Introduction to Coastal Engineering and Management (2nd Edition) / Edition 2

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Overview

"This book is based on the author's 34 years of experience as a teacher/researcher of coastal engineering and management and on recent reflections on newly relevant issues, such as consequences of failure, impacts of rising sea levels, aging infrastructure, real estate development, and contemporary decision making, design and education." "This textbook for undergraduate students, postgraduate students and practicing engineers covers waves, structures, sediment movement, coastal management, and contemporary coastal design and decision making, presenting both basic principles and engineering solution. It discusses the traditional methods of analysis and synthesis (design), but also contemporary design taking into account environmental impacts, consequences of failure, and current concerns such as global warming, aging infrastructure, working with stakeholder groups, regulators, etc." This second edition expands greatly on the topics of failure and resilience that surfaced as a result of recent disasters from hurricane surges and tsunamis. It updates the discussion of design and decision making in the 21st century, with many new examples presented.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9789812834843
  • Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 5/31/2010
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 564
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface to 2nd Edition

Preface to 1st Edition

Notation

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Synthesis 4

1.3 Simplification 4

1.4 Systems 6

1.5 Jargon and Terminology 11

1.6 Engineering Time 12

1.7 Handy References 13

1.8 Data Requirements 15

1.9 Coastal Design 20

1.10 Concluding Remarks 22

2 Water Waves 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.1.1 Description of Waves 25

2.1.2 Wind and Waves 27

2.1.3 Sea and Swell 29

2.1.4 Introduction to Small Amplitude Wave Theory 32

2.2 Wave Theories 34

2.3 Small Amplitude Wave Theory 36

2.3.1 Wave Tables 37

2.3.2 Small Amplitude Expressions 41

2.3.3 Calculation by Computer 45

2.4 Reflected Waves 47

2.5 Wave Measurement 49

2.5.1 Wave Direction 49

2.5.2 Equipment 51

2.5.3 Laboratory Sensors 54

2.6 Summary 55

3 Short-Term Wave Analysis 57

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 Short-Term Wave Height Distribution 60

