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“A smart, well thought-out book. The volume is well organized and it is full of great examples and unique cases. Moreover, it offers a perspective on International Business that is not at all ethnocentric.” —Roberto Ragozzino, University of Illinois at Chicago

"Offering an integrated, 'reader friendly', practical, and 'real-world' approach to the analysis and conduct of doing business in a global market. International Business is an ideal classroom text book for college courses and a welcome, core addition to Business School and Academic Library Reference Collections." —THE MIDWEST BOOK REVIEW

A highly integrated, real-world approach to international business

Written by globally renowned scholars in the field of international business, International Business, Second Edition takes a truly global perspective that goes beyond the United States, presenting the latest concepts, tools and events, and adopting integrated and problem-solving approaches in every chapter. The book highlights the role of culture, politics and legal issues in international business and illustrates how they influence institutions, structures and processes that permeate all functions of business.

New and Enhanced Features of the Second Edition Include:

  • Incorporates broader coverage of international business: New sections have been added to include international entrepreneurship, careers in international business, corruption, and e-commerce.
  • Offers an international perspective: An assortment of case studies can be used to discuss issues among small and large international and multinational firms in countries such as Asia, Europe, and developing countries
  • Takes an integrative approach: Within each chapter connections are made between various cultural, political, and legal functions and issues related to international business.
  • Provides problem-solving strategies: A practical step-by-step guide will help students develop problem solving skills for common international business challenges.
  • Includes Instructor’s Resources on CD: Available by contacting SAGE.

Learn more at

Intended Audience: Suitable for both undergraduate and graduate courses in International Business, International Management, Global Business, Global Business Strategy, Multinational Management, and Foreign Direct Investment. This book will broaden student’s understanding and develop problem-solving skills in the field of International Business.

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Editorial Reviews

The Midwest Book Review
"Offering an integrated, 'reader friendly', practical, and 'real-world' approach to the analysis and conduct of doing business in a global market. International Business is an ideal classroom text book for college courses and a welcome, core addition to Business School and Academic Libarary Reference Collections. " -THE MIDWEST BOOK REVIEW— Able Greenspan
The Midwest Book Review - Able Greenspan
"Offering an integrated, 'reader friendly', practical, and 'real-world' approach to the analysis and conduct of doing business in a global market. International Business is an ideal classroom text book for college courses and a welcome, core addition to Business School and Academic Libarary Reference Collections." —THE MIDWEST BOOK REVIEW
From the Publisher
"This book has an evocative blend of the "big picture" of international business in the age of globalization, and all the key and more specific issues in IB today. These seasoned scholars' varied cases are not just great fun, but also provide great coverage, from the traditional IB topics to newer ones. The authors' practical vision is refreshing, eloquently written, and spot on!" - Mary Ann Von Glinow, Knight Ridder Eminent Scholar Chair in International Management, Florida International University, USA; Former AIB and AOM President

"International Business offers readers an extensive background and useful insights into the basics and practice of IB. Up-to-date, practical examples present wonderful opportunities to learn from the experiences of firms and managers operating in the global environment. " - Marjorie A. Lyles, Chancellor's Professor and OneAmerica Chaired Professor in Business Administration, Indiana University, USA

"Shenkar, Luo and Chi offer excellent, comprehensive coverage of international business in the new global environment. Written by three outstanding researchers, it is practically focused, firmly grounded in cutting edge research, and up-to-date with great student and instructor support." - Peter J. Buckley, Professor and Director of Business Confucius Institute, University of Leeds, UK

