Institutionalization of Usability: A Step-by-Step Guide

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Overview

"Some argue the big advances in our impact on design and usability will come from better methods. Some argue they will come from earlier involvement in the development process. The biggest impact, however, will come as more and more companies realize the benefits of user-centered design and embrace it. Eric offers a practical road map to get there."—Arnie Lund, Director of Design and Usability, Microsoft Corporation

"This book is a great how-to manual for people who want to bring the benefits of improved usability to their companies. It's thorough yet still accessible for the smart businessperson. I've been working with user-centered design for almost 20 years and I found myself circling tips and tricks."—Harley Manning, Research Director, Forrester Research

"This book should be required reading for all executive champions of change. It does an excellent job in laying the foundation for incorporating usability engineering concepts and best practices into corporations. Business success in the new economy will greatly depend on instituting the changes in design methods and thinking that are so clearly and simply put forth in this very practical and useful book."—Ed Israelski, Program Manager—Human Factors, Abbott Laboratories

"For those of us who have evangelized usability for so many years, we finally have a book that offers meaningful insights that can only come from years of practical experience in the real world. Here is a wonderful guide for all who wish to make usability a 'way of life' for their companies."—Felica Selenko, Principal Technical Staff Member, AT&T

"Dr. Schaffer's mantra is that the main differentiator for companies of the future will be the ability to build practical, useful, usable, and satisfying applications and sites. This is a book that provides the road map necessary to allow your organization to achieve these goals." —Colin Hynes, Director of Site Usability, Staples, Inc.

"Eric's methodology helped RBC Royal Bank's online banking complete a new user interface, and provided a blueprint for making usable designs a routine part of our development process. The site became successful in making money, saving money, and increasing customer satisfaction—evidencing the effectiveness of his approach."—Carolyn Burke, Senior Manager, e-Commerce and Payments Strategy, RBC Royal Bank of Canada

"If you're tasked with bringing usability to a large organization, this book is for you (and your boss). Informed by years of case studies and consulting experience, Eric provides the long view, clearly describing what to expect, what to avoid, and how to succeed in establishing user-centered principles at your company."—Pat Malecek, User Experience Manager, AVP, CUA, A.G. Edwards & Sons, Inc.

"Usability issues are a key challenge for user-interface development of increasingly complex products and services. This book provides much-needed insights to help managers achieve their key objectives and to develop more successful solutions."—Aaron Marcus, President, Aaron Marcus and Associates

At one time, computer hardware was the key differentiator in information technology—what gave an organization its competitive edge. Then, as hardware prices fell, software took center stage. Today, software has become a broadly shared commodity, and a new differentiator has emerged—usability. Applications, including Web sites, are usable if they are practical, useful, easy to work with, and satisfying. Usability is now the factor likeliest to give an organization a distinct advantage.

Institutionalization of Usability shows how to make user-centered design and development a routine practice within an enterprise. Other excellent books explain precisely how to make software usable; this book builds on that foundation, and focuses instead on how to get usability recognized and incorporated into an organization's values and culture. Based on author Eric Schaffer's extensive experience, the book provides a solid methodology for institutionalizing usability, guiding readers step by step with practical advice on topics like organizational change, milestones, toolsets, infrastructure, and staffing requirements needed to achieve fully mature usability engineering.

Learn how to:

  • Educate your organization about the importance of usability
  • Hire and coordinate usability staff and consultants
  • Plan the standards, design, and implementation phases
  • Retrofit a method that has added user-centered activities
  • Recruit participants for usability interviews and testing
  • Select the right staff and project to showcase—by timeline, user impact, and visibility
  • Evangelize, train and mentor staff, and support the community

Whether you are an executive leading the institutionalization process, a manager supporting the transition, or an engineer working on usability issues, Institutionalization of Usability will help you to build usability into your software practices.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321179340
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 2/11/2004
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Pages: 276
  • Product dimensions: 7.08 (w) x 9.22 (h) x 0.73 (d)

Meet the Author

Eric Schaffer, Ph.d., is the founder and CEO of Human Factors International, Inc., the world's largest company specializing in usability engineering. For more than twenty-five years, Eric has helped Fortune 500 companies apply user-centered design in such industries as telecommunications, financial services, manufacturing, software development, and medical equipment. Previously, he worked on usability issues at AT&T and Bell Labs.

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Table of Contents

Preface.