3.3 Wave Period Distribution 65

3.4 Time Domain Analysis of a Wave Record 66

3.5 Frequency Domain Analysis of a Wave Record 70

3.6 Parameters Derived from the Wave Spectrum 76

3.7 Uncertainties in Wave Measurements 79

3.8 Common Parametric Expressions for Wave Spectra 81

3.9 Directional Wave Spectra 85

4 Long-Term Wave Analysis 87

4.1 Introduction 87

4.2 Statistical Analysis of Grouped Wave Data 88

4.3 Transformation of Coordinate Axes 90

4.3.1 Normal Probability Distribution 92

4.3.2 Log-Normal Probability Distribution 94

4.3.3 Gumbel Distribution 95

4.3.4 Weibull Distribution 96

4.4 Extrapolation 99

4.5 Sensitivity to Distribution and Threshold Wave Height 100

4.6 Extreme Value Analysis from Ordered Data 101

4.7 Conclusions about Wave Heights 104

4.8 Other Long-Term Wave Distributions 105

5 Wave Generation 109

5.1 Wave Generation 109

5.2 Simple Wave Hindcasting 111

5.2.1 Introduction to Parametric Methods 111

5.2.2 Wind 112

5.2.3 Jonswap Parameters 114

5.2.4 Maximum Wave Conditions 118

5.2.5 Finite Water Depth 120

5.3 Hindcast Models 121

5.3.1 Parametric Models 121

5.3.2 Wave Spectra Models 122

5.3.3 More Complex Hindcasting Models 124

5.4 Uncertainty 124

6 Wave Transformation and Breaking 125

6.1 Wave Transformation Equations 125

6.2 Wave Shoaling 127

6.3 Wave Refraction 128

6.3.1 The Equations 128

6.3.2 Refraction Diagrams 129

6.3.3 Snell's Law 132

6.3.4 Summary 134

6.4 Wave Breaking 135

6.5 Wave Diffraction 141

6.6 Uncertainty 144

7 Tides and Water Levels 145

7.1 Introduction 145

7.2 Tides 146

7.2.1 Equilibrium Tide (Moon) 147

7.2.2 Equilibrium Tide (Sun and Moon) 148

7.2.3 Daily Inequality 148

7.2.4 Other Effects 151

7.2.5 Tide Analysis and Prediction 152

7.2.6 Tidal Propagation 153

7.2.7 Tidal Currents 156

7.2.8 Stratification and Density Currents 160

7.2.9 Tidal Computation 163

7.3 Storm Surge 164

7.4 Barometric Surge 167

7.5 Seiche 167

7.6 Seasonal Fluctuations 171

7.7 Long-Term Water Level Changes 172

7.7.1 Climatic Fluctuations 172

7.7.2 Eustatic (Sea) Level Change 173

7.7.3 Isostatic (Land) Rebound and Subsidence 174

7.7.4 Global Climate Change 176

8 Rare Extraneous Events 187

8.1 Introduction 187

8.2 Cyclone-Generated Storm Surge 189

8.2.1 Hurricane Katrina at new Orleans 190

8.3 Tsunamis 195

8.3.1 Tsunamis Generated by Earthquakes 196

8.3.2 Tsunamis Generated by Landslides 201

8.4 Transformation and Breaking of Long Waves 205

9 Design of Structures 207

9.1 Introduction 207

9.2 Basics of Probabilistic Design 208

9.2.1 Introduction 208

9.2.2 Probability of Failure 209

9.2.3 Levels of Probabilistic Design 210

9.3 Level II Demonstration 211

9.3.1 Equations 211

9.3.2 Two Probability Distributions 212

9.3.3 One Single Distribution 214

9.3.4 Example Calculations 216

9.4 Extension to More Complex Designs 217

9.5 Encounter Probability 218

9.6 Level I Design 219

9.7 Risk and Damage 221

9.8 The Design Wave 222

9.8.1 Wave Statistics 222

9.8.2 Equivalence of Design Wave Height and Failure Probability 223

9.8.3 Offshore Design Wave Height 224

9.8.4 Design Wave Height for Non-Breaking Waves 225

9.8.5 Design Wave Height for Breaking Waves 227

9.8.6 Model Study 230

9.9 Water Levels 230

10 Breakwaters 233

10.1 Vertical Breakwaters 233

10.1.1 Introduction 233

10.1.2 Forces for Non-Breaking Waves 234

10.1.3 Forces for Breaking Waves 239

10.1.4 Stability Design 242

10.1.5 Geotechnical Stability 244

10.1.6 Other Design Considerations 245

10.2 Design Examples 247

10.2.1 Vertical Breakwater in 12 m of Water with a Short Fetch 247

10.2.2 Vertical Breakwater in 12 m of Water on an Open Coast 248

10.2.3 Vertical Breakwater in 3 m of Water 251

10.2.4 Summary 253

10.3 Rubble Mound Breakwaters 253

10.3.1 Filter Characteristics 253

10.3.2 Rock Armor 255

10.3.3 Concrete Armor 259

10.3.4 Armor Unit Density 260

10.3.5 Primary Armor Layer 261

10.3.6 Breakwater Crest 262

10.4 Design Examples 264

10.4.1 Breakwater in 12 m of Water 264

10.4.2 Breakwater in 3 m of Water 267

10.5 Berm Breakwaters 268

11 Introduction to Coastal Management 271

11.1 Introduction 271

11.2 Decision Making 271

11.3 The Coast under Pressure 276

11.4 Conforming Use 277

11.5 Conflict and Compatibility 281

11.6 Management Strategies 283

11.7 Coastal Management in Spite of the Odds 285

11.8 Management of Coastal Lands 287

11.9 Management of Coastal Waters 290

11.9.1 Groundwater 290

11.9.2 Waste Water 292

11.9.3 Other Forms of Pollution 294

11.10 Example: Management of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Shoreline 295

11.11 Example: Management of Coastal Ecosystems 300

11.12 Concluding Remarks 303

12 Coastal Sediment Transport 307

12.1 Introduction 307

12.2 Dynamic Beach Profile 307

12.3 Cross-Shore Transport 312

12.3.1 Dune-Beach Utopia 312

12.3.2 Dune-Beach Disturbance 313

12.3.3 Dune-Beach Encouragement 314

12.3.4 Soft Protection 320

12.4 Alongshore Sediment Transport 321

12.4.1 The Process 321

12.4.2 Measurement of Littoral Transport 323

12.4.3 Computation of Littoral Transport 324

12.5 Complications 324

12.5.1 Limited Amounts of Beach Material 325

12.5.2 Sediment Transport in Two Directions 326

