International Economics / Edition 2

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Combining classic international economics with straight-from-the-headlines immediacy, Feenstra and Taylor’s text seamlessly integrates the subject’s established core content with new topic areas and new ideas that have emerged from recent empirical studies. Like no other textbook it brings cutting-edge theory, evidence, and policy analysis to the field of international economics.

International Economics is available as a complete textbook or in two split volumes: International Trade and International Macroeconomics.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781429231183
  • Publisher: Worth Publishers
  • Publication date: 3/28/2011
  • Edition description: Second Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 1056
  • Product dimensions: 8.20 (w) x 10.10 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Robert C. Feenstra is Professor of Economics at the University of California, Davis. He received his B.A. in 1977 from the University of British Columbia, Canada, and his Ph.D. in economics from MIT in 1981. Feenstra has been teaching international trade at the undergraduate and graduate levels at UC Davis since 1986, where he holds the C. Bryan Cameron Distinguished Chair in International Economics. Feenstra is a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research, where he directs the International Trade and Investment research program. He is the author of Offshoring in the Global Economy and Product Variety and the Gains from Trade (MIT Press, 2010). Feenstra received the Bernhard Harms Prize from the Institute for World Economics, Kiel, Germany, in 2006, and delivered the Ohlin Lectures at the Stockholm School of Economics in 2008. He lives in Davis, California, with his wife Gail, and has two grown children: Heather, who is a genetic counselor; and Evan, who recently graduated from Pitzer College.

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Table of Contents

NOTE: Every chapter has the following end-of-chapter materials:
Summary, Key Terms, Exercises

Part One: Introduction to International Trade
Chapter 1: Trade in the Global Economy
1.1 International Trade

The Basics of World Trade
Map of World Trade
Trade Compared to GDP
Barriers to Trade
1.2 Migration and Foreign Direct Investment
Map of Migration
Map of Foreign Direct Investment
1.3 Conclusions

Part Two: Patterns of International Trade
Chapter 2: Trade and Technology: The Ricardian Model
2.1 Reasons for Trade
2.2 Ricardian Model

The Home Country
The Foreign Country
Application: Comparative Advantage in Apparel, Textiles, and Wheat
2.3 Determining the Pattern of International Trade
International Trade Equilibrium
Solving for Wages Across Countries
Application: Labor Productivity and Wages
2.4 Solving for International Prices
Home Export Supply Curve
Foreign Import Demand Curve
International Trade Equilibrium
Application: The Terms of Trade for Primary Commodities
2.5 Conclusions

Chapter 3: Gains and Losses from Trade in the Specific-Factors Model
3.1 The Specific-Factors Model

The Home Country
The Foreign Country
Overall Gains from Trade
Application: How Large are the Gains from Trade?
3.2 Earnings of Labor
Determination of Wages
Change in Relative Price of Manufactures
Application: Manufacturing and Services in the U.S.: Employment and Wages across Sectors
Application: Trade Adjustment Assistance Programs: Financing the Adjustment Costs of Trade
3.3 Earnings of Capital and Land
Determining the Payments to Capital and Land
Numerical Example
What It All Means
Application: Prices in Agriculture
3.4 Conclusions

Chapter 4: Trade and Resources: The Heckscher-Ohlin Model
4.1 Heckscher-Ohlin Model

Assumptions of the Heckscher-Ohlin Model
Application: Are Factor Intensities the Same Across Countries?
No Trade Equilibrium
Free Trade Equilibrium
Testing the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem: Leontief’s Paradox
4.2 Effect of Trade on Factor Prices
Effect of Trade on the Wage and Rental
Determination of the Real Wage and Real Rental
Changes in the Real Wage and Rental: Numerical Example
Application: Opinions Toward Free Trade
Comparing the Wage and Rental Across Countries
4.3 Extending the Heckscher-Ohlin Model
Many Goods, Factors and Countries
Differing Productivities Across Countries
Extending the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem
Application: Why Did India Import Cotton Textiles?
4.4 Conclusions
Appendix: The "Sign Test" in the Heckscher-Ohlin Model

Chapter 5: Movement of Labor and Capital Between Countries
5.1 Movement of Labor Between Countries

