Inquiry: Questioning, Reading, Writing / Edition 2

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Overview

"How do I know what I think until I see what I say?" – E.M. Forster

Good questions are at the heart of good reading and writing. Inquiry: Questioning, Reading, Writing focuses on key issues for writers by posing six major questions intended to stimulate critical thinking, to encourage thoughtful examination of what others have to say, and to develop independent ideas.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131823716
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 7/16/2003
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 752
  • Sales rank: 745,367
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Read an Excerpt

The title of this book, Inquiry, reflects the process at its heart. In Inquiry, a wide variety of writers are searching, from a wide range of academic and social perspectives, for answers to important questions. The book, in fact, is filled with questions: Questions define and organize the chapters, questions stimulate thought before and after the readings, and questions call for connections at the chapters' ends. Inquiry is, by definition, a process of asking questions and trying out answers. Active reading demands the same kind of process. So does writing. Our hope is that students using this book will produce writing that is worth reading, because it will be writing based on inquiry. Long after the completion of the course using Inquiry, the process of inquiry, so central to reading and writing, should remain with the students.

Organization

Good questions are at the heart of good reading and writing. Thus, this book focuses on key issues for writers by posing six major questions of perennial interest:

  1. Identity: How do I know who I am?
  2. Thinking: How do we know what we know?
  3. Ethics: What principles do—and should—govern our personal lives?
  4. Values: What are human rights and responsibilities?
  5. Reinterpretations/Contexts: What can we learn from the past?
  6. Predictions: What will the future be like?

These questions differ significantly from many questions we commonly ask, because they have no right answers. The questions are intended to stimulate critical thinking, to encourage thoughtful examination of what others have to say, and to help develop independent ideas. Each chapter's readings, by significant writers—from Plato to Stephen Hawking, from Frederick Douglass to Leslie Marmon Silko—approach a central question, from many different fields of study and many different social perspectives. Students pursuing the ideas that the questions pose will be considering their own views in light of what these other writers have had to say.

The central question of each chapter is subdivided into three more specific subquestions. Thus, Chapter 1—Identity: How Do I Know Who I Am?"—has three groups of readings centered on the following subquestions: (1) What is my physical self? (2) Who am I in relation to others? (3) How do language and literacy affect my identity? The readings grouped under each subquestion present different approaches to the topic, different perspectives and positions. Active readers will need to examine not only the readings, but their own lives for possible answers, perspectives, and parallels.

Readings

Inquiry by definition is open to many methods of pursuit and many individual perspectives; therefore, we have included a wide variety of authors taking differing approaches to the specific chapter questions. In our choice of readings, we have been particularly attentive to the various discourse communities that make up the American university. Although some readings do not fit neatly into such categories, of course, and some fit approximately into several, almost every student will find some readings in or very close to his or her major field of study. Approximately half of the readings are from the humanities, including philosophical and reflective writing and such literature as autobiography and personal essays. Many of the readings are from the social and behavioral sciences, including anthropology, economics, history, political science, psychology, and sociology. Likewise, the natural sciences are well represented, with readings from astronomy, physics, biology, chemistry, environmental studies, computer science, and medicine. In fact, in preparing this book, we have consulted with our colleagues in a variety of disciplines to ensure cross-curricular perspectives, although we have included only readings appropriate to our audience of undergraduate students.

Inquiry also represents the diversity of American culture. Almost half of our authors are women, and wed Strong representation from many of the ethnic communities that make up the United States today. Issues of ethnicity and gender recur throughout, as is appropriate for a book whose opening chapter asks, "How Do I Know Who I Am?"

Chapter Introductions

The introduction to each of the six chapters provides background for the question and subquestions, an overview of that chapter's readings, a discussion of a specific rhetorical concept for writers, and preliminary questions for discussion and writing. Each of these four sections has a distinct purpose.

"Why Consider This Question?" opens each chapter introduction by discussing the meaning of the chapter question. For example, the second chapter asks, "How Do I Know What I Know?"—very different from alternative and simpler versions of the question such as "What Do I Know?" We begin each introduction by emphasizing the complexity and challenge of its central question, which governs not only the choice of reading selections, but also the direction of all the other questions in the chapter.

The second section of each introduction presents the three subquestions that shape the chapter, with a brief commentary about each reading. Here, we give an overview of the chapter's contents and discuss how the readings relate to one another and to the chapter's questions.

