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Overview

How secure is internet data transmission?

To what extent can you trust a third party when you are interacting with them over the internet?

Why are internet security and e-business success so intimately linked?

What do you need to do to maximize the security of your internet installation and consequently your e-business success?

How can you safeguard your organization against internet fraud?

E-business is arguably the most significant commercial initiative since the early nineteenth century. The internet has transformed the world into a vast network, and all organizations now have the potential to reach a global customer base. But ease of access to the internet and the high availability of the technology on which it runs have created unprecedented security dilemmas and issues of trust.

One of the main inhibiting factors currently slowing up the achievement of the potential offered by e-business throughout most industrial and commercial sectors is the problem of trust and confidence — the virtual nature of the internet makes traditional authentication and verification methods impossible. Therefore, in any e-business transaction, whether business-to-consumer or business-to-business, each party has to take it on trust that the other parties are who they say they are.

This book provides comprehensive insight into the problem of creating and implementing trust in an e-business environment. It also offers a detailed perspective on the solutions available and the various technologies and tools which enable these. Internet Trust and Security is vital reading for anyone who runs an e-business, and provides a comprehensive understanding of the keyconcepts of trust and security over the internet, as well as how to address these issues.

It provides:

  • Essential guidance on solving problems of security and authentication, enabling businesses to realize the full potential of the internet
  • In-depth case studies based on completely original research from industry and commerce
  • Detailed information about key vendors of solutions.




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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Provides insight into the problem of creating consumer trust in an e- business environment and describes various technological solutions for online business security and authentication problems. Overviews the challenges of e-business trust and security, looking at hacking, legislation, and business factors, then covers e-business trust and security consulting, secure electronic commerce in the retail financial sector, behavioral factors in Internet crime, computer crime investigation, and digital signatures. Case studies are based on real experiences in industry and commerce. Essinger has been researching and writing about data security for 10 years. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780201725896
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 8/10/2001
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 272
  • Product dimensions: 7.43 (w) x 9.23 (h) x 0.61 (d)

Meet the Author

James Essinger has been researching and writing about data security for more than ten years. He writes and consults on a wide range of technological, business and management issues.
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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

E-business is arguably the most significant commercial revolution since the early nineteenth century. Yet issues of e-business trust and security potentially inhibit the growth and development of this revolution. By providing comprehensive discussion and analysis, this book sets out to address what is therefore a crucially important problem.

The rise of the internet has since the mid-1990s effected such a great change in how so much of business and leisure life is conducted that calling it a revolution in itself is in no way an exaggeration. Indeed, it could be argued that the impact of the internet revolution has actually been greater than that of the Industrial Revolution.

Why? Because at heart the Industrial Revolution simply brought new resources to bear on producing goods that had already been produced for a long time. It created, to a certain extent, new opportunities for mass-production, and above all deployed steam power as the main source of energy for industry. But the products of the Revolution very much resembled what had been produced in the past, even if they were frequently of a higher quality than those produced by the old manual way of doing things. Furthermore, the Industrial Revolution made little or no impact on the way in which products were actually delivered to customers, and it is doubtful whether it really improved the quality of life for the majority of people it affected. Indeed, a strong case could be made for arguing that it had a negative effect on the lives of most people it touched as far as their quality of life was concerned. It made a few people very rich. Yet most of the workers who thronged its dark Satanic mills— to use William Blake's immortal phrase — were paid the very minimum their ironmaster could get away with paying and were worked for so many hours in a day that their health frequently suffered.

The internet revolution, on the other hand, has taken place within an economic framework that was already highly sophisticated and had already generated very great prosperity in the worlds developed countries and also in many sectors of the developing world. The internet revolution benefits everybody. Commercial and industrial organizations enjoy a completely new dimension of delivery channel for distributing their products and services to customers and also for publicizing these to customers. It also benefits customers themselves, who have access to a prodigious range of products and services and total control over accessing information from these suppliers. If it is true that a customer can access information about one supplier rather than another by the simple expedient of clicking a mouse to change screens, it is also true that this creates a marketplace where customers have an unprecedentedly high knowledge about what is available and can select what they need from one vendor or another entirely at their own discretion. Of course, this scenario is challenging for vendors because they can no longer expect the same level of loyalty from customers that they were used to expecting in the past. However, this level of loyalty was often undeserved and stemmed more from the fact that customers did not know who else to turn to than because the quality of customer service provided by their vendor was so good that it left the customer wanting for nothing. A good case could be made for the argument that it is only with the advent of the internet that true democratic capitalism has been achieved, or is being achieved, depending on one's own perspective.