Effect of Immigration in the Short Run: the Specific Factors Model
Application: Immigration to the New World
Application: Immigration to the U.S. and Europe Today
Other Effects of Immigration in the Short Run
Effects of Immigration in the Long Run
Application: The Effects of the Mariel Boat Lift on Industry Output in Miami
Application: Immigration and U.S. Wages, 1990-2004
5.2 The Movement of Capital Between Countries: Foreign Direct Investment
Application: Acquisition Investment into the United States
Greenfield Investment
FDI In the Short Run: the Specific Factors Model
FDI In the Long Run
Application: The Effect of FDI on Rentals and Wages in Singapore
5.3 Gains from Labor and Capital Flows
Gains from Immigration
Application: Gains from Migration
Gains from Foreign Direct Investment
5.4 Conclusions

Part Three: New Explanations for International Trade
Chapter 6: Increasing Returns to Scale and Imperfect Competition
6.1 Basics of Imperfect Competition

Monopoly Equilibrium
Demand with Duopoly
6.2 Trade Under Monopolistic Competition
Equilibrium without Trade
Equilibrium with Free Trade
6.3 Empiricals of Monopolistic Competition and Trade
Gains and Adjustment Costs for Canada
Gains and Adjustment Costs for Mexico
Gains and Adjustment Costs for the United States
Summary of NAFTA
Intra-industry Trade
The Gravity Equation
Application: The Gravity Equation for Canada and the United States
Trade within Canada
6.4 Imperfect Competition with Homogeneous Products: The Case of Dumping
A Model of Product Dumping
Numerical Example of Dumping
Reciprocal Dumping
Numerical Example of Reciprocal Dumping
6.5 Conclusions

Chapter 7: Foreign Outsourcing of Goods and Services
Application: Is Trade Today Different From the Past?
7.1 A Model of Outsourcing
Value Chain of Activities
Changing the Costs of Trade
Application: Change in Relative Wages Across Countries
Change in Relative Wages in the United States
Change in Relative Wages in Mexico
7.2 The Gains from Outsourcing
Simplified Outsourcing Model
Terms of Trade
Application: U.S. Terms of Trade and Service Exports
Application: Impact of Outsourcing on U.S. Productivity
7.3 Outsourcing in Services
The Logic of Service Outsourcing
The Future of U.S. Comparative Advantage
7.4 Conclusions

Part Four: International Trade Policies
Chapter 8: Import Tariffs and Quotas under Perfect Competition
8.1 A Brief History of the World Trade Organization
8.2 The Gains from Trade

Consumer and Producer Surplus
Home Welfare
Home Import Demand Curve
8.3 Import Tariffs in a Small Country
Free Trade in a Small Country
Effect of the Tariff
Why are Tariffs Used?
Application: U.S. Tariffs on Steel
Deadweight Loss due to the Steel Tariff
Response of the European Countries
8.4 Imports Tariffs for a Large Country
Foreign Export Supply
Effect of the Tariff
Application: U.S. Tariffs on Steel Once Again
8.5 Import Quotas
Import Quota in a Small Country
Costs of Import Quotas in the U.S.
Application: China and the Multifibre Arrangement
8.6 Conclusions

Chapter 9: Import Tariffs and Quotas under Imperfect Competition
9.1 Tariffs and Quotas with Home Monopoly

No Trade Equilibrium
Free Trade Equilibrium
Effect of a Home Tariff
Effect of a Home Quota
Application: U.S. Imports of Japanese Automobiles
9.2 Infant Industry Protection
Free Trade Equilibrium
Tariff Equilibrium
Application: Examples of Infant Industry Protection
Protecting the Automobile industry in China
Computers in Brazil
U.S. Tariff on Heavyweight Motorcycles
9.3 Tariffs with Foreign Monopoly
Foreign Monopoly
Application: Import Tariffs on Japanese Trucks
9.4 Policy Response to Dumping
Antidumping Duty
Countervailing Duty
Comparison with Safeguard Tariff
Calculation of Antidumping Duty
Application: Antidumping/ Countervailing Duties versus Safeguard Tariffs
9.5 Conclusions

