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Intelligent Macromolecules for Smart Devices: From Materials Synthesis to Device Applications / Edition 1

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Overview

The age of nanotechnology is upon us. Engineering at the molecular level is no longer a computer-generated curiosity and is beginning to affect the lives of everyone. Molecules which can respond to their environment and the smart machines we can build with them are and will continue to be a vital part of this 21st-century revolution. Liming Dai presents the latest work on many newly-discovered intelligent macromolecular systems and reviews their uses in nano-devices.

Intelligent Macromolecules for Smart Devices features:

- An accessible assessment of the properties and materials chemistry of all the major classes of intelligent macromolecules from optoelectronic biomacromolecules to dendrimers, artificial opals and carbon nanotubes

- In-depth analysis of various smart devices including a critique of the suitability of different molecules for building each type of device

- A concise compilation of the practical applications of intelligent macromolecules including sensors and actuators, polymer batteries, carbon-nanotube supercapacitors, novel lasing species and photovoltaic cells

As an exposition of cutting-edge research against a backdrop of comprehensive review, Intelligent Macromolecules for Smart Devices will be an essential addition to the bookshelf of academic and industrial researchers in nanotechnology. Graduate and senior undergraduate students looking to make their mark in this field of the future will also find it most instructive.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781852335106
  • Publisher: Springer London
  • Publication date: 1/9/2004
  • Series: Engineering Materials and Processes Series
  • Edition description: 2004
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 496
  • Product dimensions: 9.21 (w) x 6.14 (h) x 1.13 (d)