Customers benefit enormously from the convenience and choice of the internet. They also benefit from the fact that the very nature of the internet means that there are entirely new products and services available which were not available before because the delivery channel made it impossible for them to be furnished. For example, customers who are accessing computer-based services are able to download software directly from vendors over the internet. They are also able to relay details of their own particular case or problems over the internet to whoever is going to be sorting this out. Online customer service is possible on a widespread basis for the first time since the development of computers, and has created an entirely new industry: the e-based Customer Relationship Management (CRM) industry. This industry is truly a phenomenon: providing the tools which allow an increasing number of organizations to give their customers a level of attentiveness and overall quality of customer service unprecedented in commercial history.

Which of us cannot remember the bad old days of customer service — even only a couple of decades ago — when any complaint or query meant having to write to the organization, which might deign to reply within a month so if it was inclined to do so?

The development and implementation of telephone helplines during the 1980s certainly made inroads into the formerly desperate way of doing things. But even telephone helplines were — and are — clumsy and ineffective resources in many cases, with customers frequently being held in long and irritating queues while they are subjected to the taste in music of whoever is running the helpline service and, when they finally do talk to an operator, all too often being subjected to a trite and demeaning script which reveals only too plainly the operator's comparative indifference to them and their particular query or problem. It is often quite clear that the whole telephone helpline scenario is structured by the organization not to help the customer, but to maximize the organization's advantage, whether this is in terms of its opportunity to use the customer's information for marketing purposes, to protect the organization's position, status and reputation, or generally to try to show to the customer that the organization is right and he or she is wrong.

Customer service delivered over the internet, on the other hand, has to be handled by an organization in a completely different way. The intimacy of the relationship between the internet user and the organization means that the organization has no choice but to treat the customer as an individual. When George Orwell — who, despite his own unnecessarily (and inaccurately) gloomy view of the future expressed in Nineteen Eighty Four was an extremely accurate commentator on the rise of the mass media and on many of the dynamics that would shape the modern world — first got to grips with radio broadcasting in the 1930s, he observed very shrewdly that radio broadcasting was always ultimately ebroadcasting to an audience of one. This is also true of internet-based customer service. Furthermore, the very fact that customers can reasonably expect their query to be handled either in real time or very rapidly by the organization places another burden on organizations which is entirely to the customer's advantage. As for organizations, delivering customer service over the internet is far less expensive than doing so in any other way — including telephone helplines. Again, everyone benefits, or should do if organizations are shrewd enough to see that being able to deliver customer service this way is the best opportunity that has ever happened to them.

As for all the other opportunities which organizations of all kinds enjoy to use the internet to conduct a plethora of types of business with counterparties and customers around the world, any statement of the quantity of such business that can be conducted is inevitably going to date almost before it has been stated. Suffice it to say that the internet revolution is transforming the world into a vast network that connects customers, organizations, political parties, interest groups, public bodies and all other types of organization. Statistics about the number of people in a particular country who happen to be connected to the internet at present are of minimal interest. This is partly because they will date very quickly (and because this is a book which aims for a shelf-life of at least five years, I avoid quoting such figures in it), and also because nobody can realistically doubt that what is simply happening is the creation of a global scenario where most people in a developed economy or within a privileged section of a developing economy will — by around 2005 — have access to internet facilities in all of the following three locations:

  • their homes
  • their workplaces
  • on the move.


I am aware that there is considerable discussion at present among sociologists of the dangers of a two-tier scenario being created in the world where there are those who have access to the internet from a variety of locations, and those who are for ever cut off from the web due to their poverty. The extent to which this fear of the creation of such a two-tier society is justified remains to be seen. Certainly, those in unprivileged sections of developing countries are likely to find it more difficult to gain access to the internet than those in developed countries or in privileged sections of the developing world, but the very cheapness and ease of internet access makes it more than likely that in fact these people will be gaining internet access sooner than many expect. The very fact that geographical remoteness is in no way a difficulty when arranging internet access, as long as hardware can be supplied to the person in question, means that it is far from unrealistic to foresee a scenario where, for example, even a remote village in a poor country is likely to have at least one internet terminal somewhere in it.

For all these reasons, the future of the internet is also in many respects the future of humankind, and not just wealthy and technologically privileged humankind either. But there is a problem: the very ubiquity and ease of access of the internet, and the widespread availability of the technology on which it runs, also create unprecedented security dilemmas.

