# Introduction to Computational Earthquake Engineering / Edition 2

ISBN-10: 1848163975

ISBN-13: 9781848163973

Pub. Date: 12/10/2010

Publisher: Imperial College Press

Introduction to Computational Earthquake Engineering covers solid continuum mechanics, finite element method and stochastic modeling comprehensively, with the second and third chapters, explaining the numerical simulation of strong ground motion and faulting, respectively. Stochastic modeling is used for uncertain underground structures, and advanced analytical

## Overview

Introduction to Computational Earthquake Engineering covers solid continuum mechanics, finite element method and stochastic modeling comprehensively, with the second and third chapters, explaining the numerical simulation of strong ground motion and faulting, respectively. Stochastic modeling is used for uncertain underground structures, and advanced analytical methods for linear and non-linear stochastic models are presented. The verification of these methods by comparing the simulation results with observed data is then presented, and examples of numerical simulations which apply these methods to practical problems are generously provided. Furthermore three advanced topics of computational earthquake engineering are covered, detailing examples of applying computational science technology to earthquake engineering problems.

## Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781848163973
Publisher:
Imperial College Press
Publication date:
12/10/2010
Pages:
440
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.90(d)

## Related Subjects

Preface v

Preface for Second Edition ix

Part I Preliminaries 1

1 Solid Continuum Mechanic 3

1.1 Spring Problem 4

1.2 Pole Problem 6

1.3 Continuum Problem 8

2 Finite Element Method 13

2.1 Overview of FEM 14

2.2 Discretisation of Function 18

2.3 Formulation of FEM 21

2.4 Major Numerical Techniques Used in FEM 24

2.4.1 Shape function 25

2.4.2 Isoparametric element 26

2.4.3 Gauss integral 27

2.5 Algorithm Used to Solve A Matrix Equation of FEM 28

2.5.1 Direct solvers 29

2.5.2 Iterative solvers 31

2.5.3 Algorithms used to solve a non-linear equation 33

3 Stochastic Modeling 37

3.1 Formulation of A Stochastic Variational Problem 38

3.2 Analysis Methods of A Stochastic Variational Problem 41

3.2.1 Bounding medium analysis 42

3.2.2 Spectral method 44

Part II Strong Ground Motion 49

4 The Wave Equation for Solids 51

4.1 Basics of the Wave Equation 52

4.2 Analytic Solutions of Particular Wave Problems 57

4.2.1 Out-of-plane shear wave 58

4.2.2 In-plane Wave 62

4.2.3 Plane wave in three-dimensional setting 66

4.3 Numerical Analysis of the Wave Equation 69

4.3.1 Algorithms used for time integration 70

4.3.2 Stability of time integration 72

5 Analysis of Strong Ground Motion 75

5.1 Stochastic Modeling of Underground Structures 76

5.2 Bounding Medium Theory 78

5.3 Singular Perturbation Expansion 81

5.4 Formulation of Macro-Micro Analysis Method 83

5.5 Verification of Macro-Micro Analysis Method 86

5.5.1 Validation of bounding medium theory 87

5.5.2 Validation of singular perturbation expansion 91

5.5.3 Validation of macro-micro analysis method 96

6 Simulation of Strong Ground Motion 101

6.1 Summary of Macro-Micro Analysis Method 103

6.2 VFEM for Macro-Analysis and Micro-Analysis 105

6.2.1 VFEM 106

6.2.2 VFEM for macro-analysis 107

6.2.3 VFEM for micro-analysis 111

6.2.4 Link from macro-analysis to micro-analysis 115

6.3 Simulation of Actual Earthquakes 117

6.3.1 Modeling 117

6.3.2 Comparison of synthesised waveform with observed waveform 122

6.3.3 Distribution of simulated strong ground motion 123

6.3.4 The comparison of three-dimensional analysis and one-dimensional analysis 130

Part III Faulting 135

7 Elasto-Plasticity and Fracture Mechanics 137

7.1 Numerical Analysis of Failure 137

7.2 Elasto-Plasticity 139

7.3 Fracture Mechanics 142

8 Analysis of Faulting 147

8.1 Nl-SsFEM 152

8.1.1 SsFEM 152

8.1.2 Nl-SsFEM 155