Rhetorical concepts are best taught in context, as a way of addressing the reading and writing problems that emerge from engagement with a text; therefore, the third section of each introduction defines and exemplifies a rhetorical concept appropriate to the chapter question. Notice how the sequence of six rhetorical concepts, each loosely related to the central question of its chapter, covers the rhetorical issues associated with most college writing courses:

  1. writing for an audience
  2. writing as a means of learning: the writing processes
  3. definition
  4. argument and evidence
  5. use of sources
  6. discourse communities

The "Questions for Discovery and Discussion" that conclude each introduction ask students to begin thinking about the central question of the chapter in light of what they already know. Students who discuss or write about the question prior to their reading are in a better position to read actively; the readings become encounters with the ways other writers have dealt with the same ideas and issues.

Questions

The "Responding to Reading" questions that follow each reading are also meant to be used for discussion or writing. Some of these are designed to deepen students' understanding of the particular reading, while others ask students to make connections between that reading and other readings, or between that reading and their own lives. At the end of each chapter are "Questions for Reflection and Writing," pertinent to the entire chapter, that ask students to consider the ways that the selections have enriched and deepened their own thoughts. In keeping with the concept of inquiry, the book contains over four hundred questions of one sort or another; our hope is that every instructor will find ample materials for discussion and writing, whatever the level of the students and goals of the class.

Headnotes

We have taken special care with the headnotes that precede readings. Each headnote provides a ready biographical reference to the author (concise, incisive, and humanizing) and key concepts and terms associated with that author's work. The headnote also serves as an introduction to the reading, identifying its significant intellectual and rhetorical features and providing a lead-in to the "Responding to Reading" questions that follow.

Alternative Ways to Use This Book

The movement from chapter to chapter is a natural one, outward, from one's physical self to the future of the world. Nonetheless, instructors using this book may want to make reading and writing assignments in a different order. Our purpose is to create a textbook that presents a clear curriculum, but that also allows a considerable amount of flexibility to instructors with different students, different curricular goals, and different amounts of class time. Instructors interested in grouping the selections by field of study or by rhetorical concept will find alternative listings at the back of the book to support such rearrangements. We know that many instructors share our belief that inquiry must lie behind both reading and writing, and we urge these colleagues to use the book imaginatively, to ask their own questions, to explore their own answers.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter begins with an Introduction, Rhetorical Issues, and Questions for Discovery and Discussion, and concludes with Questions for Reflection, and Writing.)

Introduction.

1. Identity: How Do I Know Who I Am?

What Is My Physical Self?

Maxine Hong Kingston, On Discovery. Natalie Angier, Estrogen, Desire, and Puberty. Nancy Mairs, On Being a Cripple. Shelby Steele, Jr., The Age of White Guilt and the Disappearance of the Black Individual.

Who Am I in Relation to Others?

Frederick Douglass, Resurrection. Mike Rose, I Just Wanna Be Average. Joan Didion, On Self-Respect. Eric Liu, Notes of a Native Speaker. Gloria Anzaldua, Beyond Traditional Notions of Identity.

How Do Language and Literacy Affect My Identity?

Amy Tan, Mother Tongue. Eudora Welty, Listening. Richard Wright, The Power of Books. Richard Rodriquez, Aria: Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood.

2. Thinking: How Do We Know What We Know?
What is the Process of Thinking?

Susanne K. Langer, Signs and Symbols. Plato, The Allegory of the Cave. Isaac Asimov, Those Crazy Ideas. Frank Conroy, Think About It. Anne Fadiman, Under Water.

What Are Some Ways of Understanding Nature?

Charles Darwin, Understanding Natural Selection. Stephen Jay Gould, Evolution as Fact and Theory. Jane Goodall, First Observations. Michael Pollan, Playing God in the Garden.

How Can We Explain What We Know?

Thomas S. Kuhn, The Route to Normal Science. Deborah Tannen,Conversational Styles. Benjamin Lee Whorf, An American Indian Model of the Universe. Perri Klass, Learning the Language.

3. Ethics: What Principles Do—and Should—Govern Our Personal Lives?
What Governs Ethical Behavior?

Jeffrey Wattles, The Golden Rule—One or Many, Gold or Glitter? Benjamin Franklin, Arriving at Moral Perfection. Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics. Peter Singer, The Singer Solution to World Poverty.

What Are Some Operative Principles of Work and Play?

Howard Gardner, Good Work, Well Done: A Psychological Study. Barbara Ehrenreich, Serving in Florida. Atul Gawande, When Doctors Make Mistakes. Deborah Fallows, Why Mothers Should Stay Home. Charles M. Young, Losing: An American Tradition.

How Can We Meet the Challenge of Creativity?