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781412949064
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • Publication date: 12/11/2007
  • Edition description: Second Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 616
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Oded Shenkar is Ford Motor Company Chair in Global Business Management and Professor of Management and Human Resources at the Fisher College of Business, the Ohio State University; and has taught in China, Japan, Israel and the UK. He holds B.A. and MSc.soc degrees in East Asian Studies and Sociology from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and M.Phil and PhD degrees from Columbia University. In addition to strategic alliances, his main areas of interest are cross-border investment and the impact of culture on international business. He has published numerous articles in the Academy of Management Review, the Academy of Management Journal, Human Relations, the Journal of International Business Studies, Management Science, Organization Science, Organization Studies and the Journal of Applied Psychology, among others, and is a member of the editorial board of the Academy of Management Executive, Human Relations, the International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, the Journal of International Business Studies, Management International Review and Organization Studies. His prior books include Organization and Management in China 1979-1990 (M.E. Sharpe), International Business in China (Routledge, with L. Kelley), Global Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Prentice-Hall), The Handbook of International Management Research (Blackwell, 1st ed.; University of Michigan Press, 2nd ed., with B.J. Punnett), International Business (Wiley, with Y. Luo) and The Chinese Century (Wharton Publishing). Professor Shenkar serves as an advisor to multinational firms, government and international agencies. He is a Fellow of the Academy of International Business and a member of the Conference Board Council of Integration Executives.
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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 - International Business in an Age of Globalization
OPENING CASE The Coca-Cola Company
An Age of Globalization
What Does Globalization Mean for You?
The Face of Globalization
Who Benefits from Globalization?
Globalization and the Monopoly Power of Large Corporations
Globalization and the Environment
Globalization: The Social Balance
Globalization and International Business
What is International Business?
International Versus Domestic Business
Why Do Firms Expand Internationally?
The Structure of This Book
PART ONE Concepts and Theories in International Business
CHAPTER 2 - International Trade Theory and Application
International Trade Theories
The Mercantilist Doctrine
Absolute Advantage Theory
Comparative Advantage Theory
Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem
The Leontief Paradox
Human Skills and Technology-Based Views
The Product Life-Cycle Model
Linder’s Income-Preference Similarity Theory
The New Trade Theory
INDUSTRY BOX The Global Automotive Industry
Theory Assessment
International Trade Patterns
International Trade Volume and Growth
Service Trade
Trade Measurement
Major Exporters and Importers
U.S. Trade Partners
Trade Balance
Opposition to Free Trade
The Sovereignty Argument
The Lowest-Common-Denominator Argument
Trade Reciprocity
Types of Trade Barriers
Tariff Barriers
COUNTRY BOX The United States and Steel Imports
Export Controls
Dumping and Anti-Dumping
Non-Tariff Barriers
Administrative Barriers
Production Subsidies
Emergency Import Protection
Foreign Sales Corporations
Embargoes and Boycotts
Technical Standards
Barriers to Service Trade
CHAPTER 3 - Foreign Direct Investment Theory and Application
OPENING CASE “The McDonald’s of Thai Food”
Definition and Types of Foreign Direct Investment
FDI Versus Foreign Portfolio Investment
Types of FDI
Entry Mode
The Strategic Logic Behind FDI
How MNEs Benefit from Foreign Direct Investment
Enhancing Efficiency from Location Advantages
Improving Performance from Structural Discrepancies
Increasing Return from Ownership Advantages
