Interdisciplinary Mechatronics: Engineering Science and Research Development

Overview

Mechatronics represents a unifying interdisciplinary and intelligent engineering science paradigm that features an interdisciplinary knowledge area and interactions in terms of the ways of work and thinking, practical experiences, and theoretical knowledge. Mechatronics successfully fuses (but is not limited to) mechanics, electrical, electronics, informatics and intelligent systems, intelligent control systems and advanced modeling, intelligent and autonomous robotic systems, optics, smart materials, actuators ...

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Overview

Mechatronics represents a unifying interdisciplinary and intelligent engineering science paradigm that features an interdisciplinary knowledge area and interactions in terms of the ways of work and thinking, practical experiences, and theoretical knowledge. Mechatronics successfully fuses (but is not limited to) mechanics, electrical, electronics, informatics and intelligent systems, intelligent control systems and advanced modeling, intelligent and autonomous robotic systems, optics, smart materials, actuators and biomedical and biomechanics, energy and sustainable development, systems engineering, artificial intelligence, intelligent computer control, computational intelligence, precision engineering and virtual modeling into a unified framework that enhances the design of products and manufacturing processes.
Interdisciplinary Mechatronics concerns mastering a multitude of disciplines, technologies, and their interaction, whereas the science of mechatronics concerns the invention and development of new theories, models, concepts and tools in response to new needs evolving from interacting scientific disciplines. The book includes two sections, the first section includes chapters introducing research advances in mechatronics engineering, and the second section includes chapters that reflects the teaching approaches (theoretical, projects, and laboratories) and curriculum development for under- and postgraduate studies. Mechatronics engineering education focuses on producing engineers who can work in a high-technology environment, emphasize real-world hands-on experience, and engage in challenging problems and complex tasks with initiative, innovation and enthusiasm.

Contents:

1. Interdisciplinary Mechatronics Engineering Science and the Evolution of Human Friendly and Adaptive Mechatronics, Maki K. Habib.
2. Micro-Nanomechatronics for Biological Cell Analysis and Assembly, Toshio Fukuda, Masahiro Nakajima, Masaru Takeuchi, Tao Yue and Hirotaka Tajima.
3. Biologically Inspired CPG-Based Locomotion Control System of a Biped Robot Using Nonlinear Oscillators with Phase Resetting, Shinya Aoi.
4. Modeling a Human’s Learning Processes toward Continuous Learning Support System, Tomohiro Yamaguchi, Kouki Takemori and Keiki Takadama.
5. PWM Waveform Generation Using Pulse-Type Hardware Neural Networks, Ken Saito, Minami Takato, Yoshifumi Sekine and Fumio Uchikoba.
6. Parallel Wrists: Limb Types, Singularities and New Perspectives, Raffaele Di Gregorio.
7. A Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation System – RehabRoby, Duygun Erol Barkana and Fatih Özkul.
8. MIMO Actuator Force Control of a Parallel Robot for Ankle Rehabilitation, Andrew Mcdaid, Yun Ho Tsoi and Shengquan Xie.
9. Performance Evaluation of a Probe Climber for Maintaining Wire Rope, Akihisa Tabata, Emiko Hara and Yoshio Aoki.
10. Fundamentals on the Use of Shape Memory Alloys in Soft Robotics, Matteo Cianchetti.
11. Tuned Modified Transpose Jacobian Control of Robotic Systems, S. A. A. Moosavian and M. Karimi.
12. Derivative-Free Nonlinear Kalman Filtering for PMSG Sensorless Control, Gerasimos Rigatos, Pierluigi Siano and Nikolaos Zervos.
13. Construction and Control of Parallel Robots, Moharam Habibnejad Korayem, Soleiman Manteghi and Hami Tourajizadeh.
14. A Localization System for Mobile Robot Using Scanning Laser and Ultrasonic Measurement, Kai Liu, Hongbo Li and Zengqi Sun.
15. Building of Open-Structure Wheel-Based Mobile Robotic Platform, Aleksandar Rodic and Ivan Stojkovic.
16. Design and Physical Implementation of Holonomous Mobile Robot–Holbos, Jasmin Velagic, Admir Kaknjo, Faruk Dautovic, Muhidin Hujdur and Nedim Osmic.
17. Advanced Artificial Vision and Mobile Devices for New Applications in Learning, Entertainment and Cultural Heritage Domains, Gian Luca Foresti, Niki Martinel, Christian Micheloni and Marco Vernier.
18. Application of Stereo Vision and ARM Processor for Motion Control, Moharam Habibnejad Korayem, Michal Irani and Saeed Rafee Nekoo.
19. Mechatronics as Science and Engineering – or Both, Balan Pillai and Vesa Salminen.
20. A Mechatronic Platform for Robotic Educational Activities, Ioannis Kostavelis, Evangelos Boukas, Lazaros Nalpantidis and Antonios Gasteratos.
21. The Importance of Practical Activities in the Formation of Mechatronic Engineers, Joao Carlos M. Carvalho and Vera Lúcia D.S. Franco

