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An Introduction to Coastal Zone Management / Edition 2
     

An Introduction to Coastal Zone Management / Edition 2

by Timothy Beatley, David Brower, Anna K. Schwab, David J. Brower, David J. Bower
 

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ISBN-10: 1559639156

ISBN-13: 9781559639156

Pub. Date: 04/28/2002

Publisher: Island Press


An Introduction to Coastal Zone Management, Second Edition offers a comprehensive overview of coastal planning and management issues for students and professionals in the field. Since publication of the first edition in 1994, population growth and increasing development pressures on our coasts have made the need for forward-looking, creative, and

Overview


An Introduction to Coastal Zone Management, Second Edition offers a comprehensive overview of coastal planning and management issues for students and professionals in the field. Since publication of the first edition in 1994, population growth and increasing development pressures on our coasts have made the need for forward-looking, creative, and sustainable visions for the future even greater. This completely updated and revised edition includes:

  • significantly updated data and statistics including discussions of population and growth trends, federal and state coastal expenditures, disaster assistance expenditures, and damage levels from hurricanes and coastal storms
  • updated legislative and programmatic material, including the Stafford Act and mitigation assistance programs, and changes in the Coastal Zone Management Act
  • expanded coverage of physical and biological attributes and conditions of the coastal zone
  • expanded and updated discussions of innovative local coastal management
  • new chapters on creative coastal design and development and lessons from coastal programs in other countries

An Introduction to Coastal Zone Management, Second Edition is the only available book that addresses the serious coastal trends and pressures in the U.S., assesses the current policy and planning framework, and puts forth a compelling vision for future management and sustainable coastal planning. It is an important resource for undergraduate and graduate students of coastal planning as well as for local and state officials, residents of coastal communities, environmental advocates, developers, and others concerned with coastal issues.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781559639156
Publisher:
Island Press
Publication date:
04/28/2002
Edition description:
Second Edition
Pages:
352
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

