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Interviewing for Solutions / Edition 1

Interviewing for Solutions / Edition 1

by Peter De Jong, Insoo Kim Berg, Insoo Kim Berg, Insoo Kim Berg, Insoo Kim Berg

ISBN-10: 0534231608

ISBN-13: 9780534231606

Pub. Date: 07/01/1997

Publisher: Brooks/Cole

Written in an informal, conversational style, this respected text features a solutions-oriented approach that views clients as competent, helps them to visualize the changes they want, and builds on what they are already doing that works. Throughout Interviewing for Solutions, authors Peter De Jong and Insoo Kim Berg present models for solution-focused work,


Written in an informal, conversational style, this respected text features a solutions-oriented approach that views clients as competent, helps them to visualize the changes they want, and builds on what they are already doing that works. Throughout Interviewing for Solutions, authors Peter De Jong and Insoo Kim Berg present models for solution-focused work, illustrated by examples and supported by research. The authors' proven approach provides you with a step-by-step description of how to build solutions with clients collaboratively, so you can see how to apply the skills in your own practice. Generous excerpts from actual interviews illustrate solution-focused techniques, and outcome data highlights the usefulness of the approach with a wide range of clients and client difficulties.

Product Details

Publication date:
Social Work Ser.
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
6.69(w) x 9.45(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

