Introduction to DWDM Technology: Data in a Rainbow / Edition 1

Hardcover (Print)
Buy New
Buy New from BN.com
$101.08
Buy Used
Buy Used from BN.com
$71.17
(Save 41%)
Item is in good condition but packaging may have signs of shelf wear/aging or torn packaging.
Condition: Used – Good details
Used and New from Other Sellers
Used and New from Other Sellers
from $1.99
Usually ships in 1-2 business days
(Save 98%)
Other sellers (Hardcover)
  • All (17) from $1.99   
  • New (4) from $23.99   
  • Used (13) from $1.99   

Overview

"Companies and research labs worldwide are racing to develop Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology, a far-reaching advancement in the fiber optical communications field. To help you keep pace with these latest developments, this all-in-one resource brings you a clear, concise overview of the technology that is transporting and processing vast amounts of information at the speed of light. Until now, no book offered a practical introduction to DWDM advances.

INTRODUCTION TO DWDM TECHNOLOGY will help you learn all the essentials for this emerging field:
* Principles of physics underlying optical devices
* Optical components needed to design optical and DWDM systems
* Coding and decoding techniques used in optical communications
* Overview of DWDM systems
* State-of-the-art research trends

Complete with four-color illustrations to show how devices work, this comprehensive book provides an invaluable discussion of DWDM basics necessary for practicing electrical engineers, optical systems designers, technical managers, and undergraduate students in optical communications.

Go to htttp://www.ieee.org/organizations/pubs/press/Kartfm.pdf for a complete Table of Contents and a look at the Introduction. You can check out Chapter 5, "Optical Demultiplexers" by clicking on http://www.ieee.org/organizations/pubs/press/KartCh5.pdf

About the Author

Stamatios V. Kartalopoulos is currently on the staff of the Optical Networks Group of Lucent Technologies, Bell Labs Innovations, formerly known as AT&T. His research interests include ATM and SONET/SDH systems, ultrafast pattern recognition, IP and DWDM, access enterprise systems, local area networks, fiber networks, satellite systems, intelligent signal processing, neural networks, and fuzzy logic. He holds several patents of which six patents (and six pending) are in communications and optical communications systems."

Sponsored by:
IEEE Communications Society

"...this all-in-one resource helps you keep pace with latest developments, gives a clear concise overview of the techonolgy & offers a practical introduction to DWDM advances."

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Kartalopoulas (Advanced Optical Networking Center of Lucent Technologies) actually only devotes the last quarter of this work specifically to dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM<-->an optical communications technology). The first sections of the book attempt to explain the properties of light; its interaction with matter; and how it is used to develop optical components such as filters, multiplexers, and other optical communication devices. The sections devoted exclusively to DWDM discuss system design issues, network topologies, fault avoidance, and issues of current research. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780780353992
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 12/28/1999
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 276
  • Product dimensions: 6.36 (w) x 9.35 (h) x 0.83 (d)

Meet the Author

About the Author Stamatios V. Kartalopoulos is on the staff of the Advanced Optical Networking Center of Lucent Technologies, Bell Labs Innovations. His research interests and expertise include DWDM, IP, SONET/SDH and ATM systems and networks, ultrafast pattern recognition, access and enterprise systems, local area networks, satellite systems, protocols, intelligent signal processing, neural networks and fuzzy logic, control architectures, multitasking, and VLSI design. He has led and managed teams in these areas. He holds several patents, six of which (and eight pending) are in communications and optical communications systems. Dr. Kartalopoulos is the author of Understanding SONET/SDH and ATM (IEEE Press, 1999) and Understanding Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic (IEEE Press, 1996). He has published widely on the subject of networks and optical communications systems.

Read More Show Less

Read an Excerpt


Part II: Optical Components

The pump laser is specifically designed for EDFA applications. Pump lasers are enclosed in a small package (approximately 20 X 15 X 8 MM3) with a connectorized single-mode fiber pigtail that can be coupled with the EDFA (fiber). Typical pumps have a wavelength of 980 nm or 1480 nm and an output power from under 100 mW to about 250 mW.

Advantages of EFDAs

  • A high-power transfer efficiency from pump to signal (>50%).
  • Directly and simultaneously amplify a wide wavelength region (in the region of 1550 nm) with a relatively flat gain (>20 dB), which is suitable to WDM systems.
  • Saturation output is greater than I mW (10 to 25 dBm).
  • Gain time constant is long (>100 msec) to overcome patterning effects and inter-modulation distortions (low noise).
  • Large dynamic range.
  • Low noise figure.
  • Polarization independent (thus reducing coupling loss to transmission fiber).
  • Suitable for long-haul applications.

Disadvantages of EFDAs

  • They are not small devices (they are kilometer-long fibers) and cannot be integrated with other semiconductor devices.
  • EDFAs exhibit amplified spontaneous light emission (ASE). That is, even if no incoming signal is present, there is always some output signal as a result of some excited ions in the fiber; this output is termed spontaneous noise.
  • There is cross-talk.
  • There is gain saturation.

EDFAs have found applications in long-haul as well as in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) transport systems. A fiber span (hundreds of kilometers long) consists of fiber segments (tens of kilometers each). Optical amplifiers are placed at the interconnecting points to restore the attenuated optical signal. Thus, there may be several EDFAs along the fiber span (typically up to 8). However, three issues be come important: (a) gain flatness (all wavelengths at the EDFA output should have the same optical power); (b) dynamic gain; and (c) low noise.