Acronyms and Abbreviationsxiii
Prefacexvii
Chapter 1.Introduction1
The Special Nature of Our Coasts1
The Pressures on the Coastal Zone3
The Pressures Exerted by Humans4
The Effects of Human Pressure6
Public Policy Exacerbates the Pressures7
Sustaining the Coast: The Overarching Challenge8
The Rationale for Government Intervention10
Chapter 2.Understanding the Coastal Environment13
Defining the Coastal Zone13
Types of Coastal Landforms15
Time Scales of Change16
Coastal Ecosystems17
Barrier Islands18
Estuaries23
Coastal Marshes26
Coral Reefs28
Rocky Shores and Bluffs28
Coastal Forces and Processes30
Wind30
Waves31
Currents32
Tides33
Hurricanes and Extratropical Storms34
Sea Level Rise41
Erosion and Accretion42
Coastal Organisms45
The Great Lakes46
Geomorphology46
Lake Characteristics46
Lake Levels48
Lake Stratification and Turnover49
Wetlands49
Pollution and Toxic Contaminants50
Climate Change and the Great Lakes51
Conclusions51
Chapter 3.Coastal Pressures and Critical Management Issues53
Land Use Patterns and Human Alterations of the Coastal Zone56
Patterns of Ownership and Control57
Critical Coastal Management Issues: The Challenge of Sustaining the Coast63
Coastal Storm Mitigation63
Shoreline Erosion and Sea Level Rise68
Strategic Retreat or Coastal Reinforcement?71
Protection of Coastal Wetlands and Resourcelands74
Protection of Coastal Waters76
Energy Development and the Coast78
Biodiversity and Habitat Conservation79
Marine and Fishery Management81
The Coast as a Recreational Commons: Protecting Access to Beaches and Shorelines82
Social Equity in Coastal Planning82
Coastal Sprawl, Land Use Pressures, and Quality of Life84
Private Property versus the Public Interest in Coastal Planning86
Conclusions88
Chapter 4.The Coastal Management Framework91
Role of State and Local Governments94
Stakeholders in Coastal Management96
Conclusions100
Chapter 5.Federal Coastal Policy101
Direct Coastal Policy102
Coastal Zone Management Act102
A Collaborative Strategy102
Coastal Barrier Resources Act106
National Marine Sanctuary Program111
The National Estuarine Research Reserve System114
National Estuary Program115
Marine Protected Areas116
Federal Environmental Policy That Affects the Coast117
National Environmental Policy Act117
Clean Water Act118
Clean Air Act120
Endangered Species Act120
National Flood Insurance Program121
Federal Disaster Assistance123
Beach Renourishment and Shoreline Protection125
National Park System128
Brownfields129
De Facto Coastal Policy130
Department of Energy130
Internal Revenue Service130
Coastal Development Subsidies130
Conclusions131
Chapter 6.State Coastal Management Programs135
Overview of State Programs137
Shoreline Management and Retreat137
Restrictions on Shore-Hardening Structures140
Managing Reconstruction140
Unbuildable Lots141
Building Codes and Construction Standards144
Coastal Wetlands Protection144
Sea Level Rise145
Beach Access and Land Acquisition146
Cumulative and Secondary Impacts151
Urban Waterfront Development152
Special Area Management Plans154
Areas of Particular Concern155
Marine Debris156
Aquaculture, Energy, and Government Facility Siting156
Ocean Management157
State Case Studies158
Maine158
North Carolina162
Oregon165
The Success of the CZMA170
Conclusions171
Chapter 7.Regional Management of Coastal Resources173
What Is Regional Management?173
The Watershed Protection Approach174
Protecting Water Quality from Nonpoint Source Pollution174
Defining the Watershed175
Principles of the Watershed Protection Approach176
Watershed Protection Projects178
Special Area Management Plans180
The Chesapeake Bay Program182
Natural Features of the Chesapeake Bay182
A Working Partnership182
Chesapeake 2000 Agreement183
Toxics 2000 Strategy184
Nutrient Reduction in the Bay185
The Great Lakes Program185
The National Estuary Program188
Puget Sound: An NEP Success190
The National Marine Sanctuary Program192
Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary192
The Cape Cod Commission194
Conclusions196
Chapter 8.Local Coastal Management197
Toward Sustainable Coastal Communities197
Overview of Local Coastal Planning and Management200
Managing Coastal Growth200
Growth Management: Tools and Techniques206
Comprehensive Plans206
Conventional Zoning207
Setback Requirements208
Community Character and Sense of Place208
Subdivision Ordinances209
Carrying Capacity216
Land and Property Acquisition217
Taxation and Fiscal Incentives225
Capital Facilities and Public Infrastructure Policy228
Information Dissemination and Community Awareness231
Beyond Growth Management: Broader Community Sustainability233
Towards Ecological Cities on the Coast233
Green Governance235
Ecological Infrastructure236
Sustainable Economy237
Sustainable Mobility in Coastal Communities240
Educating the Public for a Sustainable Future241
Impediments and Obstacles to Local Sustainability244
Conclusions246
Chapter 9.Creative Coastal Development: Building Sustainably along the Coast249
Environmentally Sensitive Coastal Development Is Not New250
Conservation Communities in the Coastal Zone251
Ecological Site Design255
Building Ecologically but Profitably259
Green Buildings in the Coastal Zone267
New Urbanism in the Coastal Zone270
Equity and Affordability as Key Elements272
Redevelopment and Rebuilding: Recycling Coastal Lands274
Strategies for Promoting Creative Coastal Development277
Conclusions280
Chapter 10.Conclusions: Future Directions in U.S. Coastal Management283
Sustaining the Coast: Looking to the Future284
An Essential Federal Role286
The Leadership Role of States291
Managing the Coast at the Local and Regional Level294
A Final Note: Defending a Collaborative Framework for Sustainable Coastal Development298
Bibliography299
About the Authors315
Index317

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