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Internet Protocol-based Emergency Services / Edition 1
     

Internet Protocol-based Emergency Services / Edition 1

by Henning Schulzrinne
 

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ISBN-10: 0470689765

ISBN-13: 9780470689769

Pub. Date: 08/19/2013

Publisher: Wiley

Written by international experts in the field, this book covers the standards, architecture and deployment issues related to IP-based emergency services

This book brings together contributions from experts on technical and operational aspects within the international standardisation and regulatory processes relating to routing and handling of IP-based

Overview

Written by international experts in the field, this book covers the standards, architecture and deployment issues related to IP-based emergency services

This book brings together contributions from experts on technical and operational aspects within the international standardisation and regulatory processes relating to routing and handling of IP-based emergency calls.  Readers will learn how these standards work, how various standardization organizations contributed to them and about pilot projects, early deployment and current regulatory situation.

Key Features:

  • Provides an overview of how the standards related to IP-based emergency services work, and how various organizations contributed to them
  • Focuses on SIP and IMS-based communication systems for the Internet
  • Covers standards, architecture and deployment issues
  • International focus, with coverage of the major national efforts in this area
  • Written by the experts who were/are involved in the development of the standards (NENA, EENA, 3GPP, IETF, ETSI, etc.)
  • Accompanying website provides updates on standards and deployment (http://ip-emergency.net)

This book is an excellent resource for vendors building software and equipment for emergency services, engineers/researchers engaged in development of networks and network elements and standardization, emergency services providers, standardization experts, product persons, those within the regulatory environment. Students and lecturers, infrastructure and application service providers will also find this book of interest.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780470689769
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
08/19/2013
Pages:
402
Product dimensions:
6.60(w) x 9.70(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

