Introduction To 12-Lead ECG: The Art Of Interpretation / Edition 1

Introduction To 12-Lead ECG: The Art Of Interpretation / Edition 1

by Tomas B. Garcia
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0763719617

ISBN-13: 9780763719616

Pub. Date: 04/08/2002

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

This Text Is A Comprehensive Guide For Beginners With Minimal Experience Interpreting Ecgs. The Chapters Provide A Basic Understanding Of The Components Of An ECG As Well As Introduce The Important Topics Of Acute Myocardial Infarction, Hypertrophy, And Bundle Branch Blocks. Real-Life, Full-Size, Four-Color Ecgs With Basic Interpretations Are Included To Help Students

Overview

This Text Is A Comprehensive Guide For Beginners With Minimal Experience Interpreting Ecgs. The Chapters Provide A Basic Understanding Of The Components Of An ECG As Well As Introduce The Important Topics Of Acute Myocardial Infarction, Hypertrophy, And Bundle Branch Blocks. Real-Life, Full-Size, Four-Color Ecgs With Basic Interpretations Are Included To Help Students Put It All Together. Additional Resources Are Available At Www.12Leadecg.Com.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780763719616
Publisher:
Jones & Bartlett Learning
Publication date:
04/08/2002
Edition description:
1E
Pages:
236
Product dimensions:
8.40(w) x 10.80(h) x 0.40(d)

