Interconnect Technology and Design for Gigascale Integration / Edition 1

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The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) projects that by 2011 over one billion transistors will be integrated into a single monolithic die. The wiring system of this billion-transistor die will deliver power to each transistor, provide a low-skew synchronizing clock to latches and dynamic circuits, and distribute data and control signals throughout the chip. The resulting design and modeling complexity of this GSI multilevel interconnect network is enormous such that over one hundred quadrillion coupling inductances and capacitances throughout a nine-to-ten-level metal stack must be managed. Interconnect Technology and Design for Gigascale Integration will address the limits and opportunities for GSI interconnect design and technology in the twenty-first century. Interconnect Technology and Design for Gigascale Integration is the cumulative effort from academic researchers at Georgia Tech, MIT, and Stanford, as well as from industry researchers at IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, LSI Logic, and SUN microsystems. The material found in this book is unique in that it spans IC interconnect topics ranging from IBM's revolutionary copper process to an in depth exploration into interconnect-aware computer architectures. This broad swath of topics presented by leaders in the research field is intended to provide a comprehensive perspective on interconnect technology and design issues so that the reader will understand the implications of the semiconductor industry's next substantial milestone - gigascale integration.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781402076060
  • Publisher: Springer US
  • Publication date: 10/31/2003
  • Edition description: 2003
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 411
  • Product dimensions: 9.21 (w) x 6.14 (h) x 0.94 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Interconnect Opportunities for GSI.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 The Interconnect Problem.- 1.3 Reverse Scaling.- 1.4 System-on-Chip.- 1.5 Three-Dimensional Integration.- 1.6 Input/Output Interconnect Enhancements.- 1.7 Photonic Interconnects.- 1.8 Conclusions.- 2. Copper BEOL Interconnects for Silicon CMOS Logic Technology.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 BEOL Evolution.- 2.3 The Case for Copper.- 2.4 Electroplating of Cu.- 2.5 Reliability of Cu Interconnects.- 2.6 Processing of Cu Interconnects.- 2.7 Summary.- 3. Interconnect Parasitic Extraction of Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Electromagnetic Formulation.- 3.3 Resistance Extraction.- 3.4 Capacitance Extraction.- 3.5 Inductance Extraction.- 3.6 Summary.- 4. Distributed RC and RLC Transient Models.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Distributed RC Models.- 4.3 Distributed RLC Models.- 4.4 Non-Ideal Return Paths.- 4.5 Summary.- 5. Power, Clock, and Global Signal Distribution.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Global Signal Interconnect Modeling.- 5.3 Global Clock Distribution Modeling.- 5.4 Global Power Distribution Modeling.- 5.5 An Integrated Architecture for Global Interconnects.- 5.6 Conclusions.- 6. Shastic Multilevel Interconnect Modeling and Optimization.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Wire-Length Distribution Model.- 6.3 Net Model Approximation.- 6.4 Comparisons with Actual Data.- 6.5 Critical Path Model.- 6.6 Dynamic Power Dissipation Model.- 6.7 Optimal n-Tier Multilevel Interconnect Architectures.- 6.8 Summary.- 7. Interconnect-Centric Computer Architectures.- 7.1 Introduction and Motivation.- 7.2 Interconnect-Aware Architectures.- 7.3 Interconnect Demand Models.- 7.4 Related Work.- 7.5 GENESYS Organization and Models.- 7.6 Heterogeneous Architecture Models.- 7.7 System Design Analysis.- 7.8 Wire Demands and their Relation to Architecture.- 7.9 Conclusion.- 8. Chip-to-Module Interconnect.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Packaging and Chip-to-Module Trends.- 8.3 Microvia Printed Wiring Board Technologies.- 8.4 Chip-to-Module Interconnections for GSI.- 9. 3-D ICs DSM Interconnect Performance Modeling and Analysis.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Motivation for 3-D ICs.- 9.3 Scope of This Study.- 9.4 Area and Performance Estimation of 3-D ICs.- 9.5 Challenges for 3-D ICs.- 9.6 mplications for Circuit Design and System-on-a-Chip Applications.- 9.7 Overview of 3-D IC Technology.- 9.8 Conclusions.- 10. Silicon Microphotonics.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Optical Interconnection.- 10.3 Monolithic Silicon Microphotonics.- 10.4 Optical Clock Distribution and Data I/O.- 10.5 Summary.

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