About the Authors

Maki K. Habib is Professor of Robotics and Mechatronics in the School of Science and Engineering, at the American University in Cairo, Egypt. He has been regional editor (Africa/Middle East,) for the International Journal of Mechatronics and Manufacturing Systems (IJMMS) since 2010. He is the recipient of academic awards and has published many articles and books.
J. Paulo Davim is Aggregate Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Aveiro, Portugal and is Head of MACTRIB (Machining and Tribology Research Group). His main research interests include manufacturing, materials and mechanical engineering.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781848214187
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 5/6/2013
  • Series: ISTE Series , #731
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 624
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.60 (d)

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Table of Contents

Preface xvii

Chapter 1. Interdisciplinary Mechatronics Engineering Science and the Evolution of Human Friendly and Adaptive Mechatronics 1
Maki K. HABIB

1.1. Introduction 2

1.2. Synergetic thinking, learning and innovation in mechatronics design 9

1.3. Human adaptive and friendly mechatronics 11

1.4. Conclusions 14

1.5. Bibliography 15

Chapter 2. Micro-Nanomechatronics for Biological Cell Analysis and Assembly 19
Toshio FUKUDA, Masahiro NAKAJIMA, Masaru TAKEUCHI, Tao YUE and Hirotaka TAJIMA

2.1. Introduction of micro-nanomechatronics on biomedical fields 19

2.2. Configuration of micro-nanomechatronics 21

2.3. Micro-nanomechatronics for single cell analysis 25

2.4. Semi-closed microchip for single cell analysis 28

2.5. Biological cell assembly using photo-linkable resin based on the single cell analysis techniques 30

2.6. Conclusion 33

2.7. Acknowledgments 34

2.8. Bibliography 34

Chapter 3. Biologically Inspired CPG-Based Locomotion Control System of a Biped Robot Using Nonlinear Oscillators with Phase Resetting 37
Shinya AOI

3.1. Introduction 37

3.2. Locomotion control system using nonlinear oscillators 38

3.2.1. CPG-based locomotion control system 38

3.2.2. Rhythm generator model using nonlinear oscillators 39

3.2.3. Pattern formation model to determine the global parameters of limb kinematics 40

3.2.4. Phase regulation based on interlimb and intralimb coordination 40

3.2.5. Sensory regulation based on phase resetting 40

3.3. Stability analysis using a simple biped robot model 41

3.3.1. Compass model 41

3.3.2. Locomotion control system 43

3.3.3. Periodic solution of the walking motion 45

3.3.4. Stability analysis 49

3.4. Experiment using biped robots 58

3.4.1. Locomotion control system 58

3.4.2. Experimental results 61

3.5. Conclusion 64

3.6. Acknowledgments 65

3.7. Bibliography 65

Chapter 4. Modeling a Human’s Learning Processes toward Continuous Learning Support System 69
Tomohiro YAMAGUCHI, Kouki TAKEMORI and Keiki TAKADAMA

4.1. Introduction 70

4.1.1. The need for continuous learning in mechatronics engineering 70

4.1.2. Learning support systems for a human 70

4.1.3. Modeling a learning process to achieve continuous learning 71

4.1.4. How to keep supplying new goals to achieve continuous learning 73

4.1.5. The concept to formalize the continuous learning by a maze model 75

4.2. Designing the continuous learning by a maze model 76

4.2.1. A learning environment by a maze model with invisible goals 76

4.2.2. The maze sweeping task that involves multiple goals 78

4.2.3. Designing the thinking level 81

4.3. The layout design of mazes for the continuous learning task 82

4.3.1. Overview of the continuous learning support system 82

4.3.2. The layout design of mazes on the thinking level space 83

4.4. Experiment 85

4.4.1. Experimental setup 85

4.4.2. Experimental results 87

4.5. Discussions 88

4.5.1. The role of motivations to drive the continuous learning 88

4.5.2. Why is it important to collect all solutions for continuous learning? 89

4.5.3. Toward an application of a maze model and invisible goals 90

4.6. Conclusions 92

4.7. Acknowledgments 93

4.8. Bibliography 93

Chapter 5. PWM Waveform Generation Using Pulse-Type Hardware Neural Networks 95
Ken SAITO, Minami TAKATO, Yoshifumi SEKINE and Fumio UCHIKOBA