Ensuring Growth from Organizational Learning
The Impact of FDI on the Host (Recipient) Country
FDI Impact on Domestic Enterprises
Current Theories on FDI
Product Life-Cycle Theory
Monopolistic Advantage Theory
Internalization Theory
The Eclectic Paradigm
New Perspectives on FDI
The Dynamic Capability Perspective
The Evolutionary Perspective
INDUSTRY BOX MNEs and FDI in the Automotive Industry
The Integration-Responsiveness Perspective
Patterns of FDI
FDI Outflows
FDI Inflows
Inflows into Developing Countries
The Transnationality of Host Economies
FDI via Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As)
Intra-Regional Patterns
The Investment Environment
FDI Decision Criteria
The Lost Continent: FDI in Africa
CHAPTER 4 - The Multinational Enterprise
OPENING CASE Johnson & Johnson
What Is a Multinational Enterprise?
The Degree of Internationalization
History of the MNE
The World’s Largest MNEs
The Industry Composition of MNEs
The Growth of Service MNEs
The Image of the MNE
The MNE in the Public Eye
The Borderless Corporation: Myth or Reality?
The Competitive Advantage of the MNE
MNE’s Capabilities
The MNE from Emerging/Developing Economies (DMNE)
The Largest Developing Country MNEs
Obstacles Facing MNEs from Developing Economies
DMNE Advantage in Global Markets
Typical Features of DMNEs
COUNTRY BOX Asian MNEs in China
The Small and Medium-Size International Enterprise (SMIE)
What is an SMIE?
Obstacles to SMIE Internationalization
SMIE Advantages in Internationalization
SMIE Internationalization Features
INDUSTRY BOX Investment Banking and the SMIE
Born International
PART TWO Endowments and Environments of International Business
CHAPTER 5 - Country Competitiveness
OPENING CASE Singapore’s Competitive Advantage in the Hard Disk Drive Industry
Defining Country Competitiveness
Country Competitiveness and MNEs
Country-Level Determinants
Science, Education, and Innovation
Macroeconomic Soundness
Industry-Level Determinants
INDUSTRY BOX E-Commerce as an Element of Country Competitiveness
Firm-Level Determinants
Individual-Level Determinants
COUNTRY BOX Italy: Can Berlusconi Renew the Nation?
Government Role
CHAPTER 6 - The Cultural Environment
OPENING CASE The Goodyear-Sumitomo Alliance
What Is Culture?
Culture and International Business
Culture Does Not Explain Everything
Correlates of Culture
National Culture Classifications
Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture
COUNTRY BOX Korea—Power Distance in the Cockpit
Schwartz’s Classification
Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner’s Classification
Other Dimensions of Culture
National Culture Clustering
Corporate Culture
Classifications of Corporate Culture
Other Layers of Culture
Key Cultural Issues
Cultural Etiquette
Cultural Stereotypes
Cultural Distance
Convergence and Divergence
INDUSTRY BOX Cultural Industries
CHAPTER 7 - The Political and Legal Environment
OPENING CASE Burger King Israel
The Political Environment
The Institutional Context
The MNE-Government Relationship
The MNE Relationship with the Host Government
The MNE and its Home Government
Coalition Building and Influence Tactics
INDUSTRY BOX EU Retaliation Against U.S. Steel Tariffs
Political Risk
The Measurement of Political Risk
Regional-Level Politics
Micro-Region Political Processes
The Legal Environment
The Institutional Context
COUNTRY BOX Indonesia: Manufacturers Life in Indonesia
Legal Jurisdiction
Regional Jurisdiction
National Jurisdiction
Legal Issues of Interest to the MNE
Rule of Origin Laws
Competition Laws
Marketing and Distribution Laws
Product Liability Laws
Patent Laws
PART THREE Global Markets and Institutions
CHAPTER 8 - International Economic Integration and Institutions
OPENING CASE M’s Response to European Market Integration
International Economic Integration
Global-Level Cooperation Among Nations
The World Trade Organization (WTO)
COUNTRY BOX China: China Joins the WTO
The International Monetary Fund (IMF)
The World Bank Group
Other International Economic Organizations
Regional-Level Cooperation Among Nations
Postwar Regional Integration
North America: The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Europe: The European Union (EU)
Asia Pacific
Latin America