The Organization of This Book.

The Audience for This Book.

Acknowledgments.

1. The Deep Changes.

Changing the Feature Mindset.

Changing the Technology Mindset.

Changing Management Values.

Sidebar: Advice for Those Considering an Investment in Usability by Harley Manning, Forrester Research.

Changing the Process for Interface Design.

Sidebar: Usability within Government by Janice Nall, National Cancer Institute.

The Step-by-Step Process for Institutionalizing Usability.

The Startup Phase.

The Setup Phase.

The Organization Phase.

The Long-Term Operations Phase.

I. STARTUP.

2. Wake-up Calls and Common Reactions.

The Value of Usability.

Reducing Design Cycles.

Avoiding Building Unnecessary Functions.

Expediting Decision Making.

Increasing Sales.

Avoiding “Reinventing the Wheel”.

Avoiding Disasters.

Sidebar: Usability within the Medical Industry by Ed Israelski, Abbott Laboratories.

Types of Wake-up Calls.

Train Wrecks.

Executive Insights.

New Staff.

Education and Training.

Expert Reviews.

Sidebar: Experiencing the Wake-up Call and Beginning aUsability Process by Pat Malecek, A. G. Edwards & Sons, Inc..

Usability Testing.

New Technologies.

Common Responses to Wake-up Calls.

Relying on Good Intentions.

Sidebar: Being an Advocate for the Process by Dana Griffith, American Electric Power.

Relying on Testing.

Relying on Training.

Relying on Repair Jobs.

Relying on Projects by Ad Agencies.

Hiring Usability Consultants.

Hiring New Usability Staff.

Sidebar: Seeing the Real Numbers Creates a Call to Action Too by Harley Manning, Forrester Research.

3. Executive Champion.

The Role of the Executive Champion.

Sidebar: Why Support from Senior Management Is Crucial by Harley Manning, Forrester Research.

Deciding to Innovate.

Making the Change.

Educating the Executives.

Keeping It Moving Long Term.

Sidebar: Getting Middle Management on Board with Usability by Janice Nall, National Cancer Institute.

Becoming a CXO.

4. Selecting a Usability Consultant.

Staffing.

Completeness of Solution.

Domain Expertise.

Methodology.

Tools and Templates.

Size and Stability.

Corporate Cultural Match.

Specializations.

Organizational Structure.

Change Management Ability.

Quality Control and Feedback.

Ongoing Training for the Consultancy's Staff.

II. SETUP.

5: Strategy.

What to Consider When Developing the Strategic Plan.

A Proactive Organization.

Coordinating Internal Staff and Consultants.

Sidebar: Consultant and Internal Group Mix by Todd Gross, Medtronic MiniMed.

The Importance of Sequence.

Reacting to Past Events.

Targets of Opportunity.

Slower Can Be Better.

Phasing in Design Standards.

Key Groups for Support or Resistance.

Sidebar: Executive Support for Usability within AT&T by Felica Selenko, AT&T.

Training.

Methodology and Infrastructure.

The Project Path.

Levels of Investment.

6. Training.

Types of Training.

Sidebar: The Difference between Knowledge and Skills Training by Phil Goddard, Human Factors International

Knowledge Training.

Who Should Get Knowledge Training?

Skills Training.

Who Should Get Skills Training?

Certification.

ATypical Training Plan.

Conferences.

7. Methodology.

What to Look for in a User-Centered Methodology.

Sidebar: Integrating Usability into the Development Cycle, by Janice Nall, National Cancer Institute.

An Outline of The Schaffer Method.

The Plan Evaluation and Structure Phase.

Know What the Organization Wants.

Know What the Users Want.

The Plan Standards Phase.

The Plan Design and Implementation Phase.

The Plan Evaluations Phase.

Sidebar: A. G. Edwards' Usability Process and Methodology by Pat Malecek, A. G. Edwards & Sons, Inc..

The Plan Localization Phase.

A Quick Check of Your Methodology.

The Challenges of Retrofitting a Development Life Cycle.

Using Classic Methodologies.

Retrofitting a Method That Has Added User-Centered Activities.

Retrofitting a Development Process That Has Only Usability Testing.

8. Tools, Templates, and Testing Facilities.

Introduction to Your Toolkit.

Testing Facilities.

Recording of Testing Sessions.

Modeling Tools and Software.

Data Gathering and Testing Techniques.