5.1. Introduction 96

5.2. PWM servo motor 97

5.3. Pulse-type hardware neuron model 99

5.3.1. Basic cell body model 99

5.3.2. Cell body model for PWM controlling system 101

5.3.3. Synaptic model 103

5.3.4. Axon model 104

5.4. Pulse-type hardware neural networks 104

5.5. Measurements of constructed discrete circuit 108

5.6. Conclusion 109

5.7. Acknowledgments 109

5.8. Bibliography 110

Chapter 6. Parallel Wrists: Limb Types, Singularities and New Perspectives 113
Raffaele DI GREGORIO

6.1. Limb architectures and mobility analysis 113

6.1.1. Use of the screw theory 115

6.1.2. Use of the group theory 120

6.1.3. Other approaches 122

6.1.4. Conclusion 124

6.2. Singularities and performance indices 124

6.2.1. Singularity analysis of PWs 126

6.2.2. Kinetostatic performances 131

6.2.3. Conclusion 138

6.3. New perspectives 139

6.4. Bibliography 142

Chapter 7. A Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation System – RehabRoby 145
Duygun EROL BARKANA and Fatih ÖZKUL

7.1. Introduction 145

7.2. Background 146

7.2.1. Robot-assisted rehabilitation systems for upper extremities 146

7.2.2. Controllers of robot-assisted rehabilitation systems for upper extremities 148

7.3. Control architecture 149

7.4. RehabRoby 150

7.5. Controllers of RehabRoby 155

7.5.1. Low-level controller 156

7.5.2. High-level controller 157

7.6. Concluding remarks 158

7.7. Acknowledgments 159

7.8. Bibliography 159

Chapter 8. MIMO Actuator Force Control of a Parallel Robot for Ankle Rehabilitation 163
Andrew MCDAID, Yun HO TSOI and Shengquan XIE

8.1. Introduction 163

8.1.1. Rehabilitation robots 164

8.1.2. Ankle sprain rehabilitation 165

8.2. Ankle rehabilitation robot 167

8.2.1. Design requirements 168

8.2.2. Analysis for four-link parallel mechanism 171

8.2.3. System description 175

8.3. Actuator force control 176

8.3.1. Actuator force control by decoupling of inertia matrix 177

8.3.2. Higher order dynamic model of actuator–sensor–environment system 182

8.3.3. State space model of the linearized actuator–sensor–environment system 187

8.3.4. Proposed actuator force controller 195

8.4. Experimental results 198

8.4.1. Stability experiment 198

8.4.2. Experiments for performance evaluation 200

8.5. Concluding remarks 204

8.6. Bibliography 205

Chapter 9. Performance Evaluation of a Probe Climber for Maintaining Wire Rope 209
Akihisa TABATA, Emiko HARA and Yoshio AOKI

9.1. Introduction 209

9.2. Optimize friction drive conditions using a prototype probe climber 210

9.3. Impact of different surface friction materials for friction pulley made on elevation performance 213

9.4. Damage detection test of elevator wire rope 216

9.5. Damage detection through signal processing 218

9.6. Integrity evaluation of wire rope through MFL strength 219

9.7. Damage detection of wire rope using neural networks 224

9.8. Conclusion 224

9.9. Bibliography 225

Chapter 10. Fundamentals on the Use of Shape Memory Alloys in Soft Robotics 227
Matteo CIANCHETTI

10.1. Introduction 228

10.2. Shape memory effect and superelastic effect 230

10.3. SMA thermomechanical behavior 231

10.4. SMA constitutive models 234

10.5. Hints on SMA thermomechanical testing 235

10.6. Design principles 237

10.6.1. Geometrical choice 237

10.6.2. One-way or two-way memory effect 240

10.6.3. Restoring force 240

10.6.4. Anchor points 241

10.7. Fabrication methods 243

10.8. Activation methods and control design 244

10.8.1. On-off activation in open-loop control 246

10.8.2. Modulated activation in closed-loop control 247

10.9. Applications in Soft Robotics 248

10.10. Conclusions 251

10.11. Bibliography 252

Chapter 11. Tuned Modified Transpose Jacobian Control of Robotic Systems 255
S. A. A. MOOSAVIAN and M. KARIMI