Chapter 10: Export Subsidies IN Agriculture and High Technology Industries
10.1 WTO Goals on Agricultural Export Subsidies

Agricultural Export Subsidies
Other Matters From the Hong Kong WTO Meeting
10.2 Agricultural Export Subsidies in a Small Home Country
Impact of an Export Subsidy
10. 3 Agricultural Export Subsidies in a Large Home Country Effects of the Subsidy
Application: Who Gains and Who Loses?
10.4 Agricultural Production Subsidies
Effect of a Production Subsidy in a Small Home Country
Effect of a Production Subsidy in a Large Home Country
10.5 High-Technology Export Subsidies
"Strategic" Use of High-Tech Export Subsidies
Effect of at Subsidy to Airbus
Subsidy with Cost Advantage for Boeing
Application: Subsidies to Commercial Aircraft
10.6 Conclusions

Chapter 11: International Agreements: Trade, Labor and the Environment
11.1 International Trade Agreements

The Logic of Multilateral Trade Agreements
Regional Trade Agreements
Trade Creation and Trade Diversion
Numerical Example of Trade Creation and Diversion
Trade Diversion in a Graph
Application: Trade Creation and Diversion for Canada
11.2 International Agreements on Labor Issues
Labor Side Agreement under NAFTA
Other Labor Agreements
11.3 International Agreements on the Environment
Environmental Issues in the GATT and WTO
Does Trade Help or Harm the Environment?
The Tragedy of the Commons
International Agreements on Pollution
Application: The Kyoto Protocol
11.4 Conclusions

Part Five: Introduction to International Macroeconomics
Chapter 12: The Global Macroeconomy
12.1 Foreign Exchange: Of Currencies and Crises
How Exchange Rates Behave
Why Exchange Rates Matter
When Exchange Rates Misbehave
Headlines: Economic Crisis in Argentina
12.2 Globalization of Finance: Of Debts and Deficits
Deficits and Surpluses: The Balance of Payments
Debtors and Creditors: External Wealth
Darlings and Deadbeats: Defaults and Other Risks
12.3 Government and Institutions: Of Policies and Performance
Integration and Capital Controls: The Regulation of International Finance
Independence and Monetary Policy: The Choice of Exchange Rate Regimes
Institutions and Economic Performance: The Quality of Governance
Headlines: The Wealth of Nations
12.4 Conclusions

Part Six: Exchange Rates
Chapter 13: Introduction to Exchange Rates and the ForeigN Exchange Market
13.1 Exchange Rate Essentials
Defining the Exchange Rate
Appreciations and Depreciations
Multilateral Exchange Rates
Example: Using Exchange Rates to Compare Prices in a Common Currency
Headlines: By How Much Has the Dollar Fallen?
13.2 Exchange Rates in Practice
Exchange Rate Regimes: Fixed Versus Floating
Application: Recent Exchange Rate Experiences
Side Bar: Currency Unions and Dollarization
Exchange Rate Regimes of the World
13.3 The Market for Foreign Exchange
The Spot Contract
Transaction Costs
Application: Foreign Exchange Derivatives
Private Actors
Government Intervention
13.4 Arbitrage and Spot Exchange Rates
Cross Rates and Vehicle Currencies
13.5 Arbitrage and Interest Rates
Riskless Arbitrage: Covered Interest Parity
Application: Evidence on Covered Interest Parity
Risky Arbitrage: Uncovered Interest Parity
Side Bar: Assets and Their Attributes
Evidence on Uncovered Interest Parity
Uncovered Interest Parity: A Useful Approximation
13.6 Conclusion