The Special Needs of International Testing.

Sidebar: The Bollywood Method by Apala Lahiri Chavan, Human Factors International.

Recruiting Interview and Testing Participants.

9. Interface Design Standards.

What Is an Interface Design Standard?

Screen Design Templates.

Other Contents of a Design Standard.

The Scope of Design Standards.

The Value of Design Standards.

The Process and Cost of Developing Standards.

Disseminating, Supporting, and Enforcing Standards.

10. Showcase Projects.

The Value of a Showcase Project.

Sidebar: Gaining Acceptance for the Usability Team by Arnie Lund, Microsoft.

Selecting the Right Staff and Project.

The Right Staff.

The Right Project.

Expectations.

III. ORGANIZATION.

11. Organizational Structure.

Organizational Structures for Usability Teams.

Decentralized Structure.

Matrix Structure.

Centralized Structure.

Sidebar: Being on Projects by Colin Hynes, Staples.

Placement of a Central Team in the Overall Organization.

Placement within Quality Assurance.

Placement within IT.

Placement within Marketing.

Placement under a CXO.

Sidebar: An Executive Must Champion Usability by Harley Manning, Forrester Research.

Escalation of Problems.

Graphic Artists, Writers, and Other Usability-Oriented Staff.

12. Staffing.

The Chief User Experience Executive.

The Central Usability Organization Manager.

The Central Usability Organization Staff.

The Internal Consultant.

The Documenter.

The Specialist.

The Researcher.

The Usability Manager and Practitioners.

The Creative Director and the Graphic Designer.

Outside Consultants.

Sidebar: The Social Security Administration's Usability Team by Sean Wheeler, The Social Security Administration.

What to Look for When Hiring.

Usability Skills for a General Practitioner.

Education.

Experience.

Usability Background That Includes Design.

Specialist vs. Generalist.

Real Skills and Knowledge.

Interpersonal Skills and Level of Expertise.

Archetypes.

An Offshore Model.

The Challenges and Success Factors of Offshore Staffing.

The Limits of Offshore Usability.

13. Projects.

Doing It Right.

Managing by Project Importance.

Who Will Do the Usability Work?

Different Strategies for Practitioner Involvement.

Working Smart.

Efficient Project Planning.

Sidebar: Organizational Support for Usability by Dana Griffith, American Electric Power.

Estimating Usability Work.

IV. LONG-TERM OPERATIONS.

14. Activities of the Established Usability Group.

Maintaining Respect and Negotiating Effectively.

Sidebar: The Value of a Research-Based Approach to Usability by Janice Nall, National Cancer Institute.

Sidebar: Roadblocks in the Path to Good Usability-The IT Department by Harley Manning, Forrester Research.

Maintaining Momentum.

Evangelizing.

Sidebar: The Role of the Central Usability Team by Arnie Lund, Microsoft.

Training.

Mentoring.

Supporting Standards.

Sidebar: Advocating Usability through a Strong Sense of Community by Felica Selenko, AT&T.

Supporting the Community.

Performing Usability Testing.

Focusing on Metrics.

Having Responsibility.

Reporting to Executives.

Sidebar: My Nine Principles to Keep Institutionalization Motivated by Colin Hynes, Staples.

15. The Future.

Symptoms of Leaping the Chasm.

Sidebar: Usability Trends by Harley Manning, Forrester Research.

Maturity.

Sidebar: The Future of Usability within a Government Agency by Sean Wheeler, The Social Security Administration.

Your Organization's Maturity.

Level 0: Clueless.

Level 1: Piecemeal Usability.

Level 2: Managed Usability.

Level 3: Infrastructure.

Level 4: Staffing.

Level 5: Routine Usability.

Sidebar: A Vision of the Future of Usability by Aaron Marcus, Aaron Marcus and Associates.

New Technologies.

Appendix.

References.

Index.

Read More Show Less

Preface

This book is a guide to making usability a routine practice within an enterprise, be it commercial or government. Every organization has special needs: There is no one simple approach that fits all organizations. What this book provides, however, is a solid methodology, not for usability engineering (that's been done before and exists in various forms), but for the part that is truly missing--the institutionalization of usability. This institutionalization methodology is not new. It is simply a synthesis of the best practices and insights from hundreds of companies in the forefront of this effort. This book will give you insights into the appropriate institutionalization activities, infrastructure, and staffing. It will give you tips on how to recognize quality, and how to time and sequence components. The combination of elements is unique for each organization, but this book can be a road map, a mine detector, and a shopping list for you.