List of Figures xiii

List of Tables xvii

List of Contributors xix

Preface xxi

Acknowledgments xxv

Acronyms xxvii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 History 1

1.2 Overview 5

1.3 Building Blocks 8

1.3.1 Recognizing Emergency Calls 8

1.3.2 Obtaining and Conveying Location Information 9

1.3.3 Routing Emergency Calls 9

2 Location: Formats, Encoding and Protocols 11

2.1 Applying the PIDF-LO civicAddress Type to US Addresses 14

2.1.1 Introduction: The Context and Purpose of PIDF-LO and CLDXF 15

2.1.2 CLDXF Elements 17

2.1.3 Conclusion 30

2.2 DHCP as a Location Configuration Protocol (LCP) 31

2.2.1 What’s New in RFC 6225- 32

2.2.2 DHCPv4 and DHCPv6 Option Formats 32

2.2.3 Option Support 35

2.2.4 Latitude and Longitude Fields 36

2.2.5 Altitude 36

2.2.6 Datum 37

2.3 Geography Markup Language (GML) 37

2.3.1 Introduction 37

2.3.2 Overview of the OGC 38

2.3.3 The OGC Geography Markup Language (GML) 38

2.3.4 Conclusion 47

2.4 A Taxonomy of the IETF HELD Protocol 47

2.4.1 The LIS and HELD 48

2.4.2 LIS Discovery 48

2.4.3 Basic HELD 53

2.4.4 HELD Target Identities and Third-Party Requests 59

2.4.5 HELD Measurements 62

2.4.6 HELD as a Dereference Protocol 64

2.4.7 HELD Policy URIs 66

2.4.8 HELD Device Capabilities 69

2.5 OMA Enablers and Emergency Services 72

2.5.1 SUPL 73

2.5.2 MLS 84

2.5.3 MLP 85

2.5.4 LOCSIP 89

2.6 3GPP Location Protocols 92

2.6.1 Introduction 92

2.6.2 Location Technology in 3GPP Networks 93

2.6.3 Emergency Location Information in 3GPP CS Domain, Control Plane 100

2.6.4 Emergency Location Information in the IMS 100

3 Architectures 103

3.1 NENA i2 104

3.1.1 Background 104

3.1.2 The i2 Architecture 105

3.1.3 Regulatory Situation and Deployment Status 117

3.2 NENA i3 119

3.2.1 History 119

3.2.2 Emergency Services IP Networks 120

3.2.3 Signaling and Routing IP-Originated Calls 121

3.2.4 Legacy Wireline and Wireless Origination 122

3.2.5 Emergency Events 123

3.2.6 Routing Calls Within the ESInet 123

3.2.7 Provisioning the ECRF 124

3.2.8 PSAPs 125

3.2.9 Other i3 Features 126

3.3 IETF Emergency Services for Internet Multimedia 126

3.3.1 Introduction 126

3.3.2 Recognizing Emergency Calls 128

3.3.3 Obtaining and Conveying Location Information 128

3.3.4 Routing Emergency Calls 129

3.3.5 Obligations 130

3.3.6 LoST Mapping Architecture 132

3.3.7 Steps Toward an IETF Emergency Services Architecture 135

3.3.8 Summary 138

3.4 Emergency Services Support in WiFi Networks 139

3.4.1 Introduction 139

3.4.2 Location Configuration 140

3.4.3 Support for Emergency Services 141

3.4.4 Support for Emergency Alert Systems 142

3.5 WiMAX 142

3.5.1 The WiMAX Network Architecture 143

3.5.2 Network Architecture for Emergency Services Support 148

3.5.3 The Fundamental Building Blocks 150

3.5.4 Roaming Considerations and Network Entry 152

3.5.5 Limited Access 154

3.5.6 Location Support in WiMAX 157

3.5.7 Conclusion 163

3.6 3GPP 163

3.6.1 Introduction 163

3.6.2 Requirements 164

3.6.3 Emergency Calls in the CS Domain 169

3.6.4 Emergency Calls in PS Domain 176

3.6.5 Identified Overload Problems 189

4 Deployment Examples 193

4.1 Emergency Calling in Sweden 195

4.1.1 Introduction 195

4.1.2 Overview 196

4.1.3 Protocols for PSAP Interconnection 198

4.1.4 Protocol Standards 200

4.1.5 Media 201

4.1.6 Emergency Call Routing 201

4.1.7 Testing 201

4.1.8 Examples 201

4.2 UK Specification for Locating VoIP Callers 209

4.2.1 Introduction 209

4.2.2 The Regulatory Environment 209

4.2.3 Standards Development 210

4.2.4 The Current UK Emergency Services Structure 210

4.2.5 Principles Driving the Specification 211

4.2.6 Putting It All Together 213

4.2.7 Implications for Access Network Providers 215

4.3 Implementation of VoIP 9-1-1 Services in Canada 216

4.3.1 Regulatory Framework (About the CRTC) 217

4.3.2 Canada’s Telecom Profile 217

4.3.3 Interim Solution for Nomadic and Fixed/Non-Native VoIP 220

4.3.4 The (Defunct) Canadian i2 Proposal 222

4.3.5 VoIP Regulatory Processes, Decisions and Milestones 227

4.3.6 Lessons Learned 229

4.3.7 Conclusion 230