8.1.3 Bounding medium approximation 156

8.1.4 Formulation of Nl-SsFEM 158

8.2 Numerical Algorithms of Nl-SsFEM 160

8.2.1 Matrix Jacobi method 161

8.2.2 Standardised KL expansion 162

8.2.3 Numerical perturbation during analysis of stochastic model 163

8.3 Validation of Nl-SsFEM Simulation 165

8.4 Example of Fault Simulation of Nl-SsFEM 170

9 Simulation of Faulting 179

9.1 Problem Setting for Fault Simulation 180

9.1.1 Input data 181

9.1.2 Output results 182

9.2 Reproduction of Model Experiments 184

9.2.1 Simulation of two-dimensional model experiment 184

9.2.2 Simulation of three-dimensional model experiment 190

9.3 Simulation of Actual Faults 202

9.3.1 Simulation of the Nojima Fault 203

9.3.2 Parametric study of stochastic parameters 211

9.3.3 Simulation of the Chelungpu Fault 214

10 BEM Simulation of Faulting 221

10.1 Problem Setting for Fault Simulation 223

10.1.1 Perturbation expansion of field variables with respect to crack extension 224

10.1.2 Crack driving forces 226

10.1.3 Solution of crack path problem 229

10.2 Formulation of Boundary Element Method 231

10.3 Verification of Analysis Method 234

10.3.1 Use of analytic solution 234

10.3.2 Use of numerical computation 238

10.4 Reproduction of Model Experiments 244

10.4.1 Simulation of model experiment of [Bray et al. (1994)] 245

10.4.2 Simulation of model experiment of [Tani (1994)] 248

11 Integrated Earthquake Simulation 253

11.1 System of Integrated Earthquake Simulation 254

11.2 Gis 258

11.3 Construction of Computer Model 260

11.3.1 Construction of ground structure model 260

11.3.2 Construction of residential building model 264

11.4 Example of Integrated Earthquake Simulation 267

11.4.1 Modeling 268

11.4.2 Strong ground motion simulation 270

11.4.3 Structure response simulation 273

12 Unified Visualisation of Earthquake Simulation 277

12.1 System for Unified Visualisation 279

12.1.1 Mediator 280

12.1.2 Mediator maker 283

12.2 IES for Unified Visualisation 285

12.3 Example of Unified Visualisation 290

13 Standardisation of Earthquake Resistant Design 295

13.1 Standardisation of Description Style 296

13.2 Description of Flow Chart in Terms of Object 298

13.2.1 Reconstruction of flow chart for general earthquake resistant designs 298

13.2.2 Reconstruction of flow chart for actual earthquake resistant design code 305

13.3 Example of Standardisation 311

14 Multi-Agent Simulation for Evacuation Process Analysis 317

14.1 Evacuation Process Analysis 318

14.2 Numerical Methods for Evacuation Process Analysis 319

14.2.1 Simulation of physical model 320

14.2.2 Cellular automata 320

14.2.3 Mas (Multi-Agent Simulation) 321

14.3 Design of Agent and Environment for Multi-Agent Simulation 322

14.4 Measurement of Individual Walking Speed by Image Analysis 326

14.4.1 Walking speed distribution in crowded situation 327

14.4.2 Individual speed escaping from tsunami 330

14.4.3 Individual speed evacuating during earthquake 331

14.5 Construction of Environment Using Digital Data 334

14.5.1 Methodology of automatic data conversion 335

14.5.2 Automatic data conversion for Gis 336

14.5.3 Example of automatic data conversion for Gis 337

14.5.4 Automatic data conversion for Cad data 338

14.5.5 Example of automatic data conversion of Cad data 340

14.6 Examples of Multi-Agent Simulation for Evacuation Process Analysis 342

14.6.2 Subway station 347

14.6.3 Underground shopping mall 352

Appendix A Earthquake Mechanisms 359

A.l Plate Tectonics and Active Faults 359

A.2 Earthquake as Wave Propagation 366

A.2.1 Determination of input strong ground motion according to earthquake scenario 366

A.2.2 Soil-structure interaction 368

Appendix B Analytical Mechanics 371

Appendix C Numerical Techniques of Solving Wave Equation 375

C.l Explicit Method and Implicit Method 376

C.2 Analysis of Wave Propagation Using FEM 379

C.3 Absorption Boundary 382

Appendix D Unified Modeling Language 387

Bibliography 393

Index 415

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