Inside Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 with CD-ROM

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A must-read for developers and IT professionals who need tounderstand Microsoft SQL Server from the inside out. Written bya Microsoft SQL Server guru, this comprehensive guide providesupdated, authoritative advice for installing, administering, andprogramming with version 7.0. The CD contains productevaluation documentation, sample code and scripts, white papers,and a benchmarking kit.

Intended for administrators, support personnel and advanced users, this is the ...

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A must-read for developers and IT professionals who need tounderstand Microsoft SQL Server from the inside out. Written bya Microsoft SQL Server guru, this comprehensive guide providesupdated, authoritative advice for installing, administering, andprogramming with version 7.0. The CD contains productevaluation documentation, sample code and scripts, white papers,and a benchmarking kit.

Intended for administrators, support personnel and advanced users, this is the definitive guide and reference for SQL Server 7.0. You should definitely be familiar with Microsoft's BackOffice environment, RDBMS concepts and SQL queries, even though Authors Ron Soukup and Kalen Delaney clearly address these issues.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780735605176
  • Publisher: Microsoft Press
  • Publication date: 4/14/1999
  • Edition description: BK&CD-ROM
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 880
  • Product dimensions: 7.54 (w) x 9.49 (h) x 1.94 (d)

Meet the Author

Currently a Microsoft product unit manager, Ron Soukup is one of the original members of the SQL Server team at Microsoft. He is a 17-year veteran of computer and database systems design, including 10+ years leading Microsoft's SQL server development group.

Kalen Delaney has worked extensively with SQL Server since 1987 and brings more than 20 years' experience in technical support and education to this book. As a consultant to Microsoft, Kalen has developed advanced training materials on SQL Server, including curriculum supporting version 7.0. She is a columnist for SQL Server Magazine.

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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 4: Planning for and Installing SQL Server

... Network Protocols

If you accept the default installation option during setup, SQL Server on Windows NT installs named pipes, TCP/IP Sockets, and multiprotocol as its interprocess communication (IPC) mechanism for communication with its clients. SQL Server can simultaneously use many IPC mechanisms and networking protocols (but any specific client connection uses only one for its connection). As you learned in Chapter 3, each SQL Server networking interface is known as a Net-Library and represents a specific IPC mechanism. In addition to the above three, you can install one or more of the following Net-Libraries:
  • NWLink IPX/SPX
  • Appletalk ADSP
  • DECNet Sockets
  • Banyan VINES

Both the Named Pipes and Multiprotocol Net-Libraries use protocol-independent IPC mechanisms (named pipes and RPC services). This means that you can use either interface with multiple underlying network protocols, including TCP/IP, NetBEUI, and NWLink IPX/SPX. All of the other choices imply not only the IPC mechanism but the specific network protocol that both the client and the server must use.

Although the Named Pipes Net-Library remains a good choice, its use as a default is mostly historical. Named pipes was the first, and for a while the only, IPC mechanism used by the early versions of SQL Server. Later, even when TCP/IP sockets and IPX/SPX were supported, those protocols were more difficult to configure than named pipes, requiring configuration at each client. For example, using TCP/IP required that the administrator configure an arcane IP address at every client workstation for every instance of SQL Server it might access. Now, with the sophisticated network naming services provided by Windows NT (for example, WINS, DHCP, and DNS), other Net-Libraries such as Multiprotocol and TCP/IP Sockets are almost as easy to use as Named Pipes.

Unless you have a compelling reason to choose a different network interface (the most compelling, of course, is if your existing network or network standards dictate some other network choice), use the defaults because they provide the most functionality. They are protocol independent and allow the use of Windows NT Authentication when you connect to SQL Server, which lets you provide a single logon name to your users so they don't have to log on to both the Windows NT domain and the SQL Server. Windows NT Authentication for SQL Server uses the Windows NT impersonation features, which are available only with these default networking choices. Windows NT Authentication is an important feature for convenience and ease of administration as well as for making your system more secure. Windows NT Authentication is also assumed with SQL Server replication services and when Performance Monitor connects to SQL Server.

The Multiprotocol interface is built using Windows NT RPC services. It offers one important feature that none of the other networks offers -- encryption. All conversation between the client and server can be encrypted using the encryption services provided by Windows NT. (A 40-bit key is the maximum currently allowed for export by the U.S. government, so this is the key size used for Windows NT versions sold outside the United States. Windows NT 4, sold in the United States, uses a 128-bit key for tighter security.) Your data is secure even from someone using a hardware device such as a "network sniffer" to intercept network packets right off the wire. The encryption services work across the Internet as well.

