Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures / Edition 6

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Editorial Reviews

Chapters on cultural differences in communication, verbal and nonverbal codes, and variations in persuasion focus on practical reasons for understanding people from different cultures, and help undergraduates develop competence in intercultural and interpersonal communication. This second edition highlights health care, education, and business as areas where people from different cultures converge, and contains expanded discussion of ethical and social issues. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205595754
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 2/23/2009
  • Series: MyCommunicationKit Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 400
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Part 1 Communication and Intercultural Competence

1 Introduction to Intercultural Competence 1

Imperatives for Intercultural Competence 3

The Demographic Imperative for Intercultural Competence 3

The Technological Imperative for Intercultural Competence 6

The Economic Imperative for Intercultural Competence 8

The Peace Imperative for Intercultural Competence 9

The Interpersonal Imperative for Intercultural Competence 11

Communication 12

Defining Communication 12

Characteristics of Communication 13

Interpersonal Communication 19

The Challenge of Communicating in an Intercultural World 21

Summary 22

For Discussion 23

For Further Reading 23

2 Culture and Intercultural Communication 24

Culture 25

Defining Culture for the Study of Communication 25

Culture and Related Terms 29

Why Cultures Differ 33

Forces That Maintain Cultural Differences 33

The Interrelatedness of Cultural Forces 44

Intercultural Communication 46

Examples of Intercultural Interactions 46

Similarities and Differences between Communicators 50

Definition of Intercultural Communication 52

Intercultural Communication and Related Terms 53

Summary 55

For Discussion 56

For Further Reading 56

3 Intercultural Communication Competence 57

The United States as an Intercultural Community 58

Metaphors of U.S. Cultural Diversity 59

What Do You Call Someone from the United States of America? 62

Cultural Groups in the United States 63

Competence and Intercultural Communication 65

Intercultural Communication Competence 65

The Components of Intercultural Competence 66

Basic Tools for Improving Intercultural Competence 72

The Basics of InterculturalCompetence 72

Description, Interpretation, and Evaluation 76

Summary 80

For Discussion 81

For Further Reading 81

Part 2 Cultural Differences in Communication

4 Cultural Patterns and Communication: Foundations 83

Defining Cultural Patterns 85

Components of Cultural Patterns 85

Beliefs 86

Values 88

Norms 89

Social Practices 89

Characteristics of Cultural Patterns 90

The Functions of Cultural Patterns 90

An Overview of Cultural Patterns 92

Cultural Patterns and Intercultural Competence 104

Summary 106

For Discussion 106

For Further Reading 106

5 Cultural Patterns and Communication: Taxonomies 107

Hall's High- and Low-Context Cultural Taxonomy 109

Use of Covert and Overt Messages 109

Importance of Ingroups and Outgroups 112

Orientation to Time 112

Hofstede's Cultural Taxonomy 113

Power Distance 114

Uncertainty Avoidance 115

Individualism versus Collectivism 116

Masculinity versus Femininity 118

Long-Term versus Short-Term Time Orientation 119

Indulgence versus Restraint 120

Monumentalism versus Self-Effacement 120

Comparing Hofstede's Dimensions 121

The Globe Cultural Taxonomy 124

Power Distance 126

Uncertainty Avoidance 126

In-Group Collectivism 127

Institutional Collectivism 127

Gender Egalitarianism 128

Assertiveness 129

Performance Orientation 130

Future Orientation 130

Humane Orientation 131

Comparing the Globe Dimensions 131

Cultural Taxonomies and Intercultural

Competence 138

Summary 139

For Discussion 140

For Further Reading 140

6 Cultural Identity and Cultural Biases 141

Cultural Identity 142

The Nature of Identity 142

The Formation of Cultural Identity 143

Characteristics of Cultural Identity 145

Cultural Biases 147

Social Categorizing 148

Ethnocentrism 149

Stereotyping 152

Prejudice 156

Discrimination 158

Racism 159

Identity, Biases, and Intercultural

Competence 162

Summary 163

For Discussion 164

For Further Reading 164

Part 3 Coding Intercultural Communication

7 Verbal Intercultural Communication 165

The Power of Language in Intercultural Communication 166

Definition of Verbal Codes 167

The Features of Language 168

Rule Systems in Verbal Codes 169

Interpretation and Intercultural Communication 174

Language, Thought, Culture, and Intercultural Communication 177

The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis of Linguistic Relativity 177

Language and Intercultural Communication 185

Verbal Codes and Intercultural Competence 193

Summary 195

For Discussion 196

For Further Reading 196

8 Nonverbal Intercultural Communication 197

Definition of Nonverbal Codes 198

Characteristics of Nonverbal Codes 198

Relationship of Nonverbal to Verbal Communication 199

Cultural Universals in Nonverbal Communication 200

Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communication 201

Nonverbal Messages in Intercultural Communication 204

Body Movements 204

Space 208

Touch 210

Time 212

Voice 215

Other Nonverbal Code Systems 216

Synchrony of Nonverbal Communication Codes 218

Nonverbal Communication and Intercultural Competence 219

Summary 221

For Discussion 222

For Further Reading 222

9 The Effects of Code Usage in Intercultural Communication 223

Preferences in the Organization of Messages 224

Organizational Preferences in the Use of U.S. English 224

Organizational Preferences in Other Languages and Cultures 225

Cultural Variations in Persuasion 228

Persuasion in Intercultural Encounters 228

Cultural Differences in What Is Acceptable as Evidence 229

Cultural Differences in Styles of Persuasion 231

Cultural Variations in the Structure of Conversations 235

Value of Talk and Silence 235

Rules for Conversations 237

Effects of Code Usage on Intercultural Competence 241

Summary 242

For Discussion 242

For Further Reading 243

Part 4 Communication in Intercultural Relationships

10 Intercultural Competence in Interpersonal Relationships 244

Cultural Variations in Interpersonal Relationships 245

Types of Interpersonal Relationships 245

Dimensions of Interpersonal Relationships 252

Dynamics of Interpersonal Relationships 255

The Maintenance of Face in Interpersonal Relationships 257

Types of Face Needs 257

Facework and Interpersonal Communication 260

Facework and Intercultural Communication 261

Improving Intercultural Relationships 262

Learning about People from Other Cultures 262

Sharing Oneself with People from Other Cultures 267

Handling Differences in Intercultural Relationships 268

Interpersonal Relationships and Intercultural Competence 271

Summary 272

For Discussion 272

For Further Reading 272

11 Episodes, Contexts, and Intercultural Interactions 274

Social Episodes in Intercultural Relationships 274

The Nature of Social Episodes 275

Components of Social Episodes 276

Contexts for Intercultural Communication 283

The Health Care Context 283

The Educational Context 290

The Business Context 297

Episodes, Contexts, and Intercultural Competence 310

Summary 310

For Discussion 310

For Further Reading 310

12 The Potential for Intercultural Competence 312

Intercultural Contact 313

Dominance and Subordination between Groups 313

Attitudes among Cultural Members 315

Outcomes of Intercultural Contact 317

The Ethics of Intercultural Competence 324

When in Rome... 325

Are Cultural Values Relative or Universal? 326

Do the Ends Justify the Means? 327

Ethics-Your Choices 329

The Perils and Prospects for Intercultural Competence 329

Impact of National and International Events on Intercultural Communication 329

Forces That Pull Us Together and Apart 333

Concluding Remarks 335

Summary 336

For Discussion 337

For Further Reading 337

Resources 338

Intercultural Films 338

Online Resources 339

Notes 342

Text Credits 373

Author Index 377

Subject Index 383

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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 6, 2011

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