In his great novel of South America, Nostromo, the Anglo-Polish writer Joseph Conrad wryly comments at one point that human beings have never been at a loss to devise ways of inflicting torture and pain on their fellow men. By the same token, human beings have never been at a loss to use new types of technology for criminal purposes. In The Victorian Internet, an illuminating study of the origins of the first electricity-based remote communications system, the telegraph, Tom Standage makes the observation: "Ever since people have invented things, other people have found ways to put those things to criminal use". Standage quotes an Inspector John Bonfield, a Chicago policeman, who declared to the Chicago Herald in 1888:

"It is a well-known fact that no other section of the population avail themselves more readily and speedily of the latest triumphs of science than the criminal class. The educated criminal skims the cream from every new invention, if he can make use of it".

As Standage emphasizes, the telegraph — which in many respects was indeed a primitive form of internet first implemented in the nineteenth century — was no exception. He observes: "It provided unscrupulous individuals with novel opportunities for fraud, theft and deception".

Fraudsters and other criminals seeking to exploit the telegraph for financial gain would pay particular attention to the fact that the telegraph destroyed distance in a way entirely novel to nineteenth-century perceptions. A classic example was horse racing. Obviously, the result of a horse race was known as soon as the result was declared and made official. However, the information about the result could take hours or even days to reach bookmakers in other parts of the country using conventional messaging systems based around the mail or some other physical messenger. Consequently, anyone in possession of the results of a horse race before the news reached the bookmakers could then place a sure-fire bet on the winning horse.

This might seem implausible; after all, no bookmaker today would take a bet on a race after the race had been run. However, in a scenario where bookmakers were used to getting results of races only many hours or days after the race had been run, and where no bookmaker would expect any of his customers to get the results of the race any sooner, it is perfectly plausible that bookmakers would take bets after a race had been won. In the nineteenth century, rules were introduced almost immediately to prohibit the transmission of such information by telegraph. But, as is indeed always the case with any attempt to regulate new technologies, the criminals were no less ingenious than those who made the rules.

For example, in the 1940s a man went into the telegraph office at Shoreditch in East London on the day of the famous race, the Derby. He explained that he had left his luggage and a shawl in the care of a friend at another station, a station that just happened to be nearest the racetrack. He sent an apparently innocent-sounding message asking his friend to dispatch the luggage and the shawl down to London on the next train. Almost immediately, his friend sent a reply: your luggage and tartan will be safe by the next train. The apparently harmless reference to tartan revealed the colours of the winning horse and enabled the man to place the bet and make a huge profit. The method of making the profit was discovered but the man had escaped by the time this happened.

Today, the twenty-first-century internet is almost infinitely more extensive than the Victorian internet. It is also very considerably more sophisticated and subtle from a technological perspective, for it relies not on the passage of electrical current, but on the distribution of electrical signals that make use of much smaller current levels and can also be transmitted by radio and by satellite. Yet no matter how sophisticated the technology has become, Inspector Bonfield's adage that criminals are astonishingly ingenious at how they exploit the potential of new technology for illicit gain is found to be as true now as it was then. The difference is that the potential for illicit gain presented by the internet makes even the most successful fraudulent bet on a horse seem very small-time indeed. This book is about how and why security problems are part of the very framework of internet revolution, why people seek to cause security problems, and how organizations can prevent these problems and thereby maximize the potential for quality of customer service, excellence in marketing, efficiency in delivery and distribution and overall profitability and success which the internet can offer.

This book is deliberately written so as to be accessible by the non-technologist as much as by the technologist. Technical terms are therefore explained in detail when they arise. Two key terms should, however, be defined right away. I follow the increasing trend to see the concept of e-business as the totality of all an organization's internet activities, including its internet-based relationships with its customers, suppliers, business partners and other associates. The concept of e-commerce, on the other hand, is strictly a subset of e-business and can be defined more straightforwardly as buying and selling over the internet. The two concepts do need to be defined in this way to avoid confusion. Readers should note, however, that some sources do still define them in the increasingly outdated fashion, with e-commerce being used to mean what I regard here as e-business, and vice versa.