11.1. Introduction 256

11.2. TMTJ control law 257

11.2.1. Feedback linearization approach 257

11.2.2. Transpose Jacobian algorithm 259

11.2.3. Modified transpose Jacobian algorithm 259

11.2.4. Tuned modified transpose Jacobian algorithm 261

11.3. Obtained results and discussions 265

11.3.1. Fixed base manipulator 265

11.3.2. Mobile base manipulator 269

11.4. Conclusions 272

11.5. Bibliography 273

Chapter 12. Derivative-Free Nonlinear Kalman Filtering for PMSG Sensorless Control 277
Gerasimos RIGATOS, Pierluigi SIANO and Nikolaos ZERVOS

12.1. Introduction 277

12.2. Dynamic model of the permanent magnet synchronous generator 279

12.3. Lie algebra-based design of nonlinear state estimators 282

12.3.1. Relative degree for nonlinear systems 282

12.3.2. Nonlinear observer design for exactly linearizable systems 283

12.3.3. Linearization of PMSG dynamics using Lie Algebra 287

12.4. Differential flatness for nonlinear dynamical systems 288

12.4.1. Definition of differentially flat systems 288

12.4.2. Classes of differentially flat systems 291

12.4.3. Differential flatness and transformation into the canonical form 292

12.5. Differential flatness of the PMSG 293

12.6. Robust state estimation-based control of the PMSG 296

12.6.1. Unknown input observers 296

12.6.2. Perturbation observer 296

12.6.3. Extended state observer 297

12.7. Estimation of PMSG disturbance input with Kalman filtering 298

12.7.1. State estimation with the derivative-free nonlinear Kalman filter 298

12.7.2. Kalman filter-based estimation of disturbances 299

12.8. Simulation experiments 302

12.9. Conclusions 307

12.10. Bibliography 308

Chapter 13. Construction and Control of Parallel Robots 313
Moharam HABIBNEJAD KORAYEM, Soleiman MANTEGHI and Hami TOURAJIZADEH

13.1. Introduction 313

13.2. A parallel robot mechanism 315

13.2.1. Mechanical structure 316

13.2.2. Modeling and Formulation 319

13.3. Actuators 324

13.3.1. Motor 324

13.3.2. Cables 327

13.4. Sensors 328

13.4.1. Motor speed sensor 328

13.4.2. Force sensor 330

13.4.3. Position sensor 334

13.5. Data transfer protocol 342

13.6. Graphical user interface (GUI) 347

13.6.1. Simulator and virtual laboratory 347

13.6.2. Hardware control 352

13.7. Result and verifications 357

13.8. Conclusion 362

13.9. Bibliography 364

Chapter 14. A Localization System for Mobile Robot Using Scanning Laser and Ultrasonic Measurement 369
Kai LIU, Hongbo LI and Zengqi SUN

14.1. Introduction 369

14.2. System configuration 371

14.3. Implementation 373

14.3.1. Dead reckoning system 373

14.3.2. Scanning laser and ultrasonic positioning system 375

14.4. Experimental results 377

14.5. Conclusion 382

14.6. Acknowledgments 383

14.7. Bibliography 383

Chapter 15. Building of Open-Structure Wheel-Based Mobile Robotic Platform 385
Aleksandar RODI? and Ivan STOJKOVI?

15.1. Introduction 385

15.2. State of the art 386

15.3. Configuring of the experimental system 389

15.3.1. Wheel-based mobile robot 390

15.3.2. System for localization and obstacle detection 390

15.3.3. Architecture of the on-board controller 391

15.4. Modeling and simulation of the system 394

15.4.1. Kinematical model 395

15.4.2. Model of robot dynamics 397

15.5. Motion planning and control 403

15.5.1. Motion planning 403

15.5.2. Motion control 406

15.6. Simulation and experimental testing 409

15.6.1. Case studies 411

15.7. Concluding remarks 416

15.8. Acknowledgments 417

15.9. Bibliography 417

15.10. Appendix 421

Chapter 16. Design and Physical Implementation of Holonomous Mobile Robot – Holbos 423
Jasmin VELAGIC, Admir KAKNJO, Faruk DAUTOVIC, Muhidin HUJDUR and Nedim OSMIC

