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Intelligence-Led Policing / Edition 1

Intelligence-Led Policing / Edition 1

by Jerry H. Ratcliffe

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ISBN-10: 1843923394

ISBN-13: 9781843923398

Pub. Date: 02/01/2008

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

What is intelligence-led policing? Who came up with the idea? Where did it come from? How does it relate to other policing paradigms? What distinguishes an intelligence-led approach to crime reduction? How is it designed to have an impact on crime? Does it prevent crime? What is crime disruption? Is intelligence-led policing just for the police? These are questions


What is intelligence-led policing? Who came up with the idea? Where did it come from? How does it relate to other policing paradigms? What distinguishes an intelligence-led approach to crime reduction? How is it designed to have an impact on crime? Does it prevent crime? What is crime disruption? Is intelligence-led policing just for the police? These are questions asked by many police professionals, including senior officers, analysts and operational staff. Similar questions are also posed by students of policing who have witnessed the rapid emergence of intelligence-led policing from its British origins to worldwide movement. These questions are also relevant to crime prevention practitioners and policy-makers seeking long-term crime benefits. The answers to these questions are the subject of this book.

This book brings the concepts, processes and practice of intelligence-led policing into focus, so that students, practitioners and scholars of policing, criminal intelligence and crime analysis can better understand the evolving theoretical and empirical dynamics of this rapidly growing paradigm. The first book of its kind, enhanced by viewpoint contributions from intelligence experts and case studies of police operations, provides a much-needed and timely in-depth synopsis of this emerging movement in a practical and accessible style.

Product Details

Taylor & Francis
Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
6.75(w) x 9.75(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

List of acronyms xi

Preface and acknowledgments xiii

1 Introduction 1

Reimagining policing 3

What is intelligence-led policing? 6

What makes intelligence-led policing unique? 7

A holistic approach to crime control 9

Case study: Operation Nine Connect 11

The structure of this book 12

2 Origins of intelligence-led policing 15

Drivers for change 16

Complexity in policing and the performance culture 16

Managing risk 18

The demand gap 18

Limitations of the standard model of policing 20

Organised and transnational crime 22

Changes in technology 23

The Us policing landscape 24

Fragmented and uncoordinated 24

Viewpoint: Fragmented policing and the role of fusion centers 26

Demonising intelligence 27

The community policing era 29

Slow emergence of problem-oriented policing 30

Rapid emergence of Compstat 31

9/11 and homeland security 32

The British policing landscape 33

New Public managerialism and oversight 33

Sporadic emergence of problem-oriented policing in the UK 34

Helping with enquiries and policing with intelligence 36

The National Intelligence Model 38

Summary 39

Notes 40

3 The magnitude of the crime challenge 42

The crime funnel 43

How much crime gets reported? 43

Case study: Calls for service in America's most dangerous city 47

Crime-prone places 49

Completing the crime funnel 50

The offender problem 52

Individual offending and recidivism 53

Predicting prolific offenders 56

Can the police identify prolific offenders? 58

Organised crime 59

Viewpoint: Threat measurement techniques for organised crime 61

Summary 62

4 Defining intelligence-led policing 64

Related policing frameworks65

Community policing 66

Problems-oriented policing 70

Compstat 76

Conceptual confusion 79

Viewpoint: Policing conceptual frameworks from the analyst's perspective 82

Intelligence-led policing defined 83

Original tenets 83

Revising the original model 84

Intelligence-led policing components 85

Summary 88

5 Analytical frameworks 91

Awash with terminology 91

What is criminal intelligence? 92

What is crime analysis? 93

Data, information and knowledge? 94

DIKI continuum 96

From knowledge to intelligence 98

Levels of crime intelligence 99

Nim levels 101

Viewpoint: A practitioner's perspective on the National Intelligence Model 103

Conceptualising analysis 104

NIM business model 107

The 3-i model 109

Can models reflect reality? 113

Summary 114

6 Interpreting the criminal environment 115

Target selection 116

Recording crime details 116

Threat assessments 118

Objective targeting and offender self-selection 120

Playing well with others 122

Viewpoint: Information sharing at the national level 126

Information collation 127

Improving information sharing 130

A role for liaison officers? 132

Confidential informants 133

Analytical techniques 135

Strategic thinking 137

Summary 139

Note 140

7 Influencing decision-makers 141

Who are decision-makers? 142

Front-line officers 143

Police leadership 144

Non-law enforcement 146

The general public 148

Security networks 149

Viewpoint: The responsibilities of intelligence-led police leadership 152

Understanding the client's environment 153

Working with the audience 157

Maximising influence 158

Embracing networks 159

Recommending action 160

Summary 162

8 Having an impact on crime 165

Revisiting the crime funnel 166

Estimating prevention benefits 169

Reduction, disruption and prevention 171

The changing leadership role 173

Viewpoint: The leadership role in intelligence-led policing 175

Steering the rowers in the right direction 177

The police impact on crime 178

Does police targeting prevent crime? 178

Does increasing arrests reduce crime? 180

Intelligence-led crime reduction 182

Summary 183

9 Evaluating intelligence-led policing 186

Evaluation concepts and practice 187

What are we evaluating? 188

Types of evaluations 189

Operation Vendas and Operation Safe Streets 190

Evaluation skills 192

Pure evaluations and realistic evaluations 193

Case study: Operation Anchorage 195

Viewpoint: Refining strategy after Operation Anchorage 199

Measuring success in different ways 201

The cost-benefit of surveillance and confidential informants 202

Measuring disruption 204

Measuring success in changing business practice 206

Measuring success in performance indicators 207

Summary 210

Notes 212

10 Challenges for the future 213

The challenges of covert activity 214

The risks of greater informant use in covert activities 215

Principle of proportionality 217

Storing private information 219

Human rights and surveillance 220

Viewpoint: Intelligence-led policing and public trust 222

The widening security agenda 224

Greater strategic application 225

Merging criminal intelligence and national security 227

An agenda for the future 230

Conceptual training for analysts and executives 230

Disseminating success 232

Looking beyond the tactical imperatives 233

Engage the next cohort of police leaders 234

Ten yardsticks for intelligence-led policing 235

Summary 237

Note 237

References 238

Index 257

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