International Perspectives on Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management / Edition 3

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The new, updated edition of this popular text gives students the tools to understand and deal with imporatant economic, political, historical, and religious variables in international management.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780765631084
  • Publisher: Sharpe, M. E. Inc.
  • Publication date: 10/30/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 320
  • Sales rank: 1,374,225
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

1 The Management World in the Twenty-First Century 3

Overview of the Book 5

The Meaning of Globalization for Managers 7

Understanding Attitudes to Globalization 8

The Future of Globalization 11

Cross-National Convergence and Divergence 14

The World Beyond 2010 17

References 19

2 The Cultural Environment 20

Introduction 20

Defining Culture 22

Cultural Values 23

Values 23

Needs 24

Attitudes 24

Norms 25

Cultural Value Models 25

Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's Value Orientation Model 25

The Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck Model in International Management 27

Hofstede's Value Survey Model 29

Limitations of the Value Survey Model 31

Using the Value Survey Model in International Management 32

Country Clusters 34

Smith and Peterson (1988) Event Management Approach 40

Alternative Cultural Models 46

Ethnocentrism and Parochialism 47

Variation Within Cultures 48

Beyond National Culture 50

Understanding Subcultures 50

Understanding Overlapping Cultures 51

The Importance of Cultural Values for International Managers 52

Summary and Conclusions 53

References 54

3 The Political and Regulatory Environment 56

Introduction 56

Political Systems 53

Government, Business, and Society 63

Government View of Business 64

View of Foreign Business 65

View of the Home Country 68

Types of Political Risk 69

Forced Divestment 70

Unwelcome Regulations 71

Interference in Operations 72

Assessment and Management of Political Risk 72

Sources of Information 73

Factors Affecting Political Risk 74

Defensive Political Risk Management 76

Integrative Political Risk Management 77

Managerial Choices 78

Summary and Conclusions 79

References 80

4 The Role of History and Geography in International Management 81

Introduction 81

History and Culture 83

Geography and Culture 83

History and Behavior 84

Geography and Behavior 84

Understanding History and Geography 85

History, Values, and Behavior 85

Geography, Values, and Behavior 86

Influences on Language, Religion, and Economics 89

Ways of Seeing the World 91

Managing Internationally: The Role of History and Geography 94

International Trade and Investment 95

Regional Economic Linkages 98

International Strategy 100

Current Events 102

Summary and Conclusions 103

Notes 104

References 104

5 Language and Religion in International Management 105

Introduction 105

Language 105

Linguistic Diversity 109

The Impact of Homogeneity 109

The Impact of Heterogeneity 109

National Languages 110

Linguistic Hierarchies 110

Linguistic Change 112

Managing Language Differences 113

Learning New Languages 113

Translation and Interpretation 113

Religion 116

The Expression of Religion 117

Major Religions of the World 118

Buddhism 118

Christianity 120

Hinduism 121

Islam 122

Other Religious Beliefs 123

Summary and Conclusions 123

Note 124

References 124

6 Economic Development and the Management of Organizational Behavior and Human Resources 125

Introduction 125

Understanding Development Issues 127

Definitions of Development 128

Developed Countries 129

Developing Countries 129

Characteristics of Developing Countries 132

The Impact of Level of Development 134

Demography and Development 136

Culture and Development 140

Politics and Development 144

Summary and Conclusions 148

References 148

7 Motivation in a Cross-National Context 150

Introduction 150

North American Theories of Motivation 151

The Role of Needs in Motivation 152

The Role of Equity in Motivation 157

The Role of Rewards in Motivation 158

The Role of Goals and Expectations in Motivation 161

The Role of Delegation and Participation in Motivation 164

Is Motivation Universal or Culture Bound? 165

Summary and Conclusions 168

Note 168

References 168

8 Leadership in a Cross-National Context 170

Introduction 170

Theories of Leadership 171

Supports/Substitutes for Leadership 178

Charismatic and Transformational Leadership and the GLOBE Project 179

Path/Goal Clarification 181

Variation in Leadership Concepts 182

Some Cultural Interactions 186

Summary and Conclusions 190

References 191

9 Cross-National Dimensions of Communication and Negotiation 193

Introduction 193

The Communication Flow 194

Communication Is a Process 195

Communication Includes Purposive and Expressive Messages 195

Communication Is Made Up of Multi-Unit Signals 195

Communication Depends on the Context for Its Meaning 196

Communication Depends on the Competence of the Communicators 197

Barriers to Cross-National Communication Competence 198

Ignorance of Rules of Communication 198

Perceptual Biases 201

Faulty Attributions 203

Stereotypes 204

Negotiations in International Contexts 205

The Negotiation Process 206

Negotiating Norms in Selected Countries 211

Summary and Conclusions 215

References 216

10 Human Resource Choices in a Cross-National Context 218

Introduction 218

Groups of Employees in International Firms 218

Employee Groups: Benefits and Drawbacks 220

Parent Country Nationals (PCNs) 220

Host Country Nationals (HCNs) 222

Third Country Nationals (TCNs) 224

Staffing and the International Product Life Cycle 228

Foreign Guest Workers 229

Organizational Structure and International HRM Choices 231

Selection and Training of International Managers 233

The Training Process 237

Compensation and Benefits 238

Promotion, Career Development, Retirement 240

Summary and Conclusions 241

References 241

11 Managing the Expatriate Experience 242

Introduction 242

Special Issues Associated with Expatriates 243

Expatriate Adjustment 244

The Cycle of Culture Shock and Cross-Cultural Adjustment 246

Determinants of Expatriate Adjustment 247

Cross-Cultural Training 252

Approaches to Cross-Cultural Training 252

Appropriate Training 256

Dual-Career Couples 257

Summary and Conclusions 261

References 261

12 Special Issues in International Human Resource Management 263

Introduction 263

The Role of Women in Business Around the World 264

Some Examples of Women's Role in Business 267

The Meaning of Equality 271

Women as Managers in Different Countries 272

The Role of Women as Managers in Selected Locations 273

Women as International Managers 275

Other Personal Characteristics 278

Ethics in International Management Decisions 279

Universal Versus Culturally Contingent 283

Climate Change: The New Ethical Issue 283

Summary and Conclusions 284

References 285

Index 287

About the Author 301

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