Table of Contents

1 The Concepts of Intelligent Macromolecules and Smart Devices 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Concept of Intelligent Macromolecules 1.2.1 Synthetic Macromolecules1.2.1.1 Chain Structure and Classification 1.2.1.2 Synthesis1.2.1.3 Chain Conformation 1.2.1.4 Macromolecular Structure in Solution 1.2.1.5 Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure 1.2.2 Biological Macromolecules 1.2.2.1 Structure of DNA 1.2.2.2 Structure of Proteins1.2.2.3 Structure of Polysaccharides 1.2.3 Carbon Nanomaterials 1.2.4 Intelligent Macromolecules 1.3 The Concept of Smart Devices1.3.1 Self-assembling and Micro-/Nano-fabrication1.3.2 Functional Structures and Smart Devices 1.4 References Part I. Intelligent Macromolecules2 Conducting Polymers 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Conjugated Conducting Polymers2.2.1 Structure and Properties2.2.1.1 -
• Conjugation2.2.1.2 Doping2.2.2 Synthesis 2.2.2.1 Syntheses of Soluble Conjugated Polymers 2.2.2.2 Syntheses of Conjugated Polymer Films2.3 Charge Transfer Polymers2.3.1 Organic Charge Transfer Complexes2.3.2 Polymeric Charge Transfer Complexes 2.3.3 Charge Transfer Between Fullerene C60 and Polymers 2.4 Ionically Conducting Polymers 2.4.1 Structural Features of Polymer Electrolytes 2.4.2 Transport Properties and Chain Dynamics 2.5 Conductively Filled Polymers 2.5.1 Polymers Filled with Conductive Solids2.5.2 Polymers Filled with Conjugated Conducting Polymers 2.6 References 3 Stimuli-responsive Polymers 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Solvent-responsive Polymers 3.3 Temperature-responsive Polymers 3.3.1 Temperature-responsive Polymers in Solution 3.3.2 Temperature-responsive Polymers on Surface 3.4 pH-responsive Polymers3.5 Ionically Responsive Polymers 3.6 Electrically Responsive Polymers 3.7 Photoelectrochromism3.8 Photoresponsive Polymers 3.9 Biochromism3.10 Photomodulation of Enzyme Activity 3.11 References 4 Dendrimers and Fullerenes 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Dendrimers 4.2.1 Synthesis 4.2.1.1 Divergent Approach 4.2.1.2 Convergent-growth Approach4.2.1.3 Other Miscellaneous Approaches4.2.2 Structure4.2.2.1 Dendrimers with a Metal Core 4.2.2.2 Dendrimers with a Hollow Core 4.2.2.3 Dendrimers with a Hydrophobic Interior and Hydrophilic Exterior Layer 4.2.2.4 Dendrimers with Guest Molecules Trapped in their Cavities 4.2.2.5 Dendrimers with Different Terminal Groups4.3 Fullerene C604.3.1 Chemistry of C60 4.3.1.1 Addition Reactions4.3.1.2 Dimerization and Polymerization4.3.2 Polymeric Derivatives of C60 4.3.2.1 Fullerene Charm Bracelets 4.3.2.2 Fullerene Pearl Necklaces 4.3.2.3 Flagellenes 4.4 References 5 Carbon Nanotubes5.1 Introduction 5.2 Structure 5.3 Property 5.4 Synthesis5.4.1 Multi-wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs)5.4.2 Single-wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs)5.5 Purification5.6 Microfabrication5.6.1 Opening, Filling and Closing5.6.2 Filling5.6.3 Tip-closing5.7 Chemical Modification5.7.1 End-functionalization5.7.1.1 Oxidation of Carbon Nanotubes5.7.1.2 Covalent-Coupling via the Oxidized Nanotube Ends 5.7.2 Modification of Nanotube Outerwall5.7.2.1 Sidewall Fluorination of Carbon Nanotubes 5.7.2.2 The Attachment of Dichlorocarbene to the Sidewall 5.7.2.3 Modification via 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition of Azomethine Ylides5.7.2.4 The Reaction Between Aniline and Carbon Nanotubes5.7.3 Functionalization of Carbon Nanotube Innerwall5.7.4 Other Physical Chemistries of Carbon Nanotubes5.7.4.1 Modification of Carbon Nanotubes via Mechanochemical Reactions 5.7.4.2 Modification of Carbon Nanotubes via Electrochemical Reactions 5.7.4.3 Modification of Carbon Nanotubes via Phohemical Reactions 5.8 