12.5.3 Short Term Littoral Transport 328

12.6 Cohesive Shores 328

13 Basic Shore Processes 333

13.1 Introduction 333

13.2 Nearshore Current Patterns 333

13.3 Littoral Materials 335

13.4 The Beach 337

13.4.1 Beach Slope 337

13.4.2 Beach Profile 338

13.5 Cross Shore Sediment Transport 340

13.6 Alongshore Sediment Transport Rate 342

13.6.1 Alongshore Component of Wave Power 343

13.6.2 CERC Expression 344

13.6.3 Kamphuis (1991) Expression 345

13.7 Actual Alongshore Sediment Transport Rate 346

13.8 The Littoral Cell 348

13.9 Uncertainty 350

14 Coastal Design 351

14.1 Introduction 351

14.2 Model Classification 354

14.2.1 Time-Space Classification 354

14.2.2 Classification by Purpose 356

14.3 Physical Models 357

14.3.1 General 357

14.3.2 Scaling and Scale Effect 359

14.3.3 Laboratory Effect 364

14.3.4 Implications for Physical Modeling 364

14.4 Numerical Modeling 365

14.4.1 General 365

14.4.2 Simplifications of Three-Dimensional Models 368

14.4.3 One-Dimensional Models and their Extensions 371

14.4.4 Performance of Coastal Models 372

14.5 Field Measurement and Data Models 374

14.6 Uncertainty 375

14.7 Reducing Uncertainty 377

14.8 Model Interpretation 379

14.9 The Future 381

14.10 Composite Modeling 383

14.11 Summary 388

15 One-Dimensional Modeling of Coastal Morphology 391

15.1 Introduction 391

15.2 The 1-D Morphology Equation 392

15.3 Sediment Transport Rate 393

15.3.1 Potential Sediment Transport Rate 393

15.3.2 Actual Sediment Transport Rate 394

15.4 Wave Transformation Computation 395

15.4.1 Wave Shoaling, Refraction and Breaking 395

15.4.2 Wave Diffraction 395

15.5 Analytical Computation of Shore Morphology 398

15.5.1 Simplifications and Assumptions 398

15.5.2 Complete Barrier Solution 400

15.5.3 Bypassing Barrier Solution 402

15.6 Numerical Solutions 405

15.6.1 Basics 405

15.6.2 Implicit Finite Difference Scheme 407

15.6.3 Boundary Conditions 410

15.6.4 Beach Slope 412

15.6.5 Large Shoreline Curvature 413

15.6.6 Summary 414

15.7 Examples of ONELINE 415

15.8 Examples of NLINE 420

16 Shore Protection 423

16.1 Introduction 423

16.2 Sediment Movement 425

16.3 Groins 426

16.4 Seawalls 431

16.5 Headlands 434

16.6 Offshore Breakwaters 436

16.7 Artificial Nourishment 439

16.8 Concluding Remarks 444

17 Contemporary Concepts 447

17.1 Introduction 447

17.2 Decision Making 448

17.3 Contemporary Coastal System Design 451

17.4 Contemporary Decision Making 452

17.5 Failure, Mitigation and Adaptation 455

17.6 Risk and Minimum Cost 458

17.7 Resilience 460

17.7.1 Introduction of Resilience 461

17.7.2 Level 1---Design of a Resilient PES 463

17.8 Uncertainty 466

18 Problems 469

18.1 Introduction 469

Problem 1.1 Preparation 469

Problem 1.2 Proposal 469

18.2 Water Waves 471

Problem 2.1 Basic Wave Calculations 471

Problem 2.2 Wave Reflection 472

18.3 Short-Term Wave Analysis 473

Problem 3.1 Analysis of Fig. 3.4 473

Problem 3.2 Analysis of Collected Wave Data 474

Problem 3.3 Rayleigh Distribution 474

Problem 3.4 Zero Crossing Analysis 475

Problem 3.5 Wave Spectrum 475

Problem 3.6 Laboratory Record 476

18.4 Long-Term Wave Analysis 477

Problem 4.1 Station 13 Data 477

Problem 4.2 North Sea Wave Climate 478

Problem 4.3 Gulf of St. Lawrence Climate 479

Problem 4.4 50-Year Storm 479

18.5 Wave Hindcasting 479

Problem 5.1 Very Simple Wave Hindcast 479

Problem 5.2 Simple Wave Hindcast 480

Problem 5.3 WAVGEN and Shallow Water 480

18.6 Wave Transformation 481

Problem 6.1 Wave Refraction and Breaking 481

Problem 6.2 Wave Transformation 482

Problem 6.3 Wave Diffraction 483

18.7 Storm Surge and Extraneous Events 483

Problem 7.1 Storm Surge at Reeds Bay 483

Problem 7.2 Storm Surge and Waves 484

Problem 7.3 Storm Surge and Waves at Site S 484

Problem 7.4 Tsunami Damage on the Maldives 484

Problem 7.5 Sea Level Rise and the Maldives 484

18.8 Design 485

Problem 8.1 Probability of Failure 485

Problem 8.2 Vertical Breakwater 486

Problem 8.3 Vertical Breakwater at Site M 487

Problem 8.4 Vertical Loading Dock on Gulf of St. Lawrence 487

Problem 8.5 Rubble Mound Breakwater 488

Problem 8.6 Rubble Mound Breakwater at Site M 489

18.9 Coastal Management 489

Problem 9.1 Expansion at Site M 489

Problem 9.2 Facilities at Site B 490

Problem 9.3 Development of Property 491

18.10 Sediment Transport and Morphology 492

Problem 10.1 Potential Sediment Transport Rate 492

Problem 10.2 Potential Sediment Transport Rate 492

Problem 10.3 Accretion 492

Problem 10.4 Sediment Transport in Two Directions 493

Problem 10.5 Sea Level Rise 493

Problem 10.6 Northeaster Storm 493

18.11 Modeling 494

Problem 11.1 Physical Models 494

Problem 11.2 Numerical Models 494

18.12 Shore Protection 495

Problem 12.1 Recommendations about Shore Protection 495

18.13 Contemporary Decision Making 495

Problem 13.1 Pre-Design Analysis 495

Problem 13.2 Recommend Improvements to Flood Protection 496

18.14 Comprehensive Problems 497

Problem 14.1 Design Analysis 497

Problem 14.2 Design of Breakwater with Parapet Wall 501

Problem 14.3 Vertical Breakwater Design 502

References 503

Author Index 519

Subject Index 523

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