Africa and the Middle East
Regionalization vs. Globalization
Commodity-Level Cooperation Among Nations
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
The Multifiber Arrangement (MFA)
Strategic Responses of MNEs
INDUSTRY BOX Siemens Sharpens its Focus to Respond to the Single Market
CHAPTER 9 - The International Monetary System and Financial Markets
OPENING CASE The Mexican Crisis During and
History of the International Monetary System
The Gold Standard Period (–)
The Inter-War Years and World War II (–)
The Bretton Woods System (–)
The Post-Bretton Woods System (–Present)
Contemporary Exchange Rate Systems
Fixed-Rate System
Crawling Peg System
COUNTRY BOX Hong Kong: Can the Hong Kong Dollar Retain the Fixed Peg to the U.S. Dollar?
Target-Zone Arrangement
Managed Float System
Independent Float System
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Floating System
Determination of Foreign Exchange Rates
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
Interest Rate Parity (IRP)
Implications for MNEs: Foreign Exchange Forecasting
The Balance of Payments
Current Account
Capital Account
Official Reserves Account
International Foreign Exchange Market
Landscape of the International Foreign Exchange Market
Market Participants and Functions
Foreign Exchange Rate Quotations
Transaction Forms
Foreign Exchange Arbitrage
Black Market and Parallel Market
International Capital Markets
International Money Markets
International Bond Markets
INDUSTRY BOX Foreign Companies Borrow in Cheap U.S. Bond Market
International Stock Markets
International Loan Markets
The Asian Financial Crisis
The Financial Perspective
The Political/Institutional Perspective
The Managerial Perspective
PART FOUR International Business Strategies
CHAPTER 10 - International Entry Strategies
OPENING CASE DuPont’s Entry Strategies into China
International Location Selection (Where)
Locational Determinants
COUNTRY BOX Federal Express Selects Subic Bay
Decision Framework
Timing of Entry (When)
Early-Mover Advantages
Early-Mover Disadvantages
Decision Framework
Entry Mode Selection (How)
Entry Mode Choices
Trade-Related Entry Modes
Transfer-Related Entry Modes
FDI-Related Entry Modes
Decision Framework
Greenfield Investment, Acquisition, and Merger
The Evolutionary Entry Path
INDUSTRY BOX Unilever’s Acquisitions in Latin America
CHAPTER 11 - Organizing and Structuring Global Operations
International Strategy and Organization Design
Global Integration and Local Responsiveness
MNE Strategy and Design
Subsidiary Roles and Imperatives
MNE Organizational Structures
The National Subsidiary Structure
The International Division Structure
The Global Functional Structure
The Global Geographic Structure
COUNTRY BOX Regional Headquarters in Asia: The EU Versus Asia
The Global Product Structure
INDUSTRY BOX Global Product Design at the Ford Motor Company
The Global Matrix Structure
The Mixed Structure
Integrating Global Operations
Tools for Global Integration
The Transition Challenge
The Role of Corporate Headquarters
CHAPTER 12 - Building and Managing Global Strategic Alliances (GSAs)
OPENING CASE Motorola and Siemens AG in Germany
Defining Global Strategic Alliances
Types of GSAs
Rationales for Building GSAs
Challenges Facing GSAs
Building Global Strategic Alliances
Selecting a Local Partner
Negotiating Alliance Contracts
Structuring Global Strategic Alliances
COUNTRY BOX Spain: Fujitsu in Spain: Barriers to Alliance Management
Managing Global Strategic Alliances
Managing Inter-Partner Learning
Exercising Managerial Control
Heightening Cooperation
Thinking Ahead of Exit
INDUSTRY BOX Experience of Building GSAs in Corning and Emerson
CHAPTER 13 - Managing Global Research and Development (R&D)
OPENING CASE Managing Global R&D at Nestlé
Why Globalize R&D?
Benefits and Challenges of Global R&D
COUNTRY BOX India: R&D Centers of Global Companies in India
Designing and Structuring Global R&D
Type of Foreign R&D Units
Selecting R&D Location
INDUSTRY BOX Ford Locates its R&D Center in Aachen, Germany
Structuring Global R&D Activities
Managing and Operating Global R&D
Human Resource Management
Autonomy Setting
Global Planning
Communication Improvement
Technology Transfer Across Borders
PART FIVE Functional IB Areas