16.1. Introduction 423

16.2. Locomotion of holonomous mobile robot 424

16.2.1. Kinematic model of robot 426

16.3. Mechanical design 430

16.4. Electrical design 431

16.4.1. Hardware components and software implementation 431

16.5. Results 444

16.6. Conclusion 447

16.7. Bibliography 448

Chapter 17. Advanced Artificial Vision and Mobile Devices for New Applications in Learning, Entertainment and Cultural Heritage Domains 451
Gian Luca FORESTI, Niki MARTINEL, Christian MICHELONI and MARCO VERNIER

17.1. Introduction 451

17.2. Chapter contributions 455

17.3. Mobile devices for education purposes 456

17.3.1. Mobile learning for education 457

17.3.2. Mobile learning for museums and galleries 459

17.3.3. Mobile learning for workplace, professional development and training 460

17.4. Image processing supports HCI in museum application 461

17.4.1. System description 463

17.4.2. Boundary detector 463

17.4.3. Signature computation 464

17.4.4. Signature matching 466

17.4.5. Homography estimation 467

17.4.6. Human device interface 467

17.4.7. Experimental results 468

17.5. Back to the Future: a 3D image gallery 471

17.5.1. System description 473

17.5.2. Testing and evaluations 475

17.6. Conclusions and future works 477

17.7. Bibliography 477

Chapter 18. Application of Stereo Vision and ARM Processor for Motion Control 483
Moharam HABIBNEJAD KORAYEM, Michal IRANI and Saeed RAFEE NEKOO

18.1. Introduction 483

18.2. Stereo vision 486

18.3. Triangulation 487

18.4. End-effector orientation 490

18.5. Experimental setup and results 492

18.6. Summary 497

18.7. Bibliography 498

Chapter 19. Mechatronics as Science and Engineering – or Both 501
Balan PILLAI and Vesa SALMINEN

19.1. Introduction 501

19.2. Theories and methods of design, planning and manufacturing 504

19.3. Complexity versus complicatedness 506

19.4. Benefits of fast product developments 513

19.5. Nature of product development process 516

19.6. Planning the timetable of a product design project 518

19.7. Designing the product concept 520

19.8. Enhancing conceptual design 520

19.9. Interaction between the parts of the machine 523

19.10. Effect of the strength of interaction between product parts and development speed 524

19.11. Definition of product and service 527

19.12. The case studies 529

19.13. Networking systems and learning mechanism 531

19.14. Model-based methodology: an implemented case 536

19.15. Conclusions 540

19.16. Bibliography 541

Chapter 20. A Mechatronic Platform for Robotic Educational Activities 543
Ioannis KOSTAVELIS, Evangelos BOUKAS, Lazaros NALPANTIDIS and Antonios GASTERATOS

20.1. Introduction 543

20.2. System overview 545

20.2.1. Architectural design 546

20.2.2. Subsystem equipment 547

20.2.3. Robot montage 553

20.3. Educational activities 554

20.3.1. 3D reconstruction 554

20.3.2. Visual odometry 556

20.3.3. Visual SLAM 558

20.3.4. Human tracking using RGB-D sensor 558

20.3.5. Hardware acceleration 559

20.3.6. Sensor fusion algorithms 560

20.3.7. User interfaces 560

20.4. Experiences from educational activities 561

20.5. Conclusions 565

20.6. Acknowledgments 565

20.7. Bibliography 566

Chapter 21. The Importance of Practical Activities in the Formation of Mechatronic Engineers 569
João Carlos M. CARVALHO and Vera Lúcia D.S. FRANCO

21.1. Introduction 569

21.2. Curricular and extracurricular practical activities . 575

21.2.1. Practical laboratory activities 576

21.2.2. Monitoring 577

21.2.3. Research initiation activities 577

21.2.4. Participation in Junior Companies 577

21.2.5. Academic mobility 578

21.2.6. Participation in competition teams 579

21.2.7. Participation in student directories 579

21.2.8. Participation and organization of events 580

21.3. Undergraduate course of Mechatronics Engineering at the Federal University of Uberlândia/Brazil 580

21.3.1. Practices activities of laboratory 581

21.3.2. Monitoring 583

21.3.3. Research initiation activities 583

21.3.4. Participation in Junior Companies 584

21.3.5. Academic mobility 584

21.3.6. Participation in competition teams 585

21.3.7. Participation in student directories 587

21.3.8. Participation and organization of events 587

21.3.9. Other activities 587

21.4. Discussions 588

21.5. Conclusions 590

21.6. Bibliography 591

List of Authors 593

Index 599

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