Jacob Bronowski, The Reach of the Imagination. Linda Hogan, Hearing Voices. Ursula LeGuin, Where Do You Get Your Ideas From? Alexander Calandra, Angels on a Pin. Alice Walker, In Search of Our Mothers' Gardens.

4. Values: What Are Human Rights and Responsibilities?
What Are Fundamental Human Rights?

Wole Soyinka, Every Dictator's Nightmare. Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments. Abraham Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address. Sojourner Truth, Ain't I a Woman.

What Values Govern the Common Good?

Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience. Martin Luther King, Jr.,Letter from Birmingham Jail. Lewis H. Van Dusen, Jr., Civil Disobedience: Destroyer of Democracy. Terry Tempest Williams, The Clan of One-Breasted Women. John McPhee, Los Angeles Against the Mountains.

How Can Value Conflicts Be Resolved?

Deborah Tannen, The Roots of Debate in Education and the Hope of Dialogue. Robert Wuthnow, Making Choices: From Short-Term Adjustments to Principled Lives. Nelson Mandela/Frederik Willem de Klerk, The End of Apartheid Nobel Peace Prize Acceptance Speeches (1993). Ursula Franklin, Silence and the Notion of the Commons.

5. Reinterpretation/Contexts: What Can We Learn From the Past?
How Does Family Heritage Affect Who We Are?

Barry Lopez, Searching for Ancestors. Pauli Murray, The Inheritance of Values. Scott Russell Sanders, The Inheritance of Tools. Cynthia Ozick, A Drugstore Eden. Scott Russell Sanders, Under the Influence: Paying the Price of My Father's Booze.

How Can We Live in Harmony With Nature?

Leslie Marmon Silko, Landscape, History, and the Pueblo Imagination. Henry David Thoreau, Where I Lived and What I Lived For. Rachel Carson, The Obligation to Endure. Sandra Postel, Troubled Waters.

How Can We Interpret and Understand the Past?

Stephen Hawking, Our Picture of the Universe. Italo Calvino,All at One Point. Frances Fitzgerald, America Revised. Linda Simon, The Naked Source.

6. Predictions: What Will the Future Be Like?
How Can We Think About Technology and Gender Roles in the Future?

Anne Fadiman, Mail. Paul de Palma, http.//www.when_is_enough_enough.com? Robert S. Weiss, Marriage as Partnership. Lettie Cottin Pogrebin, Why Feminism is Good for the Jews.

Will War and Terrorism Shape Our Future?

Margaret Mead, Warfare Is Only an Invention—Not a Biological Necessity. Czeslaw Milosz, American Ignorance of War. Mark Juergensmeyer, Terror in the Mind of God. Wendell Berry, Thoughts in the Presence of Fear. Pope John XXIII, “Disarmament.”

Will a New Utopia be Possible in the 21st Century?

W. French Anderson, Genetics and Human Malleability. Leigh Turner,The Media and the Ethics of Cloning. Kofi Annan, The United Nations in the 21st Century. Karen Armstrong, Does God Have a Future?

Read More Show Less

Preface

The title of this book, Inquiry, reflects the process at its heart. In Inquiry, a wide variety of writers are searching, from a wide range of academic and social perspectives, for answers to important questions. The book, in fact, is filled with questions: Questions define and organize the chapters, questions stimulate thought before and after the readings, and questions call for connections at the chapters' ends. Inquiry is, by definition, a process of asking questions and trying out answers. Active reading demands the same kind of process. So does writing. Our hope is that students using this book will produce writing that is worth reading, because it will be writing based on inquiry. Long after the completion of the course using Inquiry, the process of inquiry, so central to reading and writing, should remain with the students.

Organization

Good questions are at the heart of good reading and writing. Thus, this book focuses on key issues for writers by posing six major questions of perennial interest:

  1. Identity: How do I know who I am?
  2. Thinking: How do we know what we know?
  3. Ethics: What principles do—and should—govern our personal lives?
  4. Values: What are human rights and responsibilities?
  5. Reinterpretations/Contexts: What can we learn from the past?
  6. Predictions: What will the future be like?

These questions differ significantly from many questions we commonly ask, because they have no right answers. The questions are intended to stimulate critical thinking, to encourage thoughtful examination of what others have to say, and to help develop independent ideas. Each chapter's readings, by significant writers—from Plato to Stephen Hawking, from Frederick Douglass to Leslie Marmon Silko—approach a central question, from many different fields of study and many different social perspectives. Students pursuing the ideas that the questions pose will be considering their own views in light of what these other writers have had to say.

