Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry / Edition 1

Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry / Edition 1

by Daniel Jacob
     
 

ISBN-10: 0691001855

ISBN-13: 9780691001852

Pub. Date: 12/21/1999

Publisher: Princeton University Press

Atmospheric chemistry is one of the fastest growing fields in the earth sciences. Until now, however, there has been no book designed to help students capture the essence of the subject in a brief course of study. Daniel Jacob, a leading researcher and teacher in the field, addresses that problem by presenting the first textbook on atmospheric chemistry for a

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Overview

Atmospheric chemistry is one of the fastest growing fields in the earth sciences. Until now, however, there has been no book designed to help students capture the essence of the subject in a brief course of study. Daniel Jacob, a leading researcher and teacher in the field, addresses that problem by presenting the first textbook on atmospheric chemistry for a one-semester course. Based on the approach he developed in his class at Harvard, Jacob introduces students in clear and concise chapters to the fundamentals as well as the latest ideas and findings in the field.

Jacob's aim is to show students how to use basic principles of physics and chemistry to describe a complex system such as the atmosphere. He also seeks to give students an overview of the current state of research and the work that led to this point. Jacob begins with atmospheric structure, design of simple models, atmospheric transport, and the continuity equation, and continues with geochemical cycles, the greenhouse effect, aerosols, stratospheric ozone, the oxidizing power of the atmosphere, smog, and acid rain. Each chapter concludes with a problem set based on recent scientific literature. This is a novel approach to problem-set writing, and one that successfully introduces students to the prevailing issues.

This is a major contribution to a growing area of study and will be welcomed enthusiastically by students and teachers alike.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780691001852
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
Publication date:
12/21/1999
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
264
Sales rank:
1,078,044
Product dimensions:
6.38(w) x 9.54(h) x 0.88(d)