Non-covalent Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes 5.8.1 Non-covalent Attachment of Small Molecules onto the Nanotube Sidewall5.8.2 Non-covalent Wrapping of Polymer Chains onto the Nanotube Sidewall5.9 Modification of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes 5.9.1 Plasma Activation of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes 5.9.2 Acid Oxidation with Structural Protection 5.9.3 Electrochemical Modification of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes5.10 References Part II. From Intelligent Macromolecules to Smart Devices6 Ordered and Patterned Macromolecules 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Oriented and Patterned Conjugated Polymers6.2.1 The Necessity6.2.1.1 For Electronic Applications6.2.1.2 For Non-linear Optical Applications 6.2.2 Oriented Conjugated Polymers 6.2.2.1 Synthesis-induced Orientation 6.2.2.2 Liquid Crystalline Conjugated Polymers 6.2.2.3 Post-synthesis Orientation6.2.3 Patterned Conjugated Polymers6.2.3.1 Photolithographic Patterning6.2.3.2 Pattern Formation by Self-assembling 6.2.3.3 Pattern Formation by Polymer Phase Separation6.2.3.4 Plasma Patterning of Conjugated Polymers 6.3 Aligned and Patterned Carbon Nanotubes 6.3.1 The Necessity6.3.1.1 Molecular Computing6.3.1.2 Electron Emitters6.3.1.3 For Membrane Applications6.3.2 Horizontally Aligned and Micropatterned Carbon Nanotubes6.3.2.1 Horizontally Aligned Carbon Nanotubes 6.3.2.2 Micropatterns of Horizontally Aligned Carbon Nanotubes6.3.3 Perpendicularly Aligned and Micropatterned Carbon Nanotubes 6.3.3.1 Perpendicularly Aligned Carbon Nanotubes6.3.3.2 Micropatterns of Perpendicularly Aligned Carbon Nanotubes6.3.3.3 Perpendicularly Aligned and Micropatterned Carbon Nanotubes by Self-assembly 6.4 Aligned Non-carbon Nanotubes6.4.1 Aligned B:C:N Nanotubes 6.4.2 Aligned Inorganic Nanotubes 6.4.3 Aligned Polymer Nanotubes 6.4.4 Aligned Peptide Nanotubes 6.5 References 7 Macromolecular Nanostructures 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Polymer Nanoparticles 7.2.1 Polymer Nanospheres by Polymerization7.2.2 Dispersion of Pre-formed Polymers7.2.2.1 Polymer Nanosphere by Emulsifying Dispersion7.2.2.2 Polymer Nanospheres by Supercritical Fluid Method 7.3 Self-assembling of Pre-formed Polymers7.3.1 Shell-core Polymer Nanoparticles 7.4 Polymer Nanowires, Nanotubes and Nanofibers7.4.1 Tip-assisted Syntheses of Polymer Nanowires 7.4.2 Template Syntheses of Polymer Nanowires, Nanotubes and Nanofibers7.4.3 Electrospinning of Polymer Nanofibers7.5 Polymer Nanofilms7.5.1 Polymer Nanofilms by Solution Casting 7.5.2 Polymer Nanofilms by Plasma Polymerization 7.5.3 Polymer Nanofilms by Langmuir-Blodgett Deposition 7.5.4 Polymer Brushes by End-adsorption 7.5.4.1 Polymer Mushrooms 7.5.4.2 Polymer Brushes 7.6 Nanostructured Polymers with Special Architectures 7.6.1 Self-assembly of Ordered Nanoporous Polymers 7.6.2 Coaxial Polymer Nanowires and Nanofibers7.6.3 Multilayered Polymer Nanofilms7.6.4 Nanostructured Polymers by Phase Separation 7.7 References Part III. Smart Devices8 Electronic Devices 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Conjugated Polymer Devices 8.2.1 Electromagnetic Shielding 8.2.2 Schottky Barrier Diodes and Field-effect Transistors8.2.2.1 Schottky Barrier Diodes8.2.2.2 Field-effect Transistors 8.3 C60 Superconductivity 8.4 Polymer Batteries and Carbon Nanotube Supercapacitors8.4.1 Conducting Polymer Batteries 8.4.2 Biofuel Cells 8.4.3 Carbon Nanotube Supercapacitors8.5 Carbon Nanotube Nanoelectronics8.5.1 Carbon Nanotube Nanowires8.5.2 Carbon Nanotube Superconductors 8.5.3 Carbon Nanotube Rings8.5.4 Carbon Nanotube Nanocircuits8.5.5 Carbon Nanotube-based Random Access Memory (RAM) for Molecular Computing8.6 DNA Molecular Wires and DNA Computing 8.6.1 DNA Molecular Wires8.6.2 DNA Computing on