The Cost of Encryption
Encryption services impose about a 25 percent performance overhead for network traffic. However, with use on a LAN, the network is rarely the performance bottleneck in a well-designed application and the actual performance difference is usually much less noticeable. But network performance is a bigger concern with a slow WAN or Internet application. In those cases, it can become a bottleneck. Even with slow networks, however, the performance issues usually relate to how often you make requests to the server (that is, how many network "round-trips" you make) rather than the speed of the Net-Library.

When you use the Multiprotocol interface and provide multiple underlying network protocols for it to choose from, you can explicitly choose the default binding. For example, by default the Multiprotocol network interface might, behind the scenes, use named pipes over NWLink. However, you can configure the interface to choose TCP/IP sockets instead if this is important in your network. (For more details, see the name resolution information under the Multiprotocol Clients topic in the "Administering SQL Server" section of SQL Server Books Online.) The ability to dynamically enumerate network computers that run SQL Server is not available with the Multiprotocol network interface.

Microsoft internal testing has found the TCP/IP Sockets Net-Library to be the fastest networking choice. (As stated in the above sidebar, in a typical LAN you rarely see the network as a performance bottleneck. In a low-speed WAN, however, this can be an important issue.) Some network administrators have also been concerned about potentially routing NetBIOS traffic across their LANs and WANs. However, if SQL Server is not using the Named Pipes Net-Library and the Multiprotocol Net-Library is not using named pipes under the covers for IPC, SQL Server is not using NetBIOS at all and this is not a concern.

The NWLink IPX/SPX Net-Library is of most interest to those running Novell networking software on their clients accessing SQL Server. If you are using a Novell NetWare-based network and file server but your SQL Server clients use Windows 95, Windows 98, or Windows NT, using the NWLink IPX/SPX Net-Library is unnecessary. Either Named Pipes or Multiprotocol over the underlying NWLink network protocol is probably a better choice because Windows NT Authentication is not available with the NWLink IPX/SPX Net-Library. If your clients use networking software provided by Novell, NWLink IPX/SPX is probably your best choice. Server enumeration is available with NWLink IPX/SPX using the NetWare Bindery services.

Choose Banyan VINES and DECNet Sockets if you interoperate with those environments. The Banyan VINES Net-Library uses StreetTalk naming services for server enumeration and name resolution. There is no support for dynamic SQL Server enumeration on DECNet. Windows NT Authentication is not an option with either of these Net-Libraries.

Use Appletalk ADSP Net-Library if you will support Apple Macintosh clients (using the Inprise -- formerly Visigenic -- ODBC driver for Macintosh) running only Appletalk, not TCP/IP.

During installation, you must supply additional information for any of the network options you have selected -- for example, the port number or network name on which the server running SQL Server will "listen" for new connections or broadcast its existence to a network naming service. In most cases, you should accept the default unless you have a compelling reason not to. In the case of TCP/IP Sockets, you should accept the default port number of 1433. This number is reserved for use with SQL Server by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and as such it should not conflict with a port used by any other server application on your computer. (This assumes that the developers of other applications also followed the proper protocol of getting assigned numbers.)

Even if you will primarily use another Net-Library for SQL Server use, we recommend that you do not remove Named Pipes. If your network fails entirely, you can still access your SQL Server machine locally using named pipes as the IPC mechanism, because it is an intrinsic service of Windows NT even when the computer is not part of a network. Named pipes can provide a convenient "last chance" way to access SQL Server if, for example, your network card has failed and network access is currently unavailable. If you decide not to use the Named Pipes Net-Library, remove it after installation is complete. The installation program assumes the existence of named pipes services so that it can operate if the computer is not in a network environment.

SQL Server on Windows 95 and Windows 98 does not support the server Named Pipes, Banyan VINES, and AppleTalk Net-Libraries. SQL Server does support the client side of Named Pipes and Banyan VINES Net-Libraries on Windows 95 and Windows 98, so Windows 95 and Windows 98 clients can use them to connect to SQL Server installations on Windows NT.

TIP    If you are new to networking and don't know your IP from your DHCP, don't fret. Accept the defaults and configure your networking later as your understanding improves (or get your network administrator to help you). Although it's a good idea to understand your networking choices before installing SQL Server, you can easily change the networking options later without disturbing your SQL Server environment.


