Introducing Psychological Research

Overview

This revised edition provides full summaries of the most important psychological research studies and includes an expanded section on methodology. The studies have been selected to highlight the major areas of psychology and studies are grouped under headings of social, developmental, cognitive and biological psychology. This is a perfect introduction for students to the study of psychology and the areas in which these classic and contemporary studies have impacted upon.

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Overview

This revised edition provides full summaries of the most important psychological research studies and includes an expanded section on methodology. The studies have been selected to highlight the major areas of psychology and studies are grouped under headings of social, developmental, cognitive and biological psychology. This is a perfect introduction for students to the study of psychology and the areas in which these classic and contemporary studies have impacted upon.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781403900388
  • Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
  • Publication date: 2/5/2008
  • Edition description: Revised
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 560
  • Product dimensions: 7.50 (w) x 9.25 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Philip Banyard is Associate Senior Lecturer in Psychology at Nottingham Trent University and was Chief Examiner for the OCR A level in Psychology. He has written numerous articles for teachers and students of psychology, and has been teaching introdcutory level psychology for many years. Andrew Grayson is Senior Lecturer in Psychology in the Centre for Human Development and Learning at the Open University. He has taught developmental psychology, introductory psychology and research methods at degre level for over twelve years.

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Table of Contents

SECTION ONE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 1 SOCIAL INFLUENCE EIGHT OUT OF TEN OWNERS SAID THEIR CATS PREFERRED IT ASCH, S. E. (1955). Opinions and social pressure. Scientific American, 193, 31-35. BE A GOOD BOY AND DO AS YOU ARE TOLD MILGRAM, S. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 371-78. GOING UNDERGROUND PILIAVIN, I.M., RODIN, J.A & PILIVIN,J. (1969) Good Samaritanism: An underground phenomenon? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 13, 289-99 WALK ON BY LEVINE, R.M (1999) Rethinking bystander on-intervention. Human Relations, 52, 1133-1155 CHAPTER 2 SOCIAL JUDGEMENTS IS SHE REALLY GOING OUT WITH HIM? NISBETT, R. E., CAPUTO, C., LEGANT, P. & MARECEK, J. (1973). Behaviour as seen by the actor and as seen by the observer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27, 154-64. I'M NOT PREJUDICED, BUT ... LaPIERE, R. T. (1934). Attitudes vs. actions. Social Forces, 13, 230-37. CHANGING OUR MINDS FESTINGER, L. & CARLSMITH, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-10. THE MINIMAL GROUP STUDIES TAJFEL, H. (1970). Experiments in intergroup discrimination. Scientific American, 223, 96-102. SHOCK AND AWE FISCHOFF et al. (2005) Evolving Judgements of Terror Risks: Foresight, Hindsight and Emotion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: 2005, Vol 11, No2 124-139 CHAPTER 3 SOCIAL INTERACTION THE ROBBER'S CAVE SHERIF, M. (1956). Experiments in group conflict. Scientific American, 195, 54-58. TYRANNY REICHER, S & HASLAM, S.A (2006) Rethinking the Psychology of tyranny: The BBC prison study BJSP 45 1-40 THE MOTHER AND FATHER OF ALL GROUPS BALES, R.F (1955). How people interact in conferences. Scientific American 192, 31-35 THE PRISON SIMULATION HANEY, C, BANKS, W.C & ZIMBARDO, P.G ( 1973) A study of prisoners and guards in a simulated prison. Naval Research Review, 30 4-17 SMALL WORLDS AND GETTING SMALLER DODD, P. MUHAMAD, R & WATTS, D (2003) An experimental study of search in global social networks. Science, 301, 827-829 SECTION TWO COMPARATIVE AND BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 4 LEARNING THE FLIGHT OF THE KILLER PIGEONS SKINNER, B.F. (1960). Pigeons in a pelican. American Psychologist, 15, 28-37. WHAT'S YOUR PLEASURE? OLDS, J., & MILNER, P. (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of the septal area and other regions of the rat brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47, 419-427. LEARNING TO BE HELPLESS SELIGMAN, M. E. P. & MAIER, S. F. (1967). Failure to escape traumatic shock. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 1-9. TALKING TO THE ANIMALS GARDNER. R. A. & GARDNER, B. T. (1969). Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee. Science, 16-5, 664-72. BASHING BOBO BANDURA, A., ROSS, D. & ROSS, S.A (1961) Teaching Sign Language to a chimpanzee. Science, 16-5, 664-72 CHAPTER 5 COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY THE COLONY OF MONKEYS RAWLINS, R. (1979). Forty years of rhesus research. New Scientist, 82, 108-10. A FISHY TALE TINBERGEN, N. (1952). The curious behaviour of the stickleback. Scientific American, 187, 22-26. RAT CITY: THE BEHAVIOURAL SINK CALHOUN, J.13. (1962). Population density and social pathology. Scientific American, 206, 139-48. JUST MONKEYING AROUND ALEXANDER, G.M & HINES, M (2002). Sex Differences in response to children's toys in nonhuman primates. Evolution and Human Behaviour, 23, 467-479 CHAPTER 6 BIO-PSYCHOLOGY A BRAIN OF TWO HALVES SPERRY, R. W. (1968). Hemisphere deconnection and unity in conscious awareness. American Psychologist, 23, 723-33. HOW DO YOU FEEL? SCHACHTER, S. & SINGER, J. E. (1962). Cognitive, social and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychological Review, 69, 379-99. TO SLEEP, PERCHANCE TO DREAM DEMENT, W & KLEITMAN, N. (1957). The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity: An objective method for the study of dreaming. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53, 339-46. MURDERERS! RAINE, A., BUCHSBAUM, M., & LaCASSE, L. (1997). Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by positron emission tomography. Biological Psychiatry, 42(6), 495-508. WHERE DOES IT HURT? MELZACK, R. (1992) Phantom limbs. Scientific American, Apil 90-96 PART THREE DIVERSITY CHAPTER 7 IDENTITY BLACK DOLLS AND WHITE DOLLS HRABA., J & GRANT, G. (1970) Black is Beautiful. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16, 398-402 BLACK IDENTITY NOBLES, W.W (1976) Extended Self. Rethinking the so-called Negro self-concept. Journal of Black Psychology, 2 15-24 THE BOY WHO WAS RAISED AS A GIRL: PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAGEDY DIAMOND, M. & SIGMUNDSON (1997) Sex Reassignment at Birth. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine. 151. 298-304 MIRROR MIRROR ON THE WALL KOFF, E. (1983) Through the looking glass of menarche. In S. Golub (ed), Menarche, pp 77-86. Lexington, Mass:D. Heath. GIRLS JUST WANT TO HAVE FUN KITTO, J. (1989) Gender reference terms. British Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 185-87 CHAPTER 8 ABNORMALITY YOU DON'T HAVE TO BE MAD TO WORK HERE. YOU DON'T EVEN HAVE TO BE MAD TO BE IN HERE... ROSENHAN, D. L. (1973). On being sane in insane places. Science, 179, 250-58. PARANOID HUMANOID GRIFFITH, J.D et al (1973) Dextroamphetamine: Evaluation of psychimetic properties in man. Archive of General Psychiatry, 26, 97-100 THE THREE FACES OF EVE THIGPEN, C. H. & CLECKLEY, H. (1954). A case of multiple personality Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 49, 135-51. FEAR TODAY, GONE TOMORROW LANG, P. J. & LAZOVIK, A. D. (1963). Experimental desensitisation of a phobia. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 519-25. CHAPTER 9 INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES THE BIG FIVE McCRAE, R.R & COSTA, P.T (1987) Validation of the five factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 52. 81-90 MEASURING MASCULINITY AND FEMININITY BEM, S.L (1974) The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 155-62 MISMEASURING INTELLIGENCE GOULD, S.J (1982) A nation of morons. New Scientist (6 May 1982) 349-52 A BRAVE NEW WORLD PLOMIN, R., & DANIELS, D. (1987) Why are children in the same family so different from one another? Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 10 1-16 SECTION FOUR DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 10 ATTACHMENT CAN YOU HEAR ME MOTHER? HARLOW, H. F. (1959). Love in infant monkeys. Scientific American, 200, 68-74. FAMILY LIFE HODGES, J. & TIZARD, B. (1989b). Social and family relationships of ex-institutional adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 77-97. EMOTIONAL DEPRIVATION KOLUCHOVÁ J. (1972). Severe deprivation in twins: A case study Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 13, 107-14. THE BEHAVIOUR OF NEWBORN CHILDREN IN TWO DIFFERENT CULTURES BRAZELTON, T. B., KOSLOWSKI, B., & TRONICK, E. (1976). Neonatal behavior among urban Zambians and Americans. Journal of Child Psychiatry, 15, 97-107. CHAPTER 11 THE CLASSIC APPROACHES I WANT A GIRL, JUST LIKE THE GIRL THAT MARRIED DEAR OLD DAD FREUD, S. (1909) Analysis of a phobia of five year old boy.. The Pelican Freud Library (1977), Vol 8, Case Histories 1, pp 169-306 PIAGET'S COGNITIVE APPROACH SAMUEL, J. & BRYANT, P. (1984) Asking only one question in the conservation experiment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 25 315-18 THE TALE OF LITTLE ALBERT WATSON, J.B & RAYNER, R (1920) Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3 1-14. VYGOTSKY'S SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVIST APRROACH WOOD, WOOD & MIDDLETON (1978) An experimental evaluation of four face-to-face teaching strategies. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 1, 131-147 CHAPTER 12 COMMUNICATION THE DANCE OF THE NEONATES CONDON, W. S. & SANDER, L. W. (1974). Neonate movement is synchronized with adult speech: Interactional participation and language acquisition. Science, 183, 99-101. LISTEN WITH MOTHER FERNALD, A. (1985). Four-month-old infants prefer to listen to motherese. Infant Behavior and Development, 8, 181-95. TALKING PROPER LABOV, W. (1969). The logic of nonstandard English. In P. P. Giglioli (ed.) Language and Social Context, pp. 179-215. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin. Originally in Georgetown Monographs on Language and Linguistics, 2, 1-31. ALL THE KING'S HORSES AND ALL THE KING'S MEN.., BRYANT, P.E., BRADLEY, L., MacLEAN, M., & CROSSLAND, J. (1989) Nursery rhymes, phonological skills and reading. Journal of Child Language, 16 407-428 SECTION FIVE COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 13 MEMORY REMEMBERING PICTURES BARTLETT, F. C. (1932). Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology, pp. 177-85. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY LOFTUS, E. F. & PALMER, J. C. (1974). Reconstruction of auto-mobile destruction; An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 585-89. MODELS OF MEMORY CRAIK, F. I. M. & LOCKHART, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671-84. FALSE OR RECOVERED MEMORIES LOFTU, E. & PICKERELL, J. (1995) The formation of false memories. Psychiatric Annals, 25, 720-725 CHAPTER 14 PERCEPTION WALKING OFF A CLIFF GIBSON, E. J. & WALK, R. D. (1960). The 'visual cliff'. Scientific American, 202, 64-71. WHY DID THE ANTELOPE CROSS THE ROAD? DEREGOWSKI, J. B. (1972). Pictorial perception and culture. Scientific American, 227, 82-88. WALK LIKE A MAN ... KOZLOWSKI, L.T. & CUTTING, J.E. (1977) Recognizing the Sex of a Walker from a Dynamic Point-Light Display. Perception and Psychophysics, 21(6), 575-580 ARE YOU HAVING A LAUGH? CARROLL, P.J, YOUNG, J.R & GUERTIN, M.S. (1992) Visual Analysis of Cartoons. Eye Movements and Visual Cognition: Scene Perception and Reading, pp 444-461. New York: Springer-Verlag. CHAPTER 15 MIND AND THOUGHT AUTISM AND THEORIES OF MIND BARON-COHEN, S., LESLIE, A.M. & FRITH, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a 'theory of mind'? Cognition, 21, 37-46. I'M SORRY DAVE, I CAN'T DO THAT SEARLE, J. R. (1980). Minds, brains and programs. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3, 417-57. IS IT A BIRD, IS IT A PLANE ...? COLLINS, A.M. & QUILLIAN, M.R. (1969) Retrieval Time from Semantic Memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 8, 240-47 WHAT COLOUR IS WEDNESDAY? RAMANCHANDRAN, V.S & HUBBARD, E.M (2001) Psychophysical investigations into the neural basis of synaesthesia. Proceedings of the Royal Society London, 268, 979-983 CHAPTER 16 ATTENTION NOW YOU SEE IT, NOW YOU DON'T SPERLING, G. (1960) Psychological Monographs, 74 (11, whole No 498) LISTENING WITH ONE EAR GRAY, J.A & WEDDERBURN, A.A.I (1960) Grouping Strategies with simulataneous stimuli. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 180-194 MONKEY BUSINESS SIMONS, D.J & CHABRIS, C.F (1999) Gorillas in our midst. Perception, 28, 1059-1074 SECTION SIX PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS CHAPTER 17 ANALYSING DATA AIDS AND UNCERTAINTY WEITZ, R. (1989) Uncertainty and the lives of persons with AIDS, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 30, 270-81 DISCOURSE ANALYSIS POTTER, J. & EDWARDS, D. (1990) Nigel Lawson's tent: Discourse analysis, attribution theory and the social psychology of fact. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 405-24 SHRINK WRAPPED: THE CHOICE OF THERAPIST SMITH, M.L &GLASS, G.V (1977) Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies. American Psychologist, 32, 752-60 LIFE IS STRESS HOLMES, T.H. & RAHE, R.H (1967) The social re-adjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213-18 CHAPTER 18 ISSUES IN RESEARCH DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS ORNE, M. T. (1962). On the social psychology of the psychological experiment: With particular reference to demand characteristics and their implications. American Psychologist, 17, 776-83. WHO ARE PSYCHOLOGY'S SUBJECTS? SEARS D. O. (1986). College sophomores in the laboratory: Influences of a narrow data base on psychology's view of human nature. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 513-30. DULL RATS AND BRIGHT RATS ROSENTHAL, R. & FODE, K. L. (1963). The effect of experimenter bias on the performance of the albino rat. Behavioral Science, 8, 183-89. HOW GULLIBLE ARE YOU? FORER, B.R. (1949) The fallacy of personal validation: A classroom demonstration of gullibility. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 44 118-21 why psychology MILLER, G.A (1969) Psychology as a means of promoting human welfare. American Psychologist, 24 1063-1075 CHAPTER 19 HOW DOES PSYCHOLOGICAL RSEARCH GET DONE? DATA AND DATA ANALYSIS RESEARCH METHOS AND DESIGNS QUALITY CONTROL

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