CHAPTER 14 - Financial Management for Global Operations
OPENING CASE Minimizing Exposure in RTZ
Why Learn Financial Management?
International Trade Finance
International Trade Payment
Export Financing
Financing for Global Business
Intercompany Financing
Equity Financing
Debt Financing
Local Currency Financing
Financing Decisions
Managing Foreign Exchange Risk and Exposure
Foreign Exchange Risk and Exposure
Transaction and Economic Exposures
Managing Transaction Exposure
Managing Economic (Operating) Exposure
INDUSTRY BOX Netting in Philips
Global Coordination of Exposure Management
COUNTRY BOX Latin America: Eight Hedging Techniques in Latin America
Working Capital Management
Cash Management
Foreign Receivable Management
CHAPTER 15 - International Accounting for Global Operations
OPENING CASE Compaq Won the Case
Country Differences in Accounting
Why Accounting Systems Differ Among Countries
INDUSTRY BOX Accounting Diversity in Volvo
National Accounting Zones
International Accounting Harmonization
International Accounting Standards
COUNTRY BOX Australia: Accounting in Australia
Foreign Currency Translation
Commonly Used Translation Methods
Harmonization of Translation Methods
International Accounting Information Systems
Transfer Pricing and Taxation Strategies
Why Transfer Pricing?
Transfer Pricing Techniques
Transfer Pricing Regulations and Penalties
Tax Havens, Treaties, and Strategies
Tax Havens
Tax Treaties
Other Tax Strategies for MNEs
CHAPTER 16 - Global Marketing and Supply Chain
OPENING CASE Domino’s Pizza
The International Marketing Challenge
Assessing Market Potential
Globalization and Localization in International Markets
Globalization Forces
Localization Forces
Product Adaptation
COUNTRY BOX The Kimchi Doctors
Country-of-Origin Effect
Channel Decisions
Marketing Alliances
The Global Supply Chain
The Globalization of Supply Chains
Global Sourcing
Customizing the Supply Chain
Transportation Modes
INDUSTRY BOX Global Logistics at Wal-Mart
Crossing National Borders
CHAPTER 17 - Global Human Resource Management
Strategic IHRM
Staffing the MNE
The Globalization of Boards of Directors
INDUSTRY BOX The Globalization of the Board of Directors in Different Industries
COUNTRY BOX The Globalization of Boards Across the Globe
Staffing the MNE Ranks
Country-Specific Issues
The Expatriate Workforce
Types and Distribution of Expatriates
Using Expatriates: Pros and Cons
Expatriate Failure
Expatriate Selection
Preparing for Foreign Assignment
Culture and Compensation
HRM in International Affiliates
Human Resource Problems in Foreign Affiliates
Preparing for an Assignment in a Foreign Affiliate
PART SIX Emerging Issues in International Business
CHAPTER 18 - Global Internet and E-Commerce
OPENING CASE Otis Elevator
Internet and E-Commerce Diffusion
Comparative Internet Demographics
E-Commerce around the Globe
COUNTRY BOX Nepal: The Internet in Nepal
Information Security
E-Business Climate
National E-Readiness
Cross-Border E-Commerce
The Impact of E-Commerce on International Business
Global E-Commerce Challenges
Standardization Forces
Localization Challenges
Taxation Issues
INDUSTRY BOX Taxing Digitized Products
CHAPTER 19 - Ethics and Corruption in the Global Marketplace
Ethics and Corruption in International Business
Definition and Magnitude of Corruption
The Origins of Corruption
Drawbacks of Corruption
Corruption Rankings
Types of Corrupt Practices
Money Laundering
Piracy and Counterfeiting
INDUSTRY BOX Piracy in the Global Software Industry
Bribe Paying
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA)
The Globalization of the Fight Against Corruption
COUNTRY BOX China: Counterfeiting and Piracy in China
CHAPTER 20 International Entrepreneurship
OPENING CASE Japanese Entrepreneurs in Hawaii
Defining International Entrepreneurship
Comparative Entrepreneurship
Culture and Entrepreneurship
Funding New Ventures
Cross-Border Entrepreneurship
Internationalizing the Born Global Enterprise
INDUSTRY AND COUNTRY BOXES Israeli Start-Ups in the Global Market Place
Chapter Summary
APPENDIX The OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises
Organization Index
Name Index
Subject Index
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