.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Methodology.- 3 Results.- 3.1 Nitrogen Fertilizer Use.- 3.2 Nitrogen Application Rate.- 3.3 Irrigation and Fertilizer Application Techniques.- 3.4 N-Fertilizer Efficiency.- 3.5 N-Removal in Harvested Crops and N-Residues in Soil.- 3.6 Relative Contribution of N-Fertilizer to the Pollution Load.- 4 Discussion.- References.- Water and Anion Transport in the Unsaturated Zone Traced by Environmental Tritium.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Methods.- 3 Results and Discussion.- 3.1 Simultaneous Transport of Water and Anions.- 3.2 Mobile and Immobile Water Domains.- 3.3 Matrix and Fissure Water Transport.- 4 Conclusions.- References.
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