Chapter 14: Exchange Rates I: The Monetary Approach in the Long Run
14.1 Exchange Rates and Prices in the Long Run: Purchasing Power
Parity and Goods
The Law of One Price
Purchasing Power Parity
The Real Exchange Rate
Absolute PPP and the Real Exchange Rate
Absolute PPP, Prices, and the Nominal Exchange Rate
Relative PPP, Inflation, and Exchange Rate
Application: Evidence for PPP in the Long Run and Short Run
How Slow is Convergence to PPP?
Side Bar: Forecasting When the Real Exchange Rate is Undervalued or Overvalued
What Explains Deviations from PPP?
Headlines: The Big Mac Index
14.2 Money, Prices, and Exchange Rates in the Long Run: Money Market Equilibrium in a Simple Model
What is Money?
The Measurement of Money
The Supply of Money
Demand for Money: A Simple Model
Equilibrium in the Money Market
A Simple Monetary Model of Prices
A Simple Monetary Model of the Exchange Rate
Money Growth, Inflation, and Depreciation
14.3 The Monetary Approach: Implications and Evidence
Exchange Rate Forecasts using the Simple Model
Application: Evidence for the Monetary Approach
Application: Hyperinflations of the Twentieth Century
Side Bar: Currency Reform
Headlines: The First Hyperinflation of the Twenty-First Century

14.4 Money, Interest, and Prices in the Long Run: A General Model
The Demand for Money: The General Model
Long-Run Equilibrium in the Money Market
Inflation and Interest Rates in The Long Run
The Fisher Effect
Real Interest Parity
Application: Evidence on the Fisher Effect and Real Interest Parity
The Fundamental Equations under the General Model
Exchange Rate Forecasts using the Standard Model
14.5 Monetary Regimes and Exchange Rate Regimes
The Long Run: The Nominal Anchor
Side Bar: Nominal Anchors in Theory and Practice
14.6 Conclusion

Chapter 15: Exchange Rates II: The Asset Approach in the Short Run
15.1 Exchange Rates and Interest Rates in the Short Run: UIP and FX
Market Equilibrium
Risky Arbitrage
Equilibrium in the FX Market: An Example
Adjustment to FX Market Equilibrium
Changes in Domestic and Foreign Returns and FX Market Equilibrium
15.2 Interest Rates in the Short Run: Money Market Equilibrium
Money Market Equilibrium in the Short Run: How Nominal Interest Rates are Determined
Money Market Equilibrium in the Short Run: Graphical Solution
Adjustment to Money Market Equilibrium in the Short Run
Another Building Block: Short-Run Money Market Equilibrium
Changes in Money Supply and the Nominal Interest Rate
Changes in Real Income and the Nominal Interest Rate
The Monetary Model: The Short Run versus the Long Run
15.3 The Asset Approach: Applications and Evidence
The Asset Approach to Exchange Rates: Graphical Solution
Short-Run Policy Analysis
Application: The Fall of the Dollar, 1999–2004
15.4 A Complete Theory: Unifying the Monetary and Asset Approaches
Side Bar: Confessions of a Forex Trader
Long-Run Policy Analysis
Application: Bernanke's Bold Move
Side Bar: Overshooting in Practice?

15.5 Fixed Exchange Rates and the Trilemma
What is a Fixed Exchange Rate Regime?
Pegging Sacrifices Monetary Policy Autonomy in the Short Run: Example
Pegging Sacrifices Monetary Policy Autonomy in the Long Run: Example
The Trilemma
Application: The Trilemma in Europe
15.6 Conclusion
Application: News and The Foreign Exchange Market in Wartime

Part Seven: The Balance of Payments
Chapter 16: National and International Accounts: Income, Wealth, and the Balance of Payments
16.1 Measuring Macroeconomic Activity: An Overview
The Flow of Payments in a Closed Economy: Introducing the National Income and Product Accounts
The Flow of Payments in an Open Economy: Incorporating the Balance of Payments Accounts
16.2 National Accounts: Product, Expenditure, and Income
Three Approaches
From GNE to GDP: Accounting for Trade in Goods and Services
Headlines: Who Makes the iPod?
From GDP to GNI: Accounting for Trade in Factor Services
Application: Celtic Tiger or Tortoise
From GNI to GNDI: Accounting for Transfers of Income
What the National Economic Aggregates Tell Us
What the Current Account Tells Us
Application: Global Imbalance
16.3 Balance of Payment Accounts: International Transactions
Accounting for Asset Transactions
Accounting for Home and Foreign Assets
How the Balance of Payments Accounts Work
Understanding the Data for the Balance of Payments Account
What the Balance of Payments Account Tells Us
16.4 External Wealth
The Level of External Wealth
Changes in External Wealth
Side Bar: The Nokia Economy
Understanding the Data on External Wealth
What External Wealth Tells Us
16.5 Conclusions
Headlines; Lies, Damned Lies...
Appendix to Chapter 16: External Wealth and Total Wealth