Table of Contents

Part 1The Basics1
Chapter 1Anatomy3
Gross Anatomy3
Anterior View3
The Heart in Cross Section4
The Heart as a Pump4
Pump Function Simplified5
The Electrical Conduction System6
Pacemaker Function7
Pacemaker Settings7
The Sinoatrial (SA) Node8
The Internodal Pathways8
The Atrioventricular (AV) Node9
The Bundle of His9
The Left Bundle Branch (LBB)10
The Right Bundle Branch (RBB)10
The Left Anterior Fascicle (LAF)11
The Left Posterior Fascicle (LPF)11
The Purkinje System12
Chapter in Review13
Chapter 2Electrophysiology15
Mechanics of Contraction15
Ion Movement and Polarity16
Membrane Channels and Action Potential Phases18
Chapter in Review20
Chapter 3Individual Vectors21
Adding and Subtracting Vectors21
The Electrical Axis of the Heart22
Electrodes and Waves22
Leads Are Like Pictures of the Heart23
Lead Placement (Where to Put the "Cameras")23
How the Machine Manipulates the Leads24
The Two Lead Systems24
The Hexaxial System24
The Precordial System25
The Heart in Three Dimensions25
Localizing an Area: Inferior Wall26
Localizing Other Areas27
Chapter in Review28
Chapter 4The Actual ECG: Paper and Ink29
Boxes and Sizes29
Calibration30
Where Is Each Lead Represented?30
Temporal Relationship of the ECG31
Why Is Temporal Spacing Important?31
Chapter in Review32
Chapter 5ECG Tools33
Calipers: The ECG Interpreter's Best Friend33
How to Use Your Calipers34
Comparing Wave Heights34
Adding Wave Heights35
Comparing Widths36
Axis-Wheel Ruler36
ECG Rulers36
Straight Edge37
Chapter 6The Basic Beat39
Introduction to Basic Components39
Wave Nomenclature39
Individual Components of the ECG Complex40
The P Wave40
The Tp Wave41
The PR Segment41
The PR Interval42
The QRS Complex42
The ST Segment44
The T Wave44
The QT Interval46
The U Wave46
Additional Intervals47
Looking Ahead47
Chapter in Review48
Chapter 7The Rate49
Establishing the Rate49
Normal and Fast Rates49
Bradycardic Rates50
Chapter in Review52
Chapter 8Rhythms53
Major Concepts53
General53
P Waves54
QRS Complexes54
Individual Rhythms55
Supraventricular Rhythms55
Ventricular Rhythms63
Heart Blocks68
Chapter in Review70
Part 2ECG Interpretation71
Chapter 9The Basic Beat: A Clinical Correlation73
The P Wave73
Overview73
ECG Case Studies: Identifying the P Wave73
P Wave Morphology74
ECG Case Study: P Wave Morphology74
ECG Case Studies: Identifying Ectopic P Waves75
The PR Interval76
Conduction Overview76
The PR Segment77
PR Depression77
ECG Case Study: PR Depression78
Measuring the Interval79
ECG Case Studies: Identifying the PR Interval80
While We Are on the Topic of PR Intervals ...81
The QRS Complex82
How Are the QRS Waves Made?82
What to Look for in the QRS Complex84
QRS Height (Amplitude)84
QRS Duration88
ECG Case Studies: Wide QRS Complexes88
Q Wave Significance90
Significant (Pathological) Q Waves91
ST Segment and T Wave Basics94
Where Is the J Point?95
ST Elevation or Depression96
ST Segment Shapes96
The T Wave97
ECG Case Studies: ST Segment and T Wave99
Hyperkalemia and Its Effects101
QT Interval102
Chapter in Review103
Self-Test ECGs104
Chapter 10The Electrical Axis113
How to Calculate the Electrical Axis114
The Hexaxial System114
Applying the System115
Isolating the Electrical Axis117
Getting Close Enough117
Causes of Left Axis Deviation (LAD)119
Causes of Right Axis Deviation (RAD)119
Why Is the Axis Important?121
Chapter in Review121
Chapter 11Bundle Branch Blocks and Hemiblocks123
Bundle Branch Blocks123
What Happens If One Side Is Blocked?124
Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB)125
ECG Case Study: Right Bundle Branch Block127
Left Bundle Branch Block129
ECG Case Study: Left Bundle Branch Block131
The Hemiblocks132
Left Anterior Hemiblock (LAH)133
ECG Case Study: Left Anterior Hemiblock134
Left Posterior Hemiblock135
ECG Case Study: Left Posterior Hemiblock136
Final Thoughts137
Chapter in Review137
Self-Test ECGs138
Chapter 12Hypertrophy147
Muscle Mass, Dilation, and Vectors147
Isolating the Problem and Location147
Atrial Enlargement148
Left Atrial Enlargement (LAE)148
ECG Case Studies: P-mitrale148
Right Atrial Enlargement (RAE)149
ECG Case Studies: P-pulmonale149
ECG Case Studies: IACD, RAE, and LAE150
Biatrial Enlargement151
ECG Case Study: Biatrial Enlargement151
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy152
Electrocardiographic Criteria for LVH152
Axis in LVH152
Identifying LVH, Step by Step153
ECG Case Studies: Left Ventricular Hypertrophy154
Right Ventricular Hypertrophy (RVH)155
RVH and the ECG156
Strain Pattern157
LVH with Strain157
ECG Case Study: LVH with Strain158
RVH with Strain160
Chapter in Review160
Self-Test ECGs161
Chapter 13Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)171
Introduction171
Zones of Ischemia, Injury, and Infarction173
Infarct and Q Waves174
Q Wave Infarct174
Non-Q Wave Infarct175
ECG Progression in Infarct176
Reciprocal Changes177
Infarct Regions on the ECG178
Infarct Regions in Combination179
Anterior Wall AMI180
Anteroseptal AMI181
ECG Case Studies: Anteroseptal AMI182
Anteroseptal AMI with Lateral Extension185
ECG Case Studies: Anteroseptal AMI with Lateral Extension186
Lateral Wall AMI189
ECG Case Studies: Lateral Wall AMI189
Inferior Wall AMI (IWMI)191
ECG Case Study: Inferior Wall AMI191
Inferolateral AMI193
ECG Case Studies: Inferolateral AMI194
Additional ECG Leads197
Placing Additional Right-Sided Leads198
Placing Additional Posterior Leads198
A Needed Disclaimer ...199
Chapter in Review200
Self-Test ECGs201
Final Review211
Acronyms225
Glossary227
Index233

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