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Table of Contents

Foreword XXIII
Preface XXV
Preface to the First Edition XXIX
Part I Overview
Chapter 1 The Evolution of Microsoft SQL Server: 1989 to 1999 3
Ron's Story 6
Kalen's Story 7
Microsoft SQL Server Ships 8
Development Roles Evolve 10
OS/2 and Friendly Fire 12
Version 4.2 13
SQL Server for Windows NT 16
Success Brings Fundamental Change 21
The End of Joint Development 23
The Charge to SQL95 25
The Next Version 27
The Secret of the Sphinx 28
The New Future 30
Chapter 2 A Tour of SQL Server 31
The SQL Server Engine 32
DBMS-Enforced Data Integrity 38
Transaction Processing 43
Symmetric Server Architecture 45
Security 47
High Availability 49
Distributed Data Processing 50
Data Replication 51
Systems Management 54
SQL Server Utilities and Extensions 61
Client Development Interfaces 68
Summary 71
Part II Architectural Overview
Chapter 3 SQL Server Architecture 75
The SQL Server Engine 75
Managing Memory 99
Transaction Logging and Recovery 107
The SQL Server Kernel and Interaction with the Operating System 112
Summary 118
Part III Using Microsoft SQL Server
Chapter 4 Planning for and Installing SQL Server 121
SQL Server Editions 121
Hardware Guidelines 124
Hardware Components 128
The Operating System 150
The File System 151
Security and the User Context 152
Licensing 154
Network Protocols 159
Character Sets and Sort Orders 163
Installing SQL Server 171
Basic Configuration After Installation 172
Remote and Unattended Installation 174
Summary 178
Chapter 5 Databases and Database Files 179
Special System Databases 180
Database Files 182
Creating Databases 184
Expanding and Shrinking Databases 186
Changes in Log Size 189
Database Filegroups 193
Altering a Database 196
Databases Under the Hood 198
Database Options 203
Other Database Considerations 210
Summary 212
Chapter 6 Tables 213
Creating Tables 214
Internal Storage--The Details 229
Indexes 246
User-Defined Datatypes 250
Identity Property 251
Constraints 255
Altering a Table 292
Temporary Tables 295
Summary 298
Chapter 7 Querying Data 299
The SELECT Statement 299
Joins 302
Dealing with NULL 322
Subqueries 332
Views and Derived Tables 345
Other Search Expressions 350
Summary 389
Chapter 8 Modifying Data 391
Basic Modification Operations 391
Data Modification Internals 421
Summary 441
Chapter 9 Programming with Transact-SQL 443
Transact-SQL as a Programming Language 443
Transact-SQL Programming Constructs--The Basics 447
Summary 506
Chapter 10 Batches, Transactions, Stored Procedures, and Triggers 507
Batches 507
Transactions 512
Stored Procedures 533
Executing Batches, or What's Stored About a Stored Procedure? 548
Triggers 575
Debugging Stored Procedures and Triggers 580
Working with Text and Image Data 584
Environmental Concerns 598
Summary 606
Chapter 11 Cursors 607
Cursor Basics 608
Cursors and ISAMs 610
Cursor Models 615
Appropriate Use of Cursors 621
Working with Transact-SQL Cursors 632
Cursor Variables 652
Summary 660
Chapter 12 Transact-SQL Examples and Brainteasers 661
Using Triggers to Implement Referential Actions 661
Brainteasers 670
Summary 726
Chapter 13 Locking 727
The Lock Manager 727
Lock Types for User Data 734
Lock Compatibility 748
Bound Connections 750
Row-Level vs. Page-Level Locking 752
Locking Hints and Trace Flags 754
Summary 755
Part IV Performance and Tuning
Chapter 14 Optimizing Query Performance 759
The Development Team 760
Application and Database Design 760
Planning for Peak Usage 766
Perceived Response Time for Interactive Systems 766
Prototyping, Benchmarking, and Testing 768
Creating Useful Indexes 772
Using Stored Procedures and Caching Mechanisms 780
Concurrency and Consistency Tradeoffs 788
Resolving Blocking Problems 789
Resolving Deadlock Problems 794
Segregating OLTP and DSS Applications 807
Optimizing Queries 807
Monitoring Query Performance 835
Summary 848
Chapter 15 Configuration and Performance Monitoring 849
Windows NT Configuration Settings 849
SQL Server Configuration Settings 852
System Maintenance 867
Monitoring System Behavior 868
Summary 890
Suggested Reading 891
Index 897
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Customer Reviews

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Sort by: Showing all of 3 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted June 17, 2000

    Not for newbies, but PERFECT if you want to KNOW SQL Server

    This book is horrible if you're just trying to learn SQL Server. If you're new to SQL Server, go elsewhere. However, if you kind of know MSSQL and want to become goddly awesome in it, this IS the book for you. The authors take the time to explain all of the inner workings of SQL Server. This allows you to make design decisions based on how things work under the hood and has made my job of designing SQL Server apps much easier.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted April 12, 2000

    This is a perfect book

    This is a great book, easy to follow and informative. This book is like a bible to me, and I will recommend it to any one learning sql for the first time.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 5, 2000

    This book is definitely not for beginners!

    I bought this book hoping to learn SQL Server 7.0. I was disappointed to find there were no step by step tutorials. All the topics seemed cluttered, the books design was difficult to follow.

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