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|The Pervasiveness of Instructional Media||2|
|1||Media, Technology, and Learning||4|
|2||Technologies for Learning||24|
|3||The ASSURE Model||52|
|4||Media and Materials||84|
|11||Internet and Intranets||260|
|A||Use of Standard Visuals||325|
|B: Equipment and Setups||339|
|C: Information Sources||355|
Instructioncal Media and Technologies for Learning, Seventh Edition, presents a complete range of media formats in terms of how they can be integrated into classroom instruction using the ASSURE model of lesson planning. Written from the viewpoint of the teacher, the text shows specifically and realistically how media fit into the daily life of the classroom. This book is intended for educators at all levels who place a high value on successful learning. Its purpose is to help them incorporate media and technologies for learning into their repertoire—to use them as teaching tools and to guide students in using them as learning tools. We draw examples from elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education, as well as corporate training and development, because we know that instructors in these different settings have found previous editions of this book useful in their work.
This new edition is necessitated by the amazing pace of innovation in all aspects of media, particularly in those related to computers and computer networks, and especially the Internet. In the few years since the sixth edition, the digitization of information has accelerated rapidly and so has school use of new telecommunications resources, such as the Web.
We share a number of convictions that have motivated us since we first contemplated writing a textbook. First, we believe in an eclectic approach to the design of instruction. Advocates cite an abundance of theories and philosophies in support of different approaches to instruction—behaviorist, cognitivist, constructivist, and so on. We view these contending theoretical positions as differingperspectives—different vantage points-from which to examine the large and complex world of teaching and learning. We value each of them and feel that each is reflected in the advice we offer.
Second, we have a balanced posture regarding the role of technology in instruction. Because of this perspective we consider each technology in light of its advantages, limitations, and range of applications. No technology can be described solely as being either "good" or "bad," so we strive to give a balanced treatment to the hard and soft technologies as well as to the simpler and more sophisticated media.
Third, we believe in the possibility of a rapprochement between the humanistic and technological traditions in education. We contend that technology and humanism are two separable dimensions. We demonstrate in Chapter 1 that it's easy to describe instructional arrangements that are high on both dimensions or low on both dimensions, as well as high on one and low on the other. We view them as complementary concepts.
Fourth, we believe that technology can best be integrated into instruction when viewed from the perspective of the teacher rather than that of the technologist. Therefore, throughout the book we attempt to approach media and technology solutions in terms of the day-to-day challenges of teachers and to avoid technical jargon as much as possible. Our examples deal with real, everyday teaching issues, in real content areas, involving real media and materials.
Not only have we updated the technological information and methodological perspectives, but we have made a number of other changes.
Introductory Information. The book begins with a visual introduction—a series of vignettes that depict the many applications of media and technology in enhancing learning. The first two chapters parallel the title of the text. Chapter 1 discusses instructional media, and Chapter 2 introduces technologies for learning. Chapter 1 identifies the purposes served by media and technology and provides theoretical grounding in communications and in the psychology of learning and instruction. Chapter 2 describes programmed instruction, programmed tutoring, learning centers, cooperative groups, games, and simulations. Chapter 3 presents the ASSURE model for instructional planning. Readers who are already familiar with lesson planning procedures will find the ASSURE model more congenial than the more technical models associated with full-fledged instructional design. This chapter also presents general procedures for appraising, selecting, and using media.
Core Chapters. Media and instructional materials are described in Chapter 4. Topics include manipulatives, multimedia kits, field trips, printed materials, free and inexpensive materials, and display surfaces. Chapter 5 examines principles and procedures of visual design, an important foundation for use of the visual media discussed in Chapters 6, 8, and 9. The handling of color is a critical element in visual design. To portray the principles of color properly, we have included full-color photos and illustrations in Chapter 5.
Chapters 6 through 10 treat one by one the common formats of media. Chapter 6 deals with visual media. Chapter 7 features audio media and the listening process. Video is examined in Chapter 8. Chapters 9 and 10 focus on computer-based technologies, including computer-assisted instruction, integrated learning systems, computers as student tools, multimedia, and hypermedia.
Chapter 11 focuses on computer networks including the Internet, the World Wide Web, intranets, wide area networks (WANs), and local area networks (LANs). Distance learning is the focus of Chapter* 12, with particular attention paid to broadcast radio and television, audio and video teleconferencing, online technologies, and distance learning issues.
A Vision for the Future. In Chapter 13 we consider the possible impacts of current trends in technology, training, and education. We discuss the emerging influences of computer-based media, telecommunications technologies, schools of the future, and workplaces of the future.
Appendixes. Appendix A: Use of Standard Visuals includes topics that have been around since the first edition, but which are still very important and useful to readers. Appendix B: Equipment and Set-ups provides nuts-and-bolts advice on setting up and handling media hardware, including setups for audio, visual projection, video, and computers. Appendix C: Information Sources provides the key for exploring other sources for instructional media beyond this book, giving names and addresses of specialized and comprehensive sources. Dozens more producers, vendors, and information centers are listed on our Companion Website. The text concludes with a glossary of more than 400 technical terms used in this book and in discussions of instructional media generally, followed by a thorough index.