There is a misconception that the institutionalization of usability will simply be a matter of doing more of what we have done in the past. A simple analogy will illustrate why this is a misconception. Imagine that we are back in pre-industrial times and that we have a small hut in the forest where we have made a primitive brick forge to produce swords. We create the swords by using a hand bellows and then hammering the metal against a rock. We find the swords to be very useful and realize we need one for everyone in our army. We need thousands of swords. Is our solution to build lots of little huts? Of course not. We need a factory.

Today, the usability engineering process is still being done in a hut. Usability engineers are typically thrown alone into a large organization and left unsupported. There is no established user-centric methodology or set of tools. Every questionnaire is reinvented from scratch. Every deliverable is conceived and crafted by hand. Then we wonder why user-centered design can seem inefficient! It should be no surprise if the results are not consistent, not repeatable, and not reliable.

Currently, good usability practitioners know how to make software usable. We have a billion dollars worth of research and 50 years of practice. But, the usability industry has not matured nearly as much as the software development industry. Usability professionals rarely complete a systematic and repeatable methodology. They rarely work with a complete toolset and set of standards. They are rarely formally trained to complete all the tasks in their area of responsibility. They rarely have comprehensive quality assurance. And perhaps of greatest concern, they are rarely integrated into the routine development process. We know how to make an application usable, but we don't generally know how to put these techniques into practice in a systematic way that is efficient and works well within an organization.

This is the next frontier in the usability field and it is also the focus of this book. This book provides insights into the deep changes necessary to put user-centered design to work routinely within your organization. This book also provides a guided series of activities and milestones that will chart your course to fully mature and institutionalized usability engineering.

This book is about how to create a usability "factory." It is about how to create a reliable and repeatable process. It is about how to ensure efficiency. Following this process means that usability efforts will have to be done differently than before. Just as a computer programmer would never suggest going back to the early days "in the garage," no usability expert should accept the lack of a systematic methodology and professional infrastructure. Usability practitioners of the future will look back with amusement at our current piecemeal approach. This book is a guide to this more mature usability engineering process.

It is time for us to get serious about the institutionalization of usability because usability has become extremely important. Usability is now the key differentiator in the information age. Imagine the CEO of a large insurance company standing before her stockholders and telling them there is bad news this year. The company has been vanquished by the competition . . . because the competition has better laptop computers. Seems like an unlikely excuse? That's because hardware is now a commodity. It takes serious work to create good hardware, but everyone has it, and it does not represent a differentiator between companies. You just buy adequate hardware.

Hardware was the first wave of the information age. In the 1980s, it was a challenge to get adequate hardware, and it was an important differentiator that could determine corporate success. But at the end of the 1980s, the software industry realized that "software sells the hardware," and good software became the differentiator. Companies who could create stable software with the right functionality won big. This was the second wave.

Now in the new millennium, software has become a commodity. Everyone can create a database. Everyone can get connectivity. Children can code in HTML. Software is no longer a differentiator. Software coding is being done with better and better power tools and being outsourced to countries with lower labor costs. We are now entering the third wave of the information age.

What is the remaining differentiator in this information age? It is the ability to build practical, useful, usable, and satisfying applications and web sites. Very few companies do this well, because this requires creating a full and integrated usability engineering capability. As you will see throughout this book, the journey to routine usability requires a serious effort and the path has many pitfalls.

The Organization of This Book

This book contains four major sections, or phases. The first phase, "Startup," covers the process of alerting the organization to the need to make usability a routine internal capability. It then outlines the steps toward finding an executive champion and consultant to support the initial process.

The "Setup" phase explores the essential core infrastructure of methods, templates, standards, and internal training, " Organization," the third phase, describes the need to properly staff the factory you have built. You will need a small, centralized, internal organization to support usability engineering. If you are a large organization, you will need usability practitioners reporting within your project teams. The Organization phase then ends by outlining the importance of applying your usability methods to a set of projects and discussing challenges that occur as resources are stretched (as often happens at this point).

The last phase, "Long-Term Operations," characterizes the established operation of the central usability group.

The Audience for This Book

This book enables leaders to bring modern usability principles into everyday practice. It is not an introduction to usability or a guide to good design. This book is for everyone who is working to integrate usability-engineering practices into their organizations.

