The Organization of This Book.
The Audience for This Book.
1. The Deep Changes.
Changing the Feature Mindset.
Changing the Technology Mindset.
Changing Management Values.
Sidebar: Advice for Those Considering an Investment in Usability by Harley Manning, Forrester Research.
Changing the Process for Interface Design.
Sidebar: Usability within Government by Janice Nall, National Cancer Institute.
The Step-by-Step Process for Institutionalizing Usability.
The Startup Phase.
The Setup Phase.
The Organization Phase.
The Long-Term Operations Phase.
2. Wake-up Calls and Common Reactions.
The Value of Usability.
Reducing Design Cycles.
Avoiding Building Unnecessary Functions.
Expediting Decision Making.
Avoiding “Reinventing the Wheel”.
Sidebar: Usability within the Medical Industry by Ed Israelski, Abbott Laboratories.
Types of Wake-up Calls.
Education and Training.
Sidebar: Experiencing the Wake-up Call and Beginning aUsability Process by Pat Malecek, A. G. Edwards & Sons, Inc..
Common Responses to Wake-up Calls.
Relying on Good Intentions.
Sidebar: Being an Advocate for the Process by Dana Griffith, American Electric Power.
Relying on Testing.
Relying on Training.
Relying on Repair Jobs.
Relying on Projects by Ad Agencies.
Hiring Usability Consultants.
Hiring New Usability Staff.
Sidebar: Seeing the Real Numbers Creates a Call to Action Too by Harley Manning, Forrester Research.
3. Executive Champion.
The Role of the Executive Champion.
Sidebar: Why Support from Senior Management Is Crucial by Harley Manning, Forrester Research.
Deciding to Innovate.
Making the Change.
Educating the Executives.
Keeping It Moving Long Term.
Sidebar: Getting Middle Management on Board with Usability by Janice Nall, National Cancer Institute.
Becoming a CXO.
4. Selecting a Usability Consultant.
Completeness of Solution.
Tools and Templates.
Size and Stability.
Corporate Cultural Match.
Change Management Ability.
Quality Control and Feedback.
Ongoing Training for the Consultancy's Staff.
What to Consider When Developing the Strategic Plan.
A Proactive Organization.
Coordinating Internal Staff and Consultants.
Sidebar: Consultant and Internal Group Mix by Todd Gross, Medtronic MiniMed.
The Importance of Sequence.
Reacting to Past Events.
Targets of Opportunity.
Slower Can Be Better.
Phasing in Design Standards.
Key Groups for Support or Resistance.
Sidebar: Executive Support for Usability within AT&T by Felica Selenko, AT&T.
Methodology and Infrastructure.
The Project Path.
Levels of Investment.
Types of Training.
Sidebar: The Difference between Knowledge and Skills Training by Phil Goddard, Human Factors International
Who Should Get Knowledge Training?
Who Should Get Skills Training?
ATypical Training Plan.
What to Look for in a User-Centered Methodology.
Sidebar: Integrating Usability into the Development Cycle, by Janice Nall, National Cancer Institute.
An Outline of The Schaffer Method.
The Plan Evaluation and Structure Phase.
Know What the Organization Wants.
Know What the Users Want.
The Plan Standards Phase.
The Plan Design and Implementation Phase.
The Plan Evaluations Phase.
Sidebar: A. G. Edwards' Usability Process and Methodology by Pat Malecek, A. G. Edwards & Sons, Inc..
The Plan Localization Phase.
A Quick Check of Your Methodology.
The Challenges of Retrofitting a Development Life Cycle.
Using Classic Methodologies.
Retrofitting a Method That Has Added User-Centered Activities.
Retrofitting a Development Process That Has Only Usability Testing.
8. Tools, Templates, and Testing Facilities.
Introduction to Your Toolkit.
Recording of Testing Sessions.
Modeling Tools and Software.
Data Gathering and Testing Techniques.
The Special Needs of International Testing.
Sidebar: The Bollywood Method by Apala Lahiri Chavan, Human Factors International.
Recruiting Interview and Testing Participants.
9. Interface Design Standards.
What Is an Interface Design Standard?
Screen Design Templates.
Other Contents of a Design Standard.
The Scope of Design Standards.
The Value of Design Standards.
The Process and Cost of Developing Standards.
Disseminating, Supporting, and Enforcing Standards.
10. Showcase Projects.
The Value of a Showcase Project.
Sidebar: Gaining Acceptance for the Usability Team by Arnie Lund, Microsoft.
Selecting the Right Staff and Project.
The Right Staff.
The Right Project.
11. Organizational Structure.
Organizational Structures for Usability Teams.
Sidebar: Being on Projects by Colin Hynes, Staples.
Placement of a Central Team in the Overall Organization.
Placement within Quality Assurance.
Placement within IT.
Placement within Marketing.
Placement under a CXO.
Sidebar: An Executive Must Champion Usability by Harley Manning, Forrester Research.
Escalation of Problems.
Graphic Artists, Writers, and Other Usability-Oriented Staff.
The Chief User Experience Executive.
The Central Usability Organization Manager.
The Central Usability Organization Staff.
The Internal Consultant.
The Usability Manager and Practitioners.
The Creative Director and the Graphic Designer.
Sidebar: The Social Security Administration's Usability Team by Sean Wheeler, The Social Security Administration.
What to Look for When Hiring.
Usability Skills for a General Practitioner.
Usability Background That Includes Design.
Specialist vs. Generalist.
Real Skills and Knowledge.
Interpersonal Skills and Level of Expertise.
An Offshore Model.
The Challenges and Success Factors of Offshore Staffing.
The Limits of Offshore Usability.
Doing It Right.
Managing by Project Importance.
Who Will Do the Usability Work?
Different Strategies for Practitioner Involvement.
Efficient Project Planning.
Sidebar: Organizational Support for Usability by Dana Griffith, American Electric Power.
Estimating Usability Work.
IV. LONG-TERM OPERATIONS.
14. Activities of the Established Usability Group.
Maintaining Respect and Negotiating Effectively.
Sidebar: The Value of a Research-Based Approach to Usability by Janice Nall, National Cancer Institute.
Sidebar: Roadblocks in the Path to Good Usability-The IT Department by Harley Manning, Forrester Research.
Sidebar: The Role of the Central Usability Team by Arnie Lund, Microsoft.
Sidebar: Advocating Usability through a Strong Sense of Community by Felica Selenko, AT&T.
Supporting the Community.
Performing Usability Testing.
Focusing on Metrics.
Reporting to Executives.
Sidebar: My Nine Principles to Keep Institutionalization Motivated by Colin Hynes, Staples.
15. The Future.
Symptoms of Leaping the Chasm.
Sidebar: Usability Trends by Harley Manning, Forrester Research.
Sidebar: The Future of Usability within a Government Agency by Sean Wheeler, The Social Security Administration.
Your Organization's Maturity.
Level 0: Clueless.
Level 1: Piecemeal Usability.
Level 2: Managed Usability.
Level 3: Infrastructure.
Level 4: Staffing.
Level 5: Routine Usability.
Sidebar: A Vision of the Future of Usability by Aaron Marcus, Aaron Marcus and Associates.