Readers should also note that this is a general book intended to cover the needs of e-business trust and security throughout all industrial and commercial sectors. Inevitably, there are some sectors where the trust and security problems identified and discussed in the book are particularly pressing. Examples of these sectors are the defence sector, where issues of national security are clearly at stake, and the banking sector, where information not only is likely to be particularly valuable in monetary terms but in many instances actually is money. But the fact that many of the illustrations are drawn from these two sectors, and especially from the banking sector, should not be taken to imply that the material in the book is only directed at these two sectors. In fact, internet-delivered information has a value in all sectors, and for this reason the book is also correspondingly relevant to all the industrial and commercial sectors where the internet is found to be a useful resource.

In practice, because the internet probably has implications for every industrial and commercial sector in the world, there are few areas of business where e-business security is not a critically important issue. Moreover, even if there are a small number of sectors where it is not a critically important issue now, it is likely to become so even in these sectors sooner rather than later.

Note

1. Tom Standage (1998) The Victorian Internet, Walker Publishing Company, New York, p. 105.



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Table of Contents

Acknowledgements
Introduction
1 The internet explosion 1
2 The challenge of e-business trust and security 23
3 E-business trust and security consulting in action 63
4 Secure electronic commerce in the retail financial sector? 78
5 Behavioural factors in internet crime 85
6 Computer crime investigation 100
7 High-tech security and trust - the legal position 118
8 Internet security - the remedy 136
9 Internet trust: the specifics 179
10 Digital signatures and public key infrastructure 192
App. I Lloyd's electronic and IT crime policy 208
App. II SafeStone Technologies: combining advanced technology with entrepreneurial vision 236
App. III SSE Ltd - Promoting Secure E-business Communications 242
Index 249
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Preface

E-business is arguably the most significant commercial revolution since the early nineteenth century. Yet issues of e-business trust and security potentially inhibit the growth and development of this revolution. By providing comprehensive discussion and analysis, this book sets out to address what is therefore a crucially important problem.

The rise of the internet has since the mid-1990s effected such a great change in how so much of business and leisure life is conducted that calling it a revolution in itself is in no way an exaggeration. Indeed, it could be argued that the impact of the internet revolution has actually been greater than that of the Industrial Revolution.

Why? Because at heart the Industrial Revolution simply brought new resources to bear on producing goods that had already been produced for a long time. It created, to a certain extent, new opportunities for mass-production, and above all deployed steam power as the main source of energy for industry. But the products of the Revolution very much resembled what had been produced in the past, even if they were frequently of a higher quality than those produced by the old manual way of doing things. Furthermore, the Industrial Revolution made little or no impact on the way in which products were actually delivered to customers, and it is doubtful whether it really improved the quality of life for the majority of people it affected. Indeed, a strong case could be made for arguing that it had a negative effect on the lives of most people it touched as far as their quality of life was concerned. It made a few people very rich. Yet most of the workers who thronged its dark Satanic mills — touse William Blake's immortal phrase — were paid the very minimum their ironmaster could get away with paying and were worked for so many hours in a day that their health frequently suffered.

The internet revolution, on the other hand, has taken place within an economic framework that was already highly sophisticated and had already generated very great prosperity in the worlds developed countries and also in many sectors of the developing world. The internet revolution benefits everybody. Commercial and industrial organizations enjoy a completely new dimension of delivery channel for distributing their products and services to customers and also for publicizing these to customers. It also benefits customers themselves, who have access to a prodigious range of products and services and total control over accessing information from these suppliers. If it is true that a customer can access information about one supplier rather than another by the simple expedient of clicking a mouse to change screens, it is also true that this creates a marketplace where customers have an unprecedentedly high knowledge about what is available and can select what they need from one vendor or another entirely at their own discretion. Of course, this scenario is challenging for vendors because they can no longer expect the same level of loyalty from customers that they were used to expecting in the past. However, this level of loyalty was often undeserved and stemmed more from the fact that customers did not know who else to turn to than because the quality of customer service provided by their vendor was so good that it left the customer wanting for nothing. A good case could be made for the argument that it is only with the advent of the internet that true democratic capitalism has been achieved, or is being achieved, depending on one's own perspective.

Customers benefit enormously from the convenience and choice of the internet. They also benefit from the fact that the very nature of the internet means that there are entirely new products and services available which were not available before because the delivery channel made it impossible for them to be furnished. For example, customers who are accessing computer-based services are able to download software directly from vendors over the internet. They are also able to relay details of their own particular case or problems over the internet to whoever is going to be sorting this out. Online customer service is possible on a widespread basis for the first time since the development of computers, and has created an entirely new industry: the e-based Customer Relationship Management (CRM) industry. This industry is truly a phenomenon: providing the tools which allow an increasing number of organizations to give their customers a level of attentiveness and overall quality of customer service unprecedented in commercial history.