If you are an executive or manager within an organization, then you will want to focus on the steps you can take to get institutionalization started. You will want to concentrate on a high-level strategy, and deciding on the staff and resources to fully implement the institutionalization process. Pay particular attention to the chapters on being an executive champion and creating a strategy. You are the one who must move your organization from piecemeal usability to a managed process.

If you are currently part of a usability team that is struggling to make usability routine, you may need to look at the process of institutionalization in a new light. Perhaps you are struggling because you can't do it alone. You may need to focus on finding an executive champion to give power to the effort.

If you are part of a large organization, all the steps in the institutionalization method will be critical, and you will likely have to involve many others along the way. If you are with a small or medium size organization, then you may be able to do much of this on your own. The steps will still be appropriate for you, even if they are scaled down.

No matter who you are, or how far along you are in the institutionalization process (even if it is at the beginning), if you are considering how to institutionalize usability in your company, this book is for you. If you have decided to proceed to build usability into your software design practices, this book is required reading. Whether you are an executive leading the process, a manager supporting the transition, or a staff member advising others and working on usability issues, this book will guide you to success.

Read More Show Less

Introduction

This book is a guide to making usability a routine practice within an enterprise, be it commercial or government. Every organization has special needs: there is no one simple approach that fits all organizations. What this book provides, however, is a solid methodology, not for usability engineering (that's been done before and exists in various forms), but for the part that is truly missing--the institutionalization of usability. This institutionalization methodology is not new. It is simply a synthesis of the best practices and insights from hundreds of companies in the forefront of this effort. This book will give you insights into the appropriate institutionalization activities, infrastructure, and staffing. It will give you tips on how to recognize quality, and how to time and sequence components. The combination of elements is unique for each organization, but this book can be a road map, a mine detector, and a shopping list for you.

There is a misconception that the institutionalization of usability will simply be a matter of doing more of what we have done in the past. A simple analogy will illustrate why this is a misconception. Imagine that we are back in pre-industrial times and that we have a small hut in the forest where we have made a primitive brick forge to produce swords. We create the swords by using a hand bellows and then hammering the metal against a rock. We find the swords to be very useful and realize we need one for everyone in our army. We need thousands of swords. Is our solution to build lots of little huts? Of course not. We need a factory.

Today, the usability engineering process is still being done in a hut. Usability engineers are typicallythrown alone into a large organization and left unsupported. There is no established user-centric methodology or set of tools. Every questionnaire is reinvented from scratch. Every deliverable is conceived and crafted by hand. Then we wonder why user-centered design can seem inefficient! It should be no surprise if the results are not consistent, not repeatable, and not reliable.

Currently, good usability practitioners know how to make software usable. We have a billion dollars worth of research and 50 years of practice. But, the usability industry has not matured nearly as much as the software development industry. Usability professionals rarely complete a systematic and repeatable methodology. They rarely work with a complete toolset and set of standards. They are rarely formally trained to complete all the tasks in their area of responsibility. They rarely have comprehensive quality assurance. And perhaps of greatest concern, they are rarely integrated into the routine development process. We know how to make an application usable, but we don't generally know how to put these techniques into practice in a systematic way that is efficient and works well within an organization. This is the next frontier in the usability field and it is also the focus of this book. This book provides insights into the deep changes necessary to put user-centered design to work routinely within your organization. This book also provides a guided series of activities and milestones that will chart your course to fully mature and institutionalized usability engineering.

This book is about how to create a usability "factory". It is about how to create a reliable and repeatable process. It is about how to ensure efficiency. Following this process means that usability efforts will have to be done differently than before. Just as a computer programmer would never suggest going back to the early days "in the garage", no usability expert should accept the lack of a systematic methodology and professional infrastructure. Usability practitioners of the future will look back with amusement at our current piecemeal approach. This book is a guide to this more mature usability engineering process.

It is time for us to get serious about the institutionalization of usability because usability has become extremely important. Usability is now the key differentiator in the information age. Imagine the CEO of a large insurance company standing before her stockholders and telling them there is bad news this year. The company has been vanquished by the competition...because the competition has better laptop computers. Seems like an unlikely excuse? That's because hardware is now a commodity. It takes serious work to create good hardware, but everyone has it, and it does not represent a differentiator between companies. You just buy adequate hardware.