Chapter 17: Balance of Payments I: The Gains from Financial Globalization
17. 1 Intertemporal Macroeconomics
The Long Run Budget Constraint
A Long-Run Budget Example: The Perpetual Loan
Implications of the LRBC for Gross National Expenditure and Gross Domestic Product
Application: The Favorable Situation of the United States
Application: The Difficult Situation of Emerging Nations

17.2 Gains from Consumption Smoothing
The Basic Model
Consumption Smoothing: A Numerical Example and Generalization
Summary: Save for a Rainy Day
Side Bar: Wars and the Current Account
Application: Consumption Volatility and Financial Openness
Application: Precautionary Saving, Reserves, and Sovereign Wealth
Headlines: Copper-Bottomed Insurance
Headlines: The Next Globalization Backlash?

17.3 Gains from Efficient Investment
The Basic Model
Efficient Investment: A Numerical Example and Generalization
Application: Delinking Saving from Investment
Can Poor Countries Gain from Financial Globalization?
Application: A versus k
Side Bar: What Does the World Bank Do?
Headlines: A Brief History of Foreign Aid

17.4 Gains from Diversification of Risk
Diversification: A Numerical Example and Generalization
Application: The Home Bias Puzzle
17.5 Conclusion
Appendix to Chapter 17: Common Versus Idiosyncratic Shocks

Chapter 18: The Balance of Payments II: Output, Exchange Rates, and Macroeconomic Policies
18.1 Demand in the Open Economy
Preliminaries and Assumptions
The Government
The Trade Balance
Headlines: Soaring Loonie Drives Canadian Shoppers South
Application: The Trade Balance and the Real Exchange Rate
Side Bar: Barriers to Expenditure Switching: Pass-Through and the J Curve

Exogenous Changes in Demand
18.2 Goods Market Equilibrium: The Keynesian Cross
Supply and Demand
Determinants of Demand
Factors that Shift the Demand Curve
Headlines: Expenditure Switching and the Dollar Devaluation
18.3 Goods and Forex Market Equilibria: Deriving The IS Curve
Equilibrium in Two Markets
Forex Market Recap
Deriving the IS Curve
Factors that Shift the IS Curve
Summing up the IS Curve
18.4 Money Market Equilibrium: Deriving The LM Curve
Money Market Recap
Deriving the LM Curve
Factors that Shift the LM Curve
Summing up the LM Curve
18.5 Short-Run IS-LM-FX Equilibrium in an Open Economy
Macroeconomic Policies in the Short Run
Monetary Policy Under Floating Exchange Rates
Monetary Policy Under Fixed Exchange Rates
Fiscal Policy Under Floating Exchange Rates
Fiscal Policy Under Fixed Exchange Rates
Application: The Rise and Fall of the Dollar in the 1980s
18.6 Stabilization Policy
Application: Australia, New Zealand, and the Asian Crisis of 1997 Problems in Problems in Policy Design and Implementation
7 Conclusion
Appendix 1 to Chapter 18: The Marshall-Lerner Condition
Appendix 2 to Chapter 18: Multilateral Real Exchange Rates

Part Eight: Applications and Policy Issues
Chapter 19: Fixed Versus Floating: International Monetary Experience
19.1 Exchange Rate Regime Choice: Key Issues
Application: Britain and Europe: The Big Issues
Key Factors in Exchange Rate Regime Choice: Integration and Similarity
Economic Integration and the Gains in Efficiency
Economic Similarity and the Costs of Asymmetric Shocks
Simple Criteria for a Fixed Exchange Rate
Application: Do Fixed Exchange Rates Promote Trade?
Application: Do Fixed Exchange Rates Diminish Monetary Autonomy and Stability?