Which of us cannot remember the bad old days of customer service — even only a couple of decades ago — when any complaint or query meant having to write to the organization, which might deign to reply within a month so if it was inclined to do so?

The development and implementation of telephone helplines during the 1980s certainly made inroads into the formerly desperate way of doing things. But even telephone helplines were — and are — clumsy and ineffective resources in many cases, with customers frequently being held in long and irritating queues while they are subjected to the taste in music of whoever is running the helpline service and, when they finally do talk to an operator, all too often being subjected to a trite and demeaning script which reveals only too plainly the operator's comparative indifference to them and their particular query or problem. It is often quite clear that the whole telephone helpline scenario is structured by the organization not to help the customer, but to maximize the organization's advantage, whether this is in terms of its opportunity to use the customer's information for marketing purposes, to protect the organization's position, status and reputation, or generally to try to show to the customer that the organization is right and he or she is wrong.

Customer service delivered over the internet, on the other hand, has to be handled by an organization in a completely different way. The intimacy of the relationship between the internet user and the organization means that the organization has no choice but to treat the customer as an individual. When George Orwell — who, despite his own unnecessarily (and inaccurately) gloomy view of the future expressed in Nineteen Eighty Four was an extremely accurate commentator on the rise of the mass media and on many of the dynamics that would shape the modern world — first got to grips with radio broadcasting in the 1930s, he observed very shrewdly that radio broadcasting was always ultimately ebroadcasting to an audience of one. This is also true of internet-based customer service. Furthermore, the very fact that customers can reasonably expect their query to be handled either in real time or very rapidly by the organization places another burden on organizations which is entirely to the customer's advantage. As for organizations, delivering customer service over the internet is far less expensive than doing so in any other way — including telephone helplines. Again, everyone benefits, or should do if organizations are shrewd enough to see that being able to deliver customer service this way is the best opportunity that has ever happened to them.

As for all the other opportunities which organizations of all kinds enjoy to use the internet to conduct a plethora of types of business with counterparties and customers around the world, any statement of the quantity of such business that can be conducted is inevitably going to date almost before it has been stated. Suffice it to say that the internet revolution is transforming the world into a vast network that connects customers, organizations, political parties, interest groups, public bodies and all other types of organization. Statistics about the number of people in a particular country who happen to be connected to the internet at present are of minimal interest. This is partly because they will date very quickly (and because this is a book which aims for a shelf-life of at least five years, I avoid quoting such figures in it), and also because nobody can realistically doubt that what is simply happening is the creation of a global scenario where most people in a developed economy or within a privileged section of a developing economy will — by around 2005 — have access to internet facilities in all of the following three locations:

  • their homes
  • their workplaces the move.


I am aware that there is considerable discussion at present among sociologists of the dangers of a two-tier scenario being created in the world where there are those who have access to the internet from a variety of locations, and those who are for ever cut off from the web due to their poverty. The extent to which this fear of the creation of such a two-tier society is justified remains to be seen. Certainly, those in unprivileged sections of developing countries are likely to find it more difficult to gain access to the internet than those in developed countries or in privileged sections of the developing world, but the very cheapness and ease of internet access makes it more than likely that in fact these people will be gaining internet access sooner than many expect. The very fact that geographical remoteness is in no way a difficulty when arranging internet access, as long as hardware can be supplied to the person in question, means that it is far from unrealistic to foresee a scenario where, for example, even a remote village in a poor country is likely to have at least one internet terminal somewhere in it.

For all these reasons, the future of the internet is also in many respects the future of humankind, and not just wealthy and technologically privileged humankind either. But there is a problem: the very ubiquity and ease of access of the internet, and the widespread availability of the technology on which it runs, also create unprecedented security dilemmas.

In his great novel of South America, Nostromo, the Anglo-Polish writer Joseph Conrad wryly comments at one point that human beings have never been at a loss to devise ways of inflicting torture and pain on their fellow men. By the same token, human beings have never been at a loss to use new types of technology for criminal purposes. In The Victorian Internet, an illuminating study of the origins of the first electricity-based remote communications system, the telegraph, Tom Standage makes the observation: "Ever since people have invented things, other people have found ways to put those things to criminal use". Standage quotes an Inspector John Bonfield, a Chicago policeman, who declared to the Chicago Herald in 1888:

"It is a well-known fact that no other section of the population avail themselves more readily and speedily of the latest triumphs of science than the criminal class. The educated criminal skims the cream from every new invention, if he can make use of it".