Hardware was the first wave of the information age. In the 1980's, it was a challenge to get adequate hardware, and it was an important differentiator that could determine corporate success. But at the end of the 1980's, the software industry realized that "software sells the hardware," and good software became the differentiator. Companies who could create stable software with the right functionality won big. This was the second wave.

Now in the new millennium, software has become a commodity. Everyone can create a database. Everyone can get connectivity. Children can code in HTML. Software is no longer a differentiator. Software coding is being done with better and better power tools and being outsourced to countries with lower labor costs. We are now entering the third wave of the information age.

What is the remaining differentiator in this information age? It is the ability to build practical, useful, usable, and satisfying applications and web sites. Very few companies do this well, because this requires creating a full and integrated usability engineering capability. As you will see throughout this book, the journey to routine usability requires a serious effort and the path has many pitfalls.

Organization of This Book

This book contains four major sections, or "phases." The first phase, "Startup," covers the process of alerting the organization to the need to make usability a routine internal capability. It then outlines the steps toward finding an executive champion and consultant to support the initial process.

The "Setup" phase explores the essential core infrastructure of methods, templates, standards, and internal training. "Organization," the third phase, describes the need to properly staff the factory you have built. You will need a small, centralized, internal organization to support usability engineering. If you are a large organization, you will need usability practitioners reporting within your project teams. The Organization Phase then ends by outlining the importance of applying your usability methods to a set of projects and discussing challenges that occur as resources are stretched (as often happens at this point). The last phase, "Long-Term Operations," characterizes the established operation of the central usability group.

Audience

This book is a guide to the institutionalization of usability in the software industry. It is not an introduction to usability or a guide to good design. This book is for everyone who is working to integrate usability-engineering practices into their organizations.

If you are an executive or manager within an organization, then you will want to focus on the steps you can take to get institutionalization started. You will want to concentrate on a high level strategy, and deciding on the staff and resources to fully implement the institutionalization process. Pay particular attention to the chapters on being an executive champion and creating a strategy. You are the one who must move your organization from piecemeal usability to a managed process.

If you are currently part of a usability team that is struggling to make usability routine, you may need to look at the process of institutionalization in a new light. Perhaps you are struggling because you can't do it alone. You may need to focus on finding an executive champion to give power to the effort.

If you are part of a large organization, all the steps in the institutionalization method will be critical, and you will likely have to involve many others along the way. If you are with a small or medium size organization, then you may be able to do much of this on your own. The steps will still be appropriate for you, even if they are scaled down.

No matter who you are, or how far along you are in the institutionalization process (even if it is at the beginning), if you are considering how to institutionalize usability in your company, this book is for you. If you have decided to proceed to build usability into your software design practices, this book is required reading. Whether you are an executive leading the process, a manager supporting the transition, or a staff member advising others and working on usability issues, this book will guide you to success.

032117934XP10162003

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 31, 2004

    More Integrated Usability Design

    A nice management level explanation of the importance of usability design and how to incorporate it organically into the entire iterative design process. Schaffer emphasises finding the right people, starting at senior management, as much as the tasks that the people then do. The 'institutionalisation' in the title refers to this emphasis. He contrasts this with standard usability texts that focus on the methodology instead of the people who have to perform it. Speaking of methodology, he devotes an entire chapter to it. He shows a figure of the old way, where the design of a technical solution was done first, followed by a design of the interface that would overlay it. He suggests reversing this order. Not bad, and probably valid in most cases. But there is one important case where the old way is still viable. Research. Where it is not certain that a solution exists. By necessity, investigation and implementation of a solution should come first. Because if it cannot be done, interface design is moot. Granted, most of his book refers to a commercial product, so the rejoinder could be that a research situation is outside the book's scope. But just keep this in mind when reading it. He also includes a very topical section on the challenges of offshore staffings. (Indians, anyone?) It is certainly possible, though not trivial, to integrate such staff into the entire design cycle, in his experience. Of course, some American readers will find this unsettling. But it should not be a surprise. As offshore staff gain in experience, inevitably they will be able to do this.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 28, 2004

    A 'must have' for managers and usability champions.

    This book unravels the mystery of implementing user centered design in large organizations. Eric shows with his 20 years of experience that usability can become an inherent part of an organization in a planned and a systamatic way. Its a must have , must read for all the managers who are trying to bring in user centered design culture in their organization.

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