International Economic Interdependence, Patterns of Trade Balances and Economic Policy Coordination

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Product Details

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Objectives of the report 1
1.3 Scope of the report 2
1.4 Structure of the report 2
2 Exemption from Regulatory Control Applied to Recycle and Reuse 3
2.1 Principles for exemption 3
2.2 Recycle or reuse as a practice 4
3 Recycle and Reuse as Options 5
3.1 Potential quantities involved in recycle and reuse 5
3.2 General approach to recycle or reuse 9
3.3 Specific aspects relevant to exemption 9
3.3.1 Resource saving 10
3.3.2 Economic factors 10
3.3.3 Measurement and monitoring aspects 11
4 Methods for Dose Assessment 11
4.1 External radiation exposure 12
4.2 Inhalation exposure 12
4.3 Ingestion exposure 13
5 Recycle Scenarios and Related Assumptions 14
5.1 General assumptions 15
5.2 Presentation and discussion of specific scenarios and assumptions 17
5.2.1 Scenarios for the recycle of steel 17
5.2.2 Scenarios for aluminium recycle 25
5.2.3 Scenarios for concrete recycle 26
5.2.4 Scenarios for reuse of concrete buildings 28
5.2.5 Scenarios for the reuse of equipment or tools 29
5.2.6 Special considerations 30
6 Derived Exemption Levels 31
6.1 Alpha emitters 45
6.2 Photon emitters with large external dose conversion factors 46
6.3 No-photon emission with moderate internal dose conversion factors 46
6.4 Other low dose radionuclides 47
7 Additional Considerations and Discussion of the Results 47
7.1 Mixtures of radionuclides 47
7.2 Uncertainty in the results 48
7.3 Sensitivity studies 49
7.3.1 Partitioning of activity 49
7.3.2 Dilution by non-active steel 51
7.3.3 Dependency on the total quantity recycled 54
7.3.4 Combined sensitivity results 58
7.4 Other considerations 58
7.4.1 Other materials 64
7.4.2 Additional radionuclides 65
7.4.3 Surface activity considerations 66
7.4.4 Buildup of activity in recycled materials 67
7.4.5 Collective dose considerations 67
7.4.6 Protection of sensitive industries 68
7.5 Relationship between exemption for recycle and disposal 68
7.6 Compatibility with other regulations 69
8 Summary 69
References 71
Appendix I. Methods for Estimating Individual and Collective Doses from External Exposures to Radionuclides During Recycle and Reuse 75
Appendix II. Methods for Estimating Individual and Collective Doses from Inhalation and Ingestion of Radioactive Materials 97
Appendix III. Estimated Individual and Collective Effective Dose Equivalents by Scenario and Pathway for Concentrations of 1 Bq/g of Each Reference Radionuclide for the Recycle and Reuse of Contaminated Materials 109
Contributors to Drafting and Review 197
Radwass Publication Plan 201
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