The central question of each chapter is subdivided into three more specific subquestions. Thus, Chapter 1—Identity: How Do I Know Who I Am?"—has three groups of readings centered on the following subquestions: (1) What is my physical self? (2) Who am I in relation to others? (3) How do language and literacy affect my identity? The readings grouped under each subquestion present different approaches to the topic, different perspectives and positions. Active readers will need to examine not only the readings, but their own lives for possible answers, perspectives, and parallels.

Readings

Inquiry by definition is open to many methods of pursuit and many individual perspectives; therefore, we have included a wide variety of authors taking differing approaches to the specific chapter questions. In our choice of readings, we have been particularly attentive to the various discourse communities that make up the American university. Although some readings do not fit neatly into such categories, of course, and some fit approximately into several, almost every student will find some readings in or very close to his or her major field of study. Approximately half of the readings are from the humanities, including philosophical and reflective writing and such literature as autobiography and personal essays. Many of the readings are from the social and behavioral sciences, including anthropology, economics, history, political science, psychology, and sociology. Likewise, the natural sciences are well represented, with readings from astronomy, physics, biology, chemistry, environmental studies, computer science, and medicine. In fact, in preparing this book, we have consulted with our colleagues in a variety of disciplines to ensure cross-curricular perspectives, although we have included only readings appropriate to our audience of undergraduate students.

Inquiry also represents the diversity of American culture. Almost half of our authors are women, and wed Strong representation from many of the ethnic communities that make up the United States today. Issues of ethnicity and gender recur throughout, as is appropriate for a book whose opening chapter asks, "How Do I Know Who I Am?"

Chapter Introductions

The introduction to each of the six chapters provides background for the question and subquestions, an overview of that chapter's readings, a discussion of a specific rhetorical concept for writers, and preliminary questions for discussion and writing. Each of these four sections has a distinct purpose.

"Why Consider This Question?" opens each chapter introduction by discussing the meaning of the chapter question. For example, the second chapter asks, "How Do I Know What I Know?"—very different from alternative and simpler versions of the question such as "What Do I Know?" We begin each introduction by emphasizing the complexity and challenge of its central question, which governs not only the choice of reading selections, but also the direction of all the other questions in the chapter.

The second section of each introduction presents the three subquestions that shape the chapter, with a brief commentary about each reading. Here, we give an overview of the chapter's contents and discuss how the readings relate to one another and to the chapter's questions.

Rhetorical concepts are best taught in context, as a way of addressing the reading and writing problems that emerge from engagement with a text; therefore, the third section of each introduction defines and exemplifies a rhetorical concept appropriate to the chapter question. Notice how the sequence of six rhetorical concepts, each loosely related to the central question of its chapter, covers the rhetorical issues associated with most college writing courses:

  1. writing for an audience
  2. writing as a means of learning: the writing processes
  3. definition
  4. argument and evidence
  5. use of sources
  6. discourse communities

The "Questions for Discovery and Discussion" that conclude each introduction ask students to begin thinking about the central question of the chapter in light of what they already know. Students who discuss or write about the question prior to their reading are in a better position to read actively; the readings become encounters with the ways other writers have dealt with the same ideas and issues.

Questions

The "Responding to Reading" questions that follow each reading are also meant to be used for discussion or writing. Some of these are designed to deepen students' understanding of the particular reading, while others ask students to make connections between that reading and other readings, or between that reading and their own lives. At the end of each chapter are "Questions for Reflection and Writing," pertinent to the entire chapter, that ask students to consider the ways that the selections have enriched and deepened their own thoughts. In keeping with the concept of inquiry, the book contains over four hundred questions of one sort or another; our hope is that every instructor will find ample materials for discussion and writing, whatever the level of the students and goals of the class.

Headnotes

We have taken special care with the headnotes that precede readings. Each headnote provides a ready biographical reference to the author (concise, incisive, and humanizing) and key concepts and terms associated with that author's work. The headnote also serves as an introduction to the reading, identifying its significant intellectual and rhetorical features and providing a lead-in to the "Responding to Reading" questions that follow.

Alternative Ways to Use This Book

The movement from chapter to chapter is a natural one, outward, from one's physical self to the future of the world. Nonetheless, instructors using this book may want to make reading and writing assignments in a different order. Our purpose is to create a textbook that presents a clear curriculum, but that also allows a considerable amount of flexibility to instructors with different students, different curricular goals, and different amounts of class time. Instructors interested in grouping the selections by field of study or by rhetorical concept will find alternative listings at the back of the book to support such rearrangements. We know that many instructors share our belief that inquiry must lie behind both reading and writing, and we urge these colleagues to use the book imaginatively, to ask their own questions, to explore their own answers.

Read More Show Less

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