19.2 Other Benefits of Fixing
Fiscal Discipline, Seigniorage, and Inflation
Side Bar: The Inflation Tax
Liability Dollarization, National Wealth, and Contractionary Depreciations
Headlines: The Last Temptation
19.3 Fixed Exchange Rate Systems
Cooperative and Noncooperative Adjustments to Interest Rates
Cooperative and Noncooperative Adjustments to Exchange Rates
Application: The Gold Standard
19.4 International Monetary Experience
The Rise and Fall of the Gold Standard
Bretton Woods to the Present
19.5 Conclusions

Chapter 20: Exchange Rate Crises: How Pegs Work and How They Break
20.1 Facts about Exchange Rate Crisis
What is An Exchange Rate Crisis?
How Costly Are Exchange Rate Crises?
Side Bar: The Political Costs of Crises
20.2 How Pegs Work I: The Mechanics of a Fixed Exchange Rate
Preliminaries and Assumptions
The Central Bank Balance Sheet
Fixing, Floating, and the Role of Reserves
How Reserves Adjust to Maintain the Peg
Graphical Analysis of the Central Bank Balance Sheet
Defending the Peg I: Changes in Money Demand
Application: Risk Premiums in Advanced and Emerging Markets
Application: The Argentine Convertibility Plan before the Tequila Crisis
Defending the Peg II: Changes in Domestic Credit
Application: The Argentine Convertibility Plan after the Tequila Crisis
The Central Bank Balance Sheet and the Financial System
Side Bar: The Great Reserve Accumulation in Emerging Models
Headlines: Too Much of a Good Thing

20.3 How Pegs Break I: Inconsistent Fiscal Policies
The Basic Problem: Fiscal Dominance
A Simple Model
Application: The Peruvian Crisis of 1986
20.4 How Pegs Break II: Contingent Monetary Policies
The Basic Problem: Limited Commitment
A Simple Model
Application: The Man Who Broke the Bank of England
20.5 Conclusions
Can We Prevent Crises?

Chapter 21: The Euro
21.1 The Economics of the Euro
The Theory of Optimum Currency Areas
Simple Optimum Currency Area Criteria
What’s the Difference between a Fix and a Currency Union?
Other Optimum Currency Area Criteria
Application: Optimum Currency Areas: Europe versus the United States
Are the OCA Criteria Self-Fulfilling?
Headlines: Currency Unions and Trade
21.2 The History and Politics of the Euro
A Brief History of Europe
21.3 The ECB and the Eurozone in Theory and Practice
The European Central Bank
Headlines: The ECB is from Mars, the Fed is from Venus
The Rules of the Club
Sticking to the Rules
21.4 Conclusion: Assessing the Euro
Headlines: Whither the Euro?

Chapter 22: Topics in International Macroeconomics
22.1 Exchange Rates in the Long Run: Deviations from Purchasing Power Parity
Limits to Arbitrage
Application: It’s Not Just the Burgers That Are Cheap
Nontraded Goods and the Balassa-Samuelson Model
Overvaluations, Undervaluations, and Productivity Growth: Forecasting Implications for Real and Nominal Exchange Rates
Application: Real Exchange Rates in Emerging Markets
22.2 Exchange Rates in the Short Run: Deviations from Uncovered Interest Parity
Headlines: Eastern Europe and the Euro
Application: The Carry Trade
Headlines: Mrs. Watanabe's Hedge Fund
Application: Peso Problems

The Efficient Markets Hypothesis
Limits to Arbitrage
22.3 Global Imbalances
Facts about Emerging Global Imbalances
A Model of Saving and Investment in the World Economy
Application: The Savings Glut
Looking Backward: How We Got Here
Looking Forward: What Next?
Side Bar: Reserves and Global Imbalances
Debtors, Creditors, and the Long-Run Budget Constraint
Real Exchange Rates and Global Imbalances: Two Views
22.4 Debt and Default
Facts about Emerging Global Imbalances
A Model of Default, Part One: The Probability of Default
Application: Is There Profit in Lending to Developing Countries?
A Model of Default, Part Two: Loan Supply and Demand
Application: The Costs of Default
Application: The Argentine Crisis of 2000-2002
Headlines: Is the IMF "Pathetic?"


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