Intellectual Property Rights in the Global Economy / Edition 1

Intellectual Property Rights in the Global Economy / Edition 1

by Keith E. Maskus
     
 

ISBN-10: 0881322822

ISBN-13: 9780881322828

Pub. Date: 05/01/2000

Publisher: Peterson Institute for International Economics

Over the past 15 years, intellectual property rights (IPRs) have moved from an arcane area of legal analysis and a policy backwater to the forefront of global economic policymaking. In the 1990s dozens of countries unilaterally strengthened their laws and regulations in this area, and many others are poised to do likewise. At the multilateral level, the successful…  See more details below

Overview

Over the past 15 years, intellectual property rights (IPRs) have moved from an arcane area of legal analysis and a policy backwater to the forefront of global economic policymaking. In the 1990s dozens of countries unilaterally strengthened their laws and regulations in this area, and many others are poised to do likewise. At the multilateral level, the successful conclusion of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) elevates the protection and enforcement of IPRs to the level of inviolable international commitment.

The new global system emerging from IPRs comes with benefits as well as costs. Their increasing importance raises international economic policy questions that evoke impassioned and exaggerated claims from both advocates and opponents of stronger property rights in information. In the first economic assessment of the effects of stronger international IPRs in one volume, Keith E. Maskus examines these competing claims through a comprehensive analysis of the economic impacts of extended international protection and partial harmonization of IPRs. He brings together recent studies of various aspects of the issue and performs new quantitative and qualitative analyses. He presents findings that will be applied to a number of important policy questions on the very new phenomenon of IPRs.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780881322828
Publisher:
Peterson Institute for International Economics
Publication date:
05/01/2000
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
266
Product dimensions:
5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Prefaceix
Acknowledgmentsxv
1Introduction: The Issue Is Deeper than American Movies1
The Evolving Global System3
Economic Issues6
Objectives of the Study7
Organization of the Volume and Summary of Findings9
2A Road Map for the TRIPs Ahead15
General Obligations17
Copyrights17
Trademarks and Indications19
Patents20
Integrated Circuits22
Trade Secrets22
Control of Anticompetitive Practices24
Enforcement24
Transition Periods25
Administration of TRIPs25
Summary26
3Globalization and the Economics of Intellectual Property Rights: Dancing the Dual Distortion27
Economics of Intellectual Property Rights28
Structures and Objectives of IPRs36
Sectoral Reliance on IPRs51
The Evolving US System: Protectionism Unchained?65
Globalization and the Technology Content of Trade66
Pressures for Change in the Global IPRs System83
Summary84
4The Global Effects of Intellectual Property Rights: Measuring What Cannot Be Seen87
Measuring Intellectual Property Rights across Borders88
Determinants of Intellectual Property Rights102
The Effects of IPRs on International Economic Activity109
IPRs and International Technology Transfer136
Summary141
5Intellectual Property Rights and Economic Development: Patents, Growth, and Growing Pains143
How IPRs Contribute to Development145
Global Research and Development156
How IPRs Hamper Economic Development157
Evidence on the Overall Impact of IPRs on Growth169
Summary169
6The Global Policy Framework: Intellectual Property Rights and Wrongs?171
Putting TRIPs into Action171
TRIPs as an Economic Optimizer192
Regional Initiatives194
Summary197
7Benefiting from Intellectual Property Protection: Take the Medicine, but Get Some Exercise, Too199
National Policies to Optimize IPRs200
IPRs and Social Regulation216
International Initiatives225
Summary232
8Conclusions and Policy Recommendations: Are We There Yet?235
Where We Are235
Where We Are Going238
Does TRIPs Belong in the WTO?238
The Way Forward Is to Be Forward-Looking239
References243
Index255
Tables
Table 2.1Substantive requirements of the TRIPs agreement in the WTO18
Table 3.1Instruments and agreements for protecting IPRs37
Table 3.2Patent applications in selected countries68
Table 3.3Trademark applications in selected countries70
Table 3.4Applications for registrations of plant varieties in selected countries71
Table 3.5Indicators of demand for copyright products in selected countries72
Table 3.6Trade in IPR-sensitive goods for selected countries74
Table 3.7Trade in IPR-sensitive services and royalties and license fees80
Table 3.8Inward and outward stocks of foreign direct investment82
Table 4.1Membership trends in key intellectual property conventions89
Table 4.2Qualitative trends in intellectual property protection, selected countries92
Table 4.3Indices of the strength of IPRs laws95
Table 4.4Survey indices of perceived strength of IPRs98
Table 4.5Estimated rates of software piracy and lost revenues100
Table 4.6Determinants of Ginarte-Park Patent Rights Index106
Table 4.71985 income levels and 1990 predicted patent indices108
Table 4.8Simulated increases in total imports by sector into developing countries resulting from strengthened patent laws115
Table 4.9Percentage of firms claiming that strength or weakness of IPRs has a strong effect on whether direct investments will be made, by type of facility, 1991126
Table 4.10Percentage of firms claiming that intellectual property protection is too weak to permit type of investment, 1991128
Table 4.11Simultaneous equations models of the impact of patent strength on international exploitation of intellectual assets132
Table 4.12Estimates of the general-equilibrium knowledge capital model134
Table 5.1Simulated static effects of stronger IPRs enforcement in Lebanon, 1996158
Table 6.1Estimated static rent transfers from TRIPs-induced strengthening of 1998 patent laws184
Table 6.2Estimates of how TRIPs patent changes affect international flows of economic activity for selected countries187
Table 7.1Summary of IPRs exhaustion regimes210
Figures
Figure 3.1Basic access innovation trade-off in IPRs30
Figure 4.1Relationship between patent rights and per capita GNP104

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