International Assessment of Research and Development in Catalysis by Nanostructured Materials

International Assessment of Research and Development in Catalysis by Nanostructured Materials

by Robert Davis
     
 

ISBN-10: 1848166893

ISBN-13: 9781848166899

Pub. Date: 02/14/2011

Publisher: Imperial College Press

Catalyst technologies account for over US$1 trillion of revenue in the US economy alone. Their applications range from medicines and alternative energy fuel cell technologies to the development of new and innovative clothing fibers. In this book, a World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC) panel of eight experts in the field assesses the current state of research

Overview

Catalyst technologies account for over US$1 trillion of revenue in the US economy alone. Their applications range from medicines and alternative energy fuel cell technologies to the development of new and innovative clothing fibers. In this book, a World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC) panel of eight experts in the field assesses the current state of research and development in catalysis by nanostructured materials, its sources of funding, and discusses the state of the field with respect to productivity and leadership in various nations around the world. In addition to showing the numerous and highly advantageous practical applications of the field, the panel concludes that Western Europe is currently the most productive region, followed closely by the United States. Still, the research and development output of the People's Republic of China has recently surpassed that of Japan and is now poised to surpass that of the US as well.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781848166899
Publisher:
Imperial College Press
Publication date:
02/14/2011
Pages:
302
Product dimensions:
6.20(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

Foreword xiii

Abstract xv

Executive Summary xvii

1 Overview of Catalysis by Nanostructured Materials Robert J. Davis

1.1 Introduction to the Study 1

1.2 Approach and Methodologies 5

1.3 Report Structure 8

1.3.1 Bibliometric analysis 8

1.4 Investment Models and Trends 12

1.4.1 The United States 12

1.4.2 Asia 13

1.4.3 Western Europe 15

1.4.4 Summary 18

1.5 General Observations 20

1.6 Technical Themes of the Study 22

1.7 Conclusions 23

References 24

2 Synthesis of Nanostructured Catalysts Raul F. Lobo

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Rhenium Clusters in Zeolite ZSM-5 28

2.3 Novel Propene Partial Oxidation Catalysts 30

2.4 Mesoporosity Designed into Microporous Catalysts 31

2.4.1 Micro-mesoporous zeolites by design of organic-inorganic surfactants 32

2.4.2 Micro-mesoporous zeolites from carbon templates 34

2.4.3 Micro-mesoporous catalysts by assembly of nanoparticles 35

2.5 Synthesis of Extra-Large-Pore Zeolite ITQ-33 36

2.6 Heteropolyanions as Precursors for Desulfurization Catalysts 39

2.7 Final Remarks 40

References 40

3 Spectroscopic Characterization of Nanostructured Catalysts Jeffrey T. Miller

3.1 Background 43

3.2 Laboratory Characterization Methods 44

3.2.1 Overview 44

3.2.2 New spectroscopic capabilities and adaptations to standard laboratory instruments 45

3.3 Synchrotron Methods 52

3.3.1 Overview 52

3.3.2 Scattering techniques 53

3.3.3 Millibar XPS at BESSY synchrotron (Germany) 58

3.4 Conclusions 60

References 61

4 Electron and Tunneling Microscopy of Nanostructured Catalysts Renu Sharma

4.1 Introduction 65

4.1.1 Overview of high resolution characterization techniques 66

4.2 General Characterization of Catalyst Particles 70

4.3 Nanostructure Characterization Under Working Conditions 74

4.3.1 Effect of environment on surface structure and reactivity 75

4.4 Future Trends 85

4.5 Summary 87

References 87

5 Theory and Simulation in Catalysis Matthew Neurock

5.1 Introduction 91

5.2 Computational Catalysis: Where Are We Today? 94

5.3 Methods and Their Applications 94

5.3.1 Electronic structure methods 94

5.3.2 Atomic and molecular simulations 98

5.3.3 Dynamics 99

5.3.4 Kinetics 100

5.4 Snapshot of the Efforts in Europe and Asia 101

5.4.1 Europe 101

5.4.2 Asia 106

5.4.3 Comparison of Europe, Asia, and the United States 107

5.5 Universal Trends 110

5.5.1 The good news 110

5.5.2 The not-so-good news 112

5.6 Examples of Applications of Theory and Simulation 114

5.6.1 Connecting theory and spectroscopy 114

5.6.2 Modeling more realistic reaction environments 121

5.6.3 Applications to energy 129

5.6.4 Simulating catalytic performance 131

5.6.5 Design in heterogeneous catalysis 135

5.6.6 From theory to synthesis 138

5.7 Summary and Future Directions 140

References 143

6 Applications: Energy from Fossil Resources Levi Thompson

6.1 Introduction 151

6.2 Production of Liquid Fuels 153

6.2.1 Catalysts for petroleum refining 153

6.2.2 Catalysts for syngas conversion 158

6.3 Production of Hydrogen 160

6.3.1 University of Udine, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy) 163

6.3.2 University of Trieste, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy) 164

6.3.3 Institute di Chimica dei Composti OrganoMetallici (Italy) 164

6.3.4 Tokyo Metropolitan University Department of Applied Chemistry 165

6.3.5 Tsinghua University (China) 165

6.3.6 Tianjin University (China) 166

6.4 Fuel Cell Research 167

6.4.1 University of Trieste, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy) 167

6.4.2 Tsinghua University (China) 168

6.4.3 Tianjin University (China) 168

6.5 Environmental Catalysis 169

6.6 Three-Way Catalysis 170

6.6.1 Toyota Motor Corporation, Higashi-Fuji Technical Center 170

6.6.2 NOx selective catalytic reduction 170

6.6.3 CO2 reduction 172

6.7 Summary 175

6.7.1 Project highlights: Energy-centered catalysis R&D 175

6.7.2 Regional characteristics of catalysis R&D for improving fossil energy production 176

References 176

7 Applications: Chemicals from Fossil Resources Vadim V. Guliants

7.1 Introduction 185

7.2 Alkylation 186

7.3 Dehydrogenation and Hydrogenation 195

7.3.1 Dehydrogenation 196

7.3.2 Hydrogenation 204

7.4 Selective Oxidation 212

7.4.1 Selective oxidation catalysis by nanosized gold and other noble metals 213

7.4.2 Selective oxidation of lower alkanes by bulk mixed metal oxides 218

7.4.3 Catalytic behavior of Mo-V-(Te-Nb)-O Ml phase catalysts 220

7.4.4 On cooperation of M1 and M2 phases in propane ammoxidation 221

7.4.5 Surface termination of M1 phase 222

7.5 Future Trends 224

References 229

8 Applications: Renewable Fuels and Chemicals George Huber

8.1 Introduction 239

8.2 Key Observations 240

8.3 Biomass Conversion 241

8.3.1 Biomass feedstocks 241

8.3.2 Liquid fuels from biomass 244

8.3.3 Biomass gasification and syngas conversion 245

8.3.4 Fast pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading 247

8.3.5 Liquid-phase/aqueous-phase catalytic processing 251

8.3.6 Vegetable oil conversion 252

8.3.7 Chemicals from biomass 254

8.3.8 Bibliometric analysis of catalysis and biofuels 255

8.4 Photocatalytic Water Splitting 256

8.5 Conclusions 258

References 259

Appendix 1 Panelists' Biographies 263

Appendix 2 Bibliometric Analysis of Catalysis Research, 1996-2005 273

Appendix 3 Glossary 291

Index 299

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