Preface     XIII
About the Authors     XVIII
About the Chapter 14 Contributors     XIX
From Problem Solving to Solution Building     1
Helping as Problem Solving     5
The Stages of Problem Solving     5
A Caveat: The Importance of Trust Development     6
The Medical Model     6
Problem Solving: The Paradigm of the Helping Professions     6
Helping as Solution Building     8
Concerns about the Problem-Solving Paradigm     8
History of Solution Building     11
Solution Building: The Basics     13
A Second Interview with Rosie     13
Solution-Building Interviewing Activities     16
The Stages of Solution Building     17
Describing the Problem     17
Developing Well-Formed Goals     17
Exploring for Exceptions     18
End-of-Session Feedback     18
Evaluating Client Progress     18
The Client as Expert     18
Skills for Not Knowing     20
Basic Interviewing Skills     21
Listening     21
Formulating Questions     22
Getting Details     24
EchoingClients' Key Words     25
Open Questions     26
Summarizing     21
Paraphrasing     29
Practitioners' Nonverbal Behavior     29
The Use of Silence     30
Noticing Clients' Nonverbal Behavior     31
Self-Disclosing     32
Noticing Process     33
Complimenting     34
Affirming Clients' Perceptions     36
Natural Empathy     39
Normalizing     42
Returning the Focus to the Client     43
Noticing Hints of Possibility     45
Exploring Client Meanings     46
Relationship Questions     47
Amplifying Solution Talk     48
Leading from One Step Behind     50
Getting Started: How to Pay Attention to What the Client Wants     52
When You First Meet Your Client     52
Names and Small Talk     52
Clarifying How You Work     54
Problem Description     55
Asking for Client Perceptions and Respecting Client Language     55
What Is the Client's Understanding of How the Problem Affects the Client?     56
What Has the Client Tried?     57
What Is Most Important for the Client to Work on First?     58
How to Work with Clients on What They Might Want     58
When Clients Want Something and See Themselves as Part of a Solution     59
A Word of Caution     60
When Clients Say Someone Else Needs to Change     60
When Clients Seem Uninterested or Resistant to Changing     63
What if Clients Want What Is Not Good for Them?     70
What if Clients Do Not Want Anything at All?     71
Influencing Client Cooperation and Motivation     71
How to Amplify What Clients Want: The Miracle Question     75
Characteristics of Well-Formed Goals     77
Importance to the Client     77
Interactional Terms     78
Situational Features     78
The Presence of Some Desirable Behaviors Rather than the Absence of Problems     79
A Beginning Step Rather than the Final Result     80
Clients' Recognition of a Role for Themselves     81
Concrete, Behavioral, Measurable Terms     82
Realistic Terms     82
A Challenge to the Client     82
Conclusion     83
The Miracle Question     83
Ah Yan's Miracle Picture     85
The Williams Family     89
The Art of Interviewing for Well-Formed Goals     100
Avoiding Premature Closure     101
Exploring for Exceptions: Building on Client Strengths and Successes     102
Exceptions     102
Definition     102
Interviewing for Exceptions     103
Ah Yan's Exceptions     104
Client Successes and Strengths     105
Respecting the Client's Words and Frame of Reference     106
Scaling Questions     106
Presession-Change Scaling     107
Scaling Motivation and Confidence     108
Exceptions: The Williams Family     110
Building toward a Difference that Makes a Difference     113
Formulating Feedback for Clients     114
Taking a Thinking Break     115
The Structure of Feedback     115
Compliments     116
The Bridge     116
Suggestions     117
Deciding on a Suggestion     117
Does the Client Want Something?     117
Are There Well-Formed Goals?     118
Are There Exceptions?     119
Feedback for Ah Yan     119
Feedback for the Williams Family     121
Feedback Guidelines      125
Common Messages     126
When Clients Do Not Perceive a Problem and Do Not Want Anything     126
When Clients Perceive a Problem But Not a Role for Themselves in a Solution     127
When Clients Want Something and See Themselves as Part of a Solution     130
Other Useful Messages     133
The Overcoming-the-Urge Suggestion     134
Addressing Competing Views of the Solution     134
Decisions about the Next Session     136
Cribsheets, Protocols, and Notetaking     137
Later Sessions: Finding, Amplifying, and Measuring Client Progress     139
"What's better?"     140
Ears     141
Ah Yan     142
Doing More of the Same     148
Scaling     148
Scaling Progress     149
Scaling Confidence     149
Next Steps     150
Termination     153
The Break     155
Feedback     156
Compliments     156
Bridge     157
Suggestion     157
The Second Session with the Williams Family     157
"What's Better?"     158
Break     164
Feedback      165
Bridge     167
Suggestion     167
Setbacks, Relapses, and Times when Nothing Is Better     168
Conclusion     169
Interviewing Clients in Involuntary Situations: Children, Dyads, and the Mandated     170
Taking a Solution Focus     172
Key Ideas for Solution Building with Clients in Involuntary Situations     172
Begin by Assuming the Client Probably Does Not Want Anything from You     173
Responding to Anger and Negativity     173
Listen for Who and What Are Important     174
Use Relationship Questions to Address Context     174
Incorporating Nonnegotiable Requirements     175
Giving Control to Clients     175
Guidelines, Useful Questions, and a Protocol for Interviewing Involuntary Clients     176
Building Solutions with Children     176
Children as Involuntary Participants     177
Getting Prepared to Meet a Child     177