4.4 US/Indiana Wireless Direct Network Project 230

4.4.1 Background and History of the IWDN 231

4.4.2 The IWDN Crossroads Project 231

4.4.3 The IN911 IP Network 232

4.4.4 Conclusion 235

5 Security for IP-Based Emergency Services 237

5.1 Introduction 237

5.2 Communication Model 238

5.3 Adversary Models and Security Threats 240

5.4 Security Threats 241

5.4.1 Denial-of-Service Attacks 242

5.4.2 Attacks Involving the Emergency Identifier 242

5.4.3 Attacks Against the Mapping System 243

5.4.4 Attacks Against the Location Information Server 244

5.4.5 Swatting 245

5.4.6 Attacks to Prevent a Specific Individual From Receiving Aid 246

5.4.7 Attacks to Gain Information About an Emergency 246

5.4.8 Interfering With the LIS and LoST Server Discovery Procedure 246

5.4.9 Call Identity Spoofing 247

5.5 Countermeasures 248

5.5.1 Discovery 248

5.5.2 Secure Session Setup and Caller Identity 250

5.5.3 Media Exchange 251

5.5.4 Mapping Database Security 251

6 Emergency Services for Persons With Disabilities 253

6.1 What Is Specific with Communication for People with Disabilities? 253

6.1.1 Important Characteristics of Regular Voice Telephony 253

6.1.2 Important Characteristics of Accessible Conversational Services Suitable for People with Disabilities 254

6.2 Reality Today 255

6.3 Interpretation of the Term “Equivalent Service” 255

6.4 Sad History 256

6.5 Policy and Regulation Support 256

6.5.1 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 256

6.5.2 The European Union Universal Service Directive 257

6.5.3 The Telecom Act and Public Procurement Act in the United States 257

6.5.4 Americans With Disability Act 257

6.5.5 Relay Service Regulation in the United States 258

6.6 Good Opportunities in IP-Based Services 258

6.7 Implementation Experience 260

7 Regulatory Situation 261

7.1 Regulatory Aspects of Emergency Services in the United States 262

7.1.1 Introduction 262

7.1.2 Background 262

7.1.3 E9-1-1 Requirements 263

7.2 Regulatory Aspects of Emergency Services in the European Union 266

7.2.1 Introduction 266

7.2.2 Regulatory Development of Emergency Services Under EU Law 267

7.2.3 Current Legal Framework 267

7.2.4 New Legal Framework 274

7.2.5 Emergency Regulation Outside of the EU Telecom Regulatory Framework 276

7.2.6 Conclusion 276

8 Research Projects and Pilots 279

8.1 REACH112: Responding to All Citizens Needing Help 280

8.1.1 Outline 280

8.1.2 Emergency Service Access 282

8.1.3 The Obstacles 284

8.1.4 Conclusion 288

8.2 PEACE: IP-Based Emergency Applications and Services for Next-Generation Networks 288

8.2.1 Introduction 288

8.2.2 Project Scope 289

8.2.3 Development Status 291

8.3 US Department of Transportation’s NG 9-1-1 Pilot Project 298

8.3.1 Overview 298

8.3.2 Proof-of-Concept Description 300

8.3.3 Testing 313

8.3.4 Conclusion 317

9 Organizations 321

9.1 ETSI EMTEL 322

9.1.1 Purpose of ETSI Special Committee EMTEL (Emergency Communications) 322

9.1.2 Main Features of EMTEL 322

9.1.3 Scope of ETSI SC EMTEL Work 323

9.1.4 Operation and Activities of SC EMTEL 324

9.1.5 EMTEL Evolution and Strategy 324

9.1.6 Vision for Future Emergency Services 325

9.2 NENA 326

9.3 EENA 327

9.3.1 What Is EENA? 327

9.3.2 What EENA Does? 327

9.3.3 What Are the EENA Memberships? 328

9.4 Ecma International 330

9.4.1 Ecma International 330

9.4.2 Ecma Technical Committee TC32 331

9.4.3 ECMA TR/101, Next Generation Corporate Networks (NGCN) – Emergency Calls 331

9.5 ATIS 332

9.5.1 Emergency Services Interconnection Forum (ESIF) 332

9.5.2 Next-Generation Emergency Services (NGES) Subcommittee 333

9.5.3 Example ESIF Issues 334

9.5.4 Summary 336

9.6 The NG9-1-1 Caucus and the NG9-1-1 Institute 336

9.7 COCOM EGEA 338

10 Conclusion and Outlook 341

10.1 Location 341

10.2 Architectures 342

10.3 Deployments 343

10.4 Security and Privacy 344

10.5 Emergency Services for Persons with Disabilities 344

10.6 Regulation 345

10.7 Research Projects and Pilots 345

10.8 Funding 346

References 349

Index 363

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