"Classroom Link Portfolio" CD-ROM. The companion CD-ROM, "Classroom Link Portfolio," will assist you in creating, maintaining, and printing lesson plans and evaluations of materials based on the ASSURE model. The resulting database can be the basis for a teaching portfolio that can grow throughout your career. The portfolio components are connected to ISTE and NETS-S standards. The CD is fully integrated into the text and the Companion Website with performance-based and reflection-based activities and projects. These activities and projects, found at the end of each chapter, are indicated with both a CW and a CD-ROM icon. The guide for using the "Classroom Link Portfolio" CD-ROM is located on the Companion Website; the instructions for using this software have been completely revised and simplified.
Companion Website (CW). The Companion Website, located at http://www.prenhall.com/heinich, includes study materials such as knowledge objectives for each chapter, chapter overviews and summaries, interactive practice quizzes with answers, portfolio activities, integration assessments, links to related web sites, flashbacks, a message board to encourage discussion, a chat feature, and a detailed guide for using the "Classroom Link Portfolio" CD-ROM.
The CW provides students with resources and immediate feedback on exercises and other activities linked to the text. In addition, these activities, projects, and resources enhance and extend chapter content to real-world issues and concepts. Each chapter on the CW contains the following modules (or sections) unless specified otherwise:
Instructor's Guide. Ask your Merrill/Prentice Hall representative or contact the publisher directly for a copy of this comprehensive teaching guide, available to adopters without cost. The Instructor's Guide includes teaching tips for each chapter, suggestions for different ways to organize an Instructional Media course, and overhead transparency masters on perforated pages.
Computer Test Item Bank. Adopting instructors can obtain a set of computer disks, available in either Windows or Macintosh format, containing a test item bank with instructions on how to create their own tests. Contact your Merrill/Prentice Hall representative.
Companion Website. The Companion Website is located at http://www.prenhall.com/heinich. It includes links to related web sites, a message board to encourage discussion, study materials and other features for students, and a library of PowerPoint slides that can be downloaded for class use. Of particular interest is Syllabus Manager—an online syllabus creation and management instrument that has the following capabilities:
Authors' Services. The authors are eager to assist you in putting together an outstanding Instructional Media course. We offer the following services to instructors who have adopted this book:
If you are an instructor using this text, send your name and address to Sharon Smaldino, Schindler Education Center 618, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50614-0606. We would like to add your name to our newsletter mailing list, and we welcome any comments you have about the text.
Through each of the editions of this book we have been fortunate to have had guidance from the real experts—the people who teach the courses for which this book is designed. In preparing for this edition we surveyed a sample of adopters and other leaders in the field to elicit their advice about contents and emphases. We then asked other colleagues well respected in the field to critique the text. We here thank all those who gave their time and talent to help make this the most useful textbook it could be, and in particular those who reviewed the sixth edition and suggested improvements:
We especially thank those who contributed more directly by writing new material, drawing illustrations, taking photographs, and searching for references.
Elizabeth Boling of the School of Education, Indiana University, is responsible for both the outstanding illustrations in Chapter 5 and the accompanying text related to visual design. We are in awe of her phenomenal artistic skill and scholarly mastery of this area. Dennis Pett, from his professor emeritus setting in Vermont, carefully reviewed drafts of Chapter 5 and gave generous advice on photography, color, and visual design principles, as well as providing a number of exemplary photographs. Their contributions were so substantial they must be considered co-authors of Chapter 5.
Daniel Callison of the School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University, reviewed the whole book and made many helpful recommendations related to the connections between the teacher and the school library media center and media specialist. The extended Blueprint in Chapter 3, which we feel is a significant aid to using the ASSURE model, was developed by Mary Ann Ferkis while a student at Purdue University; it was done as a project in a course using this book.
This book also contains the products of the work of many others who have contributed to past editions; we continue to be indebted to all of them.
The editorial and production staffs of Merrill/ Prentice Hall, particularly Debbie Stollenwerk, Heather Fraser, and Mary Harlan, deserve special commendation. A new member of the production team, Nancy Ritz, our photo coordinator, greatly enhanced the look of this edition. We also want to thank our copy editor, Robert L. Marcum, for his valuable editing contributions and for his assistance with the content related to computers. Molly Lane of Purdue University provided valuable assistance in updating the Suggested Readings. The authors have never had such intense and helpful support from any previous publication team.
We are grateful to our colleagues from our own universities—Indiana, Purdue, and Northern Iowa—for their many and valued forms of support over the years.
Finally, we thank our families for all they do to make this project possible.
James D. Russell
Sharon E. Smaldino