Table of Contents


Preface xi

1 - Measures of Atmospheric Composition 3

1.1 Mixing Ratio 3

1.2 Number Density 4

1.3 Partial Pressure 8

Further Reading 11

Problems 11

1.1 Fog Formation 11

1.2 Phase Partitioning of Water in Cloud 11

1.3 The Ozone Layer 11

2 - Atmospheric Pressure 14

2.1 Measuring Atmospheric Pressure 14

2.2 Mass of the Atmosphere 14

2.3 Vertical Profiles of Pressure and Temperature 16

2.4 Barometric Law 18

2.5 The Sea-Breeze Circulation 21

Problems 22

2.1 Scale Height of the Martian Atmosphere 22

2.2 Scale Height and Atmospheric Mass 22

3 - Simple Models 24

3.1 One-Box Model 25

3.1.1 Concept of Lifetime 25

3.1.2 Mass Balance Equation 27

3.2 Multibox Models 30

3.3 Puff Models 33

Problems 36

3.1 Atmospheric Steady State 36

3.2 Ventilation of Pollution from the United States 37

3.3 Stratosphere- Troposphere Exchange 37

3.4 Interhemispheric Exchange 39

3.5 Long Range Transport of Acidity 39

3.6 Box versus Column Model for an Urban Airshed 40

3.7 The Montreal Protocol 40

4 - Atmospheric Transport 42

4.1 Geostrophic Flow 42

4.1.1 Coriolis Force 42

4.1.2 Geostrophic Balance 46

4.2 The General Circulation 48

4.3 Vertical Transport 53

4.3.1 Buoyancy 53

4.3.2 Atmospheric Stability 55

4.3.3 Adiabatic Lapse Rate 56

4.3.4 Latent Heat Release from Cloud Formation 58

4.3.5 Atmospheric Lapse Rate 60

4.4 Turbulence 63

4.4.1 Description of Turbulence 64

4.4.2 Turbulent Flux 64

4.4.3 Parameterization of Turbulence 67

4.4.4 Time Scales for Vertical Transport 70

Further Readinng 71

Problems 71

4.1 Dilution of Power Plant Plumes 71

4.2 Short Questions on Atmospheric Transport 72

4.3 Seasonal Motion of the ITCZ 73

4.4 A Simple Boundary Layer Model 74

4.5 Breaking a Nightime Inversion 74

4.6 Wet Convection 75

4.7 Scavenging of Water in a Thunderstorm 76

4.8 Global Source of Methane 76

4.9 Role of Molecular Diffusion in Atmosheric Transport 77

4.10 Vertical Transport Near the Surface 78

5 - The Continuity Equation 79

5.1 Eulerian Form 79

5.1.1 Derivation 79

5.1.2 Discretization 81

5.2 Lagrangian Form 84

Further Reading 85

Problems 85

5.1 Turbulent Diffusion Coefficient 85

6 - Geochemical Cycles 87

6.1 Geochemical Cycling of Elements 87

6.2 Early Evolution of the Atmosphere 89

6.3 The Nitrogen Cycle 90

6.4 The Oxygen Cycle 94

6.5 The Carbon Cycle 97

6.5.1 Mass Balance of Atmospheric CO2 97

6 5.2 Carbonate Chemistry in the Ocean 97

6.5.3 Uptake of CO2 by the Ocean 100

6 5.4 Uptake of CO2 by the Terrestrial Biosphere 104

6 5.5 Box Model of the Carbon Cycle 105

Further Reading 107

Problems 107

6.1 Short Questions on the Oxygen Cycle 107

6.2 Short Questions on the Carbon Cycle 108

6.3 Atmospheric Residence Time of Helium 108

6.4 Methyl Bromide 109

6.5 Global Fertilization of the Biosphere 111

6.6 Ocean pH 111

6.7 Cycling of CO2 with the Terrestrial Biosphere 112

6.8 Sinks of Atmospheric CO2 Deduced from Changes in Atmospheric O2 113

6.9 Fossil Fuel CO2 Neutralization by Marine CaCO3 113

7 - The Greenhouse Effect 115

7.1 Radiation 118

7.2 Effective Temperature of the Earth 121

7.2.1 Solar and Terrestrial Emission Spectra 121

7.2.2 Radiative Balance of the Earth 122

7.3 Absorption of Radiation by the Atmosphere 126

7.3.1 Spectroscopy of Gas Molecules 126

7.3.2 A Simple Greenhouse Model 128

7.3.3 Interpretation of the Terrestrial Radiation Spectrum 131

7.4 Radiative Forcing 133

7.4.1 Definition of Radiative Forcing 133

7.4.2 Application 135

7.4.3 Radiative Forcing and Surface Temperature 137

7.5 Water Vapor and Cloud Feedbacks 138

7.5.1 Water Vapor 138

7.5.2 Clouds 140

7.6 Optical Depth 140

Further Reading 142

Problems 142

7.1 Climate Response to Changes in Ozone 142

7.2 Interpretation of the Terrestrial Radiation Spectrum 143

7.3 Jupiter and Mars 144

7.4 The "Faint Sun " Problem 144

7.5 Planetary Skin 145

7.6 Absorption in the Atmospheric Window 145

8 - Aerosols 146

8.1 Sources and Sinks of Aerosols 146

8.2 Radiative Effects 148

8.2.1 Scattering of Radiation 148

8.2.2 Visibility Reduction 150

8.2.3 Perturbation to Climate 151

Further Reading 154

Problems 155

8.1 Residence Times of Aerosols 155

8.2 Aerosols and Radiation 155

9 - Chemical Kinetics 157

9.1 Rate Expressions for Gas-Phase Reactions 157

9.1.1 Bimolecular Reactions 157

9.1.2 Three-Body Reactions 158

9.2 Reverse Reactions and Chemical Equilibria 159

9.3 Photolysis 160

9.4 Radical-Assisted Reaction Chains 161

Further Reading 163

10 - Stratospheric Ozone 164

10.1 Chapman Mechanism 164

10.1.1 The Mechanism 164

10.1.2 Steady-State Solution 166

10.2 Catalytic Loss Cycles 171

10.2.1 Hydrogen Oxide Radicals (HOx) 171

10.2.2 Nitrogen Oxide Radicals (NOx)) 172

10.2.3 Chlorine Radicals (CIOx) 177

10.3 Polar Ozone Loss 179

10.3.1 Mechanism for Ozone Loss 181

10.3.2 PSC Formation 183

10.3.3 Chronology of the Ozone Hole 185

Problems 191

10.1 Shape of the Ozone Layer 191

10.2 The Chapman Mechanism and Steady State 191

10.3 The Detailed Chapman Mechanism 192

10.4 HOx-Catalyzed Ozone Loss 193

10.5 Chlorine Chemistry at Midlatitudes 193

10.6 Partitioning of Cly 195

10.7 Bromine-Catalyzed Ozone Loss 196

10.8 Limitation of Antarctic Ozone Depletion 197

10.9 Fixing the Ozone Hole 198

10.10 PSC Formation 199

11 - Oxidizing Power of the Troposphere 200

11.1 The Hydroxyl Radical 201

11.1.1 Tropospheric Production of OH 201

11.1.2 Global Mean OH Concentration 203

11.2 Global Budgets of CO and Methane 205

11.3 Cycling of HOx and Production of Ozone 207

11.3.1 The OH Titration Problem 207

11.3.2 CO Oxidation Mechanism 207

11.3.3 Methane Oxidation Mechanism 210

11.4 Global Budget of Nitrogen Oxides 212

11.5 Global Budget of Tropospheric Ozone 215

11.6 Anthropogenic Influence on Ozone and OH 216

Further Reading 219

Problems 219

11.1 Sources of CO 219

11.2 Sources of Tropospheric Ozone 220

11.3 Oxidizing Power of the Atmosphere 221

11.4 OH Concentrations in the Past 223

11.5 Acetone in the Upper Troposphere 223

11.6 Transport, Rainout, and Chemistry in the Marine

Upper Troposphere 225

11.7 Bromine Chemistry in the Troposphere 227

11.8 Nighttime Oxidation of NOx 228

11.9 Peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) as a Reservoir for NOx 229

12 - Ozone Air Pollution 231

12.1 Air Pollution and Ozone 231

12.2 Ozone Formation and Control Strategies 233

12.3 Ozone Production Efficiency 240

Further Reading 242

Problems 242

12.1 NOx- and Hydrocarbon-Limited Regimes for Ozone Production 242

12.2 Ozone Titration in a Fresh Plume 243

13 - Acid Rain 245

13.1 Chemical Composition of Precipitation 245

13.1.1 Natural Precipitation 245

13.1.2 Precipitation over North America 246

13.2 Sources of Acids: Sulfur Chemistry 249

13.3 Effects of Acid Rain 250

13.4 Emission Trends 252

Problems 253

13.1 What Goes Up Must Come Down 253

13.2 The True Acidity of Rain 253

13.3 Aqueous-Phase Oxidation of SO2 by Ozone 253

13.4 The Acid Fog Problem 254

13.5 Acid Rain: The Preindustrial Atmosphere

Numerical Solutions to Problems 257

Appendix. Physical Data and Units 259

Index 261

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