Instrumentation for Engineers and Scientists

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Overview

This book was developed from material prepared for a course in instrumentation for final year mechanical engineering undergraduates. The approach used is to present instrumentation from the viewpoints of both electronics and signal analysis. The sensors and electronic circuits likely to be needed by a final year student project and for postgraduate research, are comprehensively covered. It forms a suitable degree-level text for students of engineering, science or medicine seeking a practical guide to instrumentation. It is also hoped that the book will be of use to practising engineers in general. The authors' aim throughout has been to write a book which guides the reader through the intricacies of specifying and selecting an instrumentation system, acquiring data without corrupting or distorting it in the process, and applying sensible signal analysis techniques. Examples and case studies are used to illustrate the techniques discussed, including many drawn from real-life instrumentation problems encountered by the authors in engineering, physics and medicine. The sequence of chapters follows the flow of data from the primary sensing element, through transduction, signal processing and digital conversion to digital signal analysis techniques. This logical sequence ensures that the design process is undertaken in the correct order, and provides continuity for the reader.

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Product Details

Table of Contents

1. General design of instrumentation systems—error analysis
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Generalized instrumentation design
1.3. Error analysis and the performance of a measurement system
1.4. Conclusions
2. Temperature sensors
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Resistive temperature transducers
2.3. Thermocouples
2.4. Bimetallic temperature sensors
2.5. PN junction sensors
2.6. Liquid crystal temperature soars
2.7. Infra-red emission and pyrometry
2.8. Heat flux gauges
3. Displacement sensing
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Potentiometers
3.3. Inductive displacemtn transducers
3.4. Capacitive displacement transducers
3.5. Optical motion sensors
3.6. Ultrasonic displacement transducers
3.7. Hall effect motion sensors
4. Velocity and acceleration transducers
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Accelerometer and seismometer theory
4.3. Longitudinal velocity sensing
4.4. Rotational velocity sensing
4.5. Accelerometer designs
5. Strain measurement techniques
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Wire and foil strain gauges
5.3. Semiconductor strain gauges
5.4. Thick film strain gauges
5.5. Strain gauge transducers
5.6. Bridge circuits for strain gauge transducers
5.7. Summary
6. Pressure sensors
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Elastic pressure sensors
6.3. Capacitance pressure sensors
6.4. Pressure switches
6.5. Pressure sensor environmental considerations
7. Torque and mechanical power measurement
7.1. Introduction and definitions
7.2. Mechanical methods of troque measurement
7.3. Strain gauge torque transducers
7.4. Torsion bars
7.5. Non-contact magnetic methods
7.6. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) torque transducers
8. Flow sensors
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Vector flow transducers
8.3. Volumer flow sensors
8.4. Laser Doppler and correlation flow transducers
8.5. Ultrasonic flowmeters
8.6. Vortex shedding flowmeters
9. Signal conditioning circuits
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Operational amplifier circuit basics
9.3. Analyzing operational circuit basics
9.4. Frequency response and gain-bandwidth product
9.5. The op-amp's departures from ideal behavior
9.6. Operational amplifier circuit selection
9.7. Common operational amplifier circuits
10. Signal conversion and data acquisition
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Analog to digital conversion
10.3. Computer-based data acquisition
11. Signal analysis—frequency domain techniques
11.1. Introduction
11.2. The Fourier series
11.3. The Fourier transform
11.4. Digital frequency analysis—the discrete Fourier transform
11.5. Sampling and aliasing
11.6. Windowing
Chapters 2-11 end with References
Index

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