As Standage emphasizes, the telegraph — which in many respects was indeed a primitive form of internet first implemented in the nineteenth century — was no exception. He observes: "It provided unscrupulous individuals with novel opportunities for fraud, theft and deception".

Fraudsters and other criminals seeking to exploit the telegraph for financial gain would pay particular attention to the fact that the telegraph destroyed distance in a way entirely novel to nineteenth-century perceptions. A classic example was horse racing. Obviously, the result of a horse race was known as soon as the result was declared and made official. However, the information about the result could take hours or even days to reach bookmakers in other parts of the country using conventional messaging systems based around the mail or some other physical messenger. Consequently, anyone in possession of the results of a horse race before the news reached the bookmakers could then place a sure-fire bet on the winning horse.

This might seem implausible; after all, no bookmaker today would take a bet on a race after the race had been run. However, in a scenario where bookmakers were used to getting results of races only many hours or days after the race had been run, and where no bookmaker would expect any of his customers to get the results of the race any sooner, it is perfectly plausible that bookmakers would take bets after a race had been won. In the nineteenth century, rules were introduced almost immediately to prohibit the transmission of such information by telegraph. But, as is indeed always the case with any attempt to regulate new technologies, the criminals were no less ingenious than those who made the rules.

For example, in the 1940s a man went into the telegraph office at Shoreditch in East London on the day of the famous race, the Derby. He explained that he had left his luggage and a shawl in the care of a friend at another station, a station that just happened to be nearest the racetrack. He sent an apparently innocent-sounding message asking his friend to dispatch the luggage and the shawl down to London on the next train. Almost immediately, his friend sent a reply: your luggage and tartan will be safe by the next train. The apparently harmless reference to tartan revealed the colours of the winning horse and enabled the man to place the bet and make a huge profit. The method of making the profit was discovered but the man had escaped by the time this happened.

Today, the twenty-first-century internet is almost infinitely more extensive than the Victorian internet. It is also very considerably more sophisticated and subtle from a technological perspective, for it relies not on the passage of electrical current, but on the distribution of electrical signals that make use of much smaller current levels and can also be transmitted by radio and by satellite. Yet no matter how sophisticated the technology has become, Inspector Bonfield's adage that criminals are astonishingly ingenious at how they exploit the potential of new technology for illicit gain is found to be as true now as it was then. The difference is that the potential for illicit gain presented by the internet makes even the most successful fraudulent bet on a horse seem very small-time indeed. This book is about how and why security problems are part of the very framework of internet revolution, why people seek to cause security problems, and how organizations can prevent these problems and thereby maximize the potential for quality of customer service, excellence in marketing, efficiency in delivery and distribution and overall profitability and success which the internet can offer.

This book is deliberately written so as to be accessible by the non-technologist as much as by the technologist. Technical terms are therefore explained in detail when they arise. Two key terms should, however, be defined right away. I follow the increasing trend to see the concept of e-business as the totality of all an organization's internet activities, including its internet-based relationships with its customers, suppliers, business partners and other associates. The concept of e-commerce, on the other hand, is strictly a subset of e-business and can be defined more straightforwardly as buying and selling over the internet. The two concepts do need to be defined in this way to avoid confusion. Readers should note, however, that some sources do still define them in the increasingly outdated fashion, with e-commerce being used to mean what I regard here as e-business, and vice versa.

Readers should also note that this is a general book intended to cover the needs of e-business trust and security throughout all industrial and commercial sectors. Inevitably, there are some sectors where the trust and security problems identified and discussed in the book are particularly pressing. Examples of these sectors are the defence sector, where issues of national security are clearly at stake, and the banking sector, where information not only is likely to be particularly valuable in monetary terms but in many instances actually is money. But the fact that many of the illustrations are drawn from these two sectors, and especially from the banking sector, should not be taken to imply that the material in the book is only directed at these two sectors. In fact, internet-delivered information has a value in all sectors, and for this reason the book is also correspondingly relevant to all the industrial and commercial sectors where the internet is found to be a useful resource.

In practice, because the internet probably has implications for every industrial and commercial sector in the world, there are few areas of business where e-business security is not a critically important issue. Moreover, even if there are a small number of sectors where it is not a critically important issue now, it is likely to become so even in these sectors sooner rather than later.

Note

1. Tom Standage (1998) The Victorian Internet, Walker Publishing Company, New York, p. 105.



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