Chips 8.7 References 9 Photonic Devices 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Light-emitting Polymer Displays 9.2.1 Device Construction 9.2.2 Quantum Efficiency9.2.3 Interface Engineering9.2.3.1 Chemical Derivatization of the Metal Electrodes9.2.3.2 Polymer-polymer Interface9.2.4 Modification of the Charge Injection Characteristics 9.2.5 Light-emitting Electrochemical Cells (LECs)9.2.6 Color Tuning9.2.7 Patterned Emission 9.3 Laser Action of Conjugated Polymers 9.4 Carbon Nanotube Displays9.5 Bucky Light Bulbs and Optical Limiters9.5.1 C60 Light Bulbs9.5.2 C60 Optical Limiters 9.6 Photovoltaic Cells 9.6.1 Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Containing Fullerenes 9.6.2 Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Containing Carbon Nanotubes 9.7 Light-harvesting Dendrimers 9.8 Electronic Windows, Electrochromic Displays and Electronic Papers 9.8.1 Electrochromic Windows 9.8.2 Electrochromic Displays9.8.3 Electronic Papers 9.9 References 10 Sensors and Sensor Arrays10.1 Introduction 10.2 Conjugated Polymers Sensors 10.2.1 Conjugated Polymer Sensors with Electrical Transducers 10.2.1.1 Conjugated Polymer Conductometric Sensors10.2.1.2 Conjugated Polymer Potentiometric Sensors 10.2.1.3 Conjugated Polymer Amperometric Sensors 10.2.1.4 Conjugated Polymer Voltammetric Sensors10.2.2 Conjugated Polymer Sensors with Optical Transducers10.2.2.1 Conjugated Polymer Fluorescent Ion Chemosensors 10.2.2.2 Conjugated Polymer Fluorescent TNT Sensors 10.2.2.3 Conjugated Polymer Light-harvesting "Turn-on" Sensors 10.3 Charge Transfer Polymer Sensors10.4 Ionically Conducting Polymer Sensors 10.5 Conductively Filled Polymers Sensors10.5.1 Conductively Filled Polymer Humidity Sensors10.5.2 Conductively Filled Polymer Gas Sensors10.5.3 Conducting Polymer-coated Fabric Sensors: Smart Textiles10.6 Dendrimer Sensors 10.6.1 Dendrimer Gas Sensors 10.6.1.1 Dendrimer Iodine (Vapor) Sensor10.6.1.2 Dendrimer SO2 Gas Sensors10.6.1.3 Dendrimer CO Gas Sensors 10.6.2 Dendrimer Sensors for Carbonyl Compounds10.7 Fullerene C60 Sensors 10.7.1 Fullerene Humidity Sensors10.7.2 Fullerene Gas Sensors10.8 Carbon Nanotube Sensors 10.8.1 Carbon Nanotube Gas Sensors 10.8.1.1 Carbon Nanotube Ammonia and Nitrogen Dioxide Sensors 10.8.1.2 Carbon Nanotube Hydrogen Sensors 10.8.1.3 Carbon Nanotube Oxygen Sensors 10.8.1.4 Carbon Nanotube Thermoelectric Nanonose 10.8.1.5 Carbon Nanotube Carbon Dioxide Sensors10.8.2 Carbon Nanotube Pressure and Temperature Sensors 10.8.3 Carbon Nanotube Chemical Force Sensors 10.8.4 Carbon Nanotube Resonator Mass Sensors 10.8.5 Carbon Nanotube Glucose Sensors10.9 DNA Sensors10.9.1 DNA Sensors Based on Oligonucleotide-functionalized Polypyrroles 10.9.2 DNA Diagnostic Biosensors10.9.3 DNA Sensor for Detection of Hepatitis B Virus 10.9.4 DNA Fluorescent Sensor for Lead Ions10.9.5 DNA Molecular Break Lights10.9.6 DNA Quartz Oscillators and Cantilevers10.10 Sensors Arrays10.10.1 Conducting Polymer "Electronic Noses"10.10.2 DNA Arrays10.10.3 Protein Arrays10.11 References 11 Actuators and Nanomechanical Devices 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Conducting Polymer Actuators 11.2.1 Self-powered Actuators 11.2.2 Conducting Polymer Microtweezers11.3 Actuators Based on Composites of Ion-exchange Polymers and Metals11.4 Responsive Polymer Actuators 11.5 Carbon Nanotube Actuators 11.6 Smart Electromechanical Devices Based on Carbon Nanotubes 11.6.1 Carbon Nanotube Quantum Resistors and Nanoresonators11.6.2 Carbon Nanotube Nanoprobes11.6.3 Carbon Nanotube Nanotweezers 11.6.4 Carbon Nanotube Bearings, Switches and Gears 11.7 C60 Abacus and Fullerene Vehicles11.8 Smart Devices Based on Biomolecules 11.8.1 Flagellar Motors11.8.2 DNA Switches 11.9 References Index

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