Getting Started with Positives     178
Enlisting Adults as Allies     179
Getting the Child's Perceptions     180
Other Tips for Interviewing Children     184
Interviewing Dyads     188
Focus on the Relationship     189
Getting Started      189
Work toward a Common Goal     192
Other Tips     199
Conclusion     201
Working with Those Mandated into Services     201
Getting Started     202
Getting More Details about the Client's Understandings and What the Client Wants     205
Asking about Context with Relationship Questions     206
Coconstructing Competence     208
Back on Familiar Ground     210
What about Making Recommendations that the Client Opposes?     210
Final Word     212
Interviewing in Crisis Situations     213
Solution Focus versus Problem Focus     214
Getting Started: "How Can I Help?"     215
"What Have You Tried?"     216
"What Do You Want to Have Different?"     217
Asking the Miracle Question     219
Coping Questions     220
The Case of Jermaine     220
Coping Exploration     221
Connecting with the Larger Picture     223
Using Coping Questions with Clients Who Talk Suicide     223
Scaling Questions     226
Scaling Current Coping Ability     227
Scaling Presession Coping Changes     228
Scaling the Next Step     228
Scaling Motivation and Confidence     228
Feedback: Doing More of What Helps     229
Gathering Problem-Assessment Information     230
When the Client Remains Overwhelmed     232
Conclusion     233
Outcomes     235
Early Research at Brief Family Therapy Center     236
1992-1993 Study Design Participants     236
Outcome Measurement     237
Results     237
Length of Services     237
Intermediate Outcomes     238
Final Outcomes     238
Comparative Data     239
Other Studies of Solution-Focused Therapy     240
Next Steps     242
Professional Values and Human Diversity     244
Solution Building and Professional Values     245
Respecting Human Dignity     245
Individualizing Service     247
Fostering Client Vision     247
Building on Strengths     248
Encouraging Client Participation     248
Maximizing Self-Determination     248
Fostering Transferability     249
Maximizing Client Empowerment     250
Protecting Confidentiality      250
Promoting Normalization     251
Monitoring Change     252
Conclusion     252
Diversity-Competent Practice     252
Outcome Data on Diversity     254
Diversity and Satisfaction with Services     257
Agency, Group, and Community Practice     259
Solution Building and Agency Practice     259
Case Documentation in Problem-Focused Settings     259
Case Documentation in More Solution-Focused Settings     262
Case Conferences in Problem-Focused Settings     264
Case Conferences in More Solution-Focused Settings     266
Solution-Building Supervision     268
Relationships with Colleagues in Problem-Focused Settings     271
Relationships with Colleagues in Solution-Focused Settings     272
Relationships with Collaterals     272
Group and Organizational Practice     274
Group Practice     274
Organizational Practice     275
Applications     277
Introduction     277
Family Solutions: From "Problem Families to Families Finding Solutions"   Mark Stancer     279
The Need for Something Different     279
How We Did It      280
Techniques Employed     280
Differences Made     281
Case Examples     281
Katy McKeith     281
Colin James     283
Outcomes     284
Feedback from Families     285
Conclusion     285
The Woww Program   Lee Shilts     286
The Program     288
Observation and Complimenting by a Coach     288
Creating Classroom Goals     289
Scaling Classroom Success     290
Coaching     291
Outcomes     291
Conclusion     293
Solutions for Bullying in Primary Schools   Sue Young     293
The Support Group Approach to Bullying     294
Case Example     296
Making a Difference     300
Evaluation     301
Conclusion     302
Implementation of Solution-Focused Skills in a Hawai'i Prison   Lorenn Walker     302
Program Description     302
Restorative Circle     303
Inmate Training in SF Skills     304
Case Example: Restorative Circle     306
Evaluation     307
Satisfaction with Restorative Circles      307
Satisfaction with Inmate Training     308
Conclusion     308
It's a Matter of Choice   Steve de Shazer   Luc Isebaert     309
The Problem Drinking Treatment Program     309
Techniques from SFBT     310
A Case     310
Follow-Up     312
Conclusion     312
The Plumas Project: Solution-Focused Treatment of Domestic Violence Offenders   Adriana Uken   Mo Yee Lee   John Sebold     313
History     313
Shifting to a Solution Focus     313
Our Program     314
Assessment Interview     314
Sessions 1-3     315
Sessions 4-8     317
Assignments     319
Program Outcomes     320
Recidivism Rates     320
Partners' Comments     320
Group Members' Comments     320
Impact On Practitioners     322
Impact on Our Agency     323
Conclusion     323
Transforming Agency Practice through Solution-Focused Supervision   Teri Pichot     324
Why Change was Necessary     324
How I Introduced Solution-Focused Practices      325
Therapists' Views     330
Further Developments     331
Differences We have Noticed     331
Youthcare Drenthe   Peter Stam     333
Becoming a Solution-Focused Organization     333
Adopting a Paradigm Change     333
Swarm Phenomenon     334
My Vision for the Miracle Organization     334
Making the Vision Happen     336
Role of the Director     337
Conclusion     339
Theoretical Implications     340
Shifts in Client Perceptions and Definitions     341
Social Constructionism     343
Shifting Paradigms     345
Outcome Data     345
Shifting Perceptions and Definitions as a Client Strength     348
Solution-Building Tools     351
References     378
Index     388

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