All wavelengths are not amplified through EDFAs in the same way; that is, the gain is not exactly flat. This issue is addressed with gain flattening optical filters. These devices are passive in-line filters with low insertion loss, low dispersion, and stable performance over a wide range of temperatures.

The power pumped in an EDFA is shared by all wavelengths. The more the wavelengths, the less power per wavelength, and vice versa. This has an undesirable effect in optical add-dropped multiplexing (OADM) VVDM with EDFAs. As wavelengths are dropped by an OADM and not added, EDFAs (in series with OADM) amplify fewer wavelengths more, and as wavelengths are added by another OADM, they are amplified less. That is, the gain does not remain at the same level from one OADM to the next. This is addressed by engineering the WDM system and dynamic gain control.

Noise is addressed differently. When engineering a fiber-optic path, it should be remembered that optical noise sources are cumulative and that the spontaneous emission of EDFAs introduces noise that degrades the S/N ratio. Thus, one may think that a strong optical signal launched into the fiber could overcome this. However, near the zero-dispersion wavelength region, four-wave mixing could become dominant and it could degrade the S/N ratio.

The selection of power (per channel) launched into the fiber becomes a puzzle: amplifier noise restricts the minimum power of the signal, and four-wave mixing limits the maximum power per channel launched into the fiber. This implies that a power level that lies between a lower and an upper limit must be selected. To determine the power level, many other parameters must be taken into account so that the required quality of signal is maintained. Some of these parameters are:

  • Fiber length between amplifiers (in kilometers)
  • Fiber attenuation (loss) per kilometer
  • Number of amplifiers in the optical path
  • Amplifier parameters (gain, noise, chromatic dispersion, bandwidth)
  • Number of channels (wavelengths) per fiber
  • Channel width and spacing
  • Receiver (detector) specifications
  • Transmitter specifications
  • Polarization issues
  • Optical component losses and noise (connectors, other devices)
  • Quality of signal (bit error rate, SIN)
  • Signal modulation method and bit rate
  • Other design parameters

Praseodymium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers

PDFAs have a high gain (-30 dB), a high saturation power (20 dBm), and are suitable in the region 1280 to 1340 nm, where EDFAs are not. However, PDFAs require a non-silica fiber (fluoride) that is not very common, and a high-power (up to 300 mW) pump laser at 1017 nm (not the popular 980 nin or 1480 nm). Thus, presently PDFA technology is not popular or well developed yet.

Stimulated Raman and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Amplifiers

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifiers arc non-doped fiber amplifiers, as already described in Sections 3.20.1 and 3.20.2, that employ pump lasers to take advantage of the nonlinearity properties of the fiber. The most important feature of Raman amplifiers is that they have a wide bandwidth range that can extend over the complete useful spectrum from the 1300 nm to 1600+ nm (500 optical channels at 100-Ghz spacing) that enable a multiTerabit transmission technology, also referred to as Raman super-continuum. On the negative side, Raman amplification requires very long fibers (in the order of several kilometers) and pump lasers with high optical power (>I watt). Thermal management issues as well as safety issues are yet to be resolved.

Classification of Optical Fiber Amplifiers

Optical fiber amplifiers (OFAs) are classified in electronic amplifiers, electronic systems, and wireless systems as power amplifiers, pre-amplifiers, and line amplifiers.

Optical fiber amplifiers should be applied properly to minimize several factors that may affect the integrity of the channel and the transmitted signal due to nonlinearities, polarization, and other effects. ITU-T has recommended parameter limits as well as applications of optical fiber amplifiers in G.662 and G.663.

Power Amplifiers

An OFA capable of increasing the optical power of the modulated photonic source (i.e., the optical transmitted signal) is called an optical power amplifier An optical power amplifier acts like a booster. It is placed right after the source, and thus may also be integrated with it. It receives a large signal (from the laser source) with a large signal-to-noise ratio and boosts its power to levels about - 10 dBm or higher...

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Preface.

Acknowledgments.

Introduction.

FUNDAMENTALS OF LIGHT.

The Nature of Light.

Interaction of Light with Matter.

OPTICAL COMPONENTS.

The Optical Waveguide: The Fiber.

Optical Spectral Filters and Gratings.

Optical Demultiplexers.

Light Sources.

Photodetectors.

Light Amplifiers.

Other Optical Components.

Optical Cross-Connects.

Optical Add-Drop Multiplexers.

CODING OPTICAL INFORMATION.

Digital Transmission and Coding Techniques.

Decoding Optical Information.

DENSE WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING.

DWDM Systems.

Engineering DWDM Systems.

DWDM Topologies.

DWDM CURRENT ISSUES AND RESEARCH.

State of the Art.

Acronyms and Abbreviations.

Answers.

Index.

About the Author.

Read More Show Less

Preface

Thousands of years ago someone tried to answer the question: Does light travel always in a straight line, even if in a transparent medium, or can it follow its curvature? Using a bucket of water with a hole at the bottom, he discovered the latterhow simple!

Sunlight rays crossing the morning dew droplets formed a rainbow of colors. Thus the sun rays, composed of many colors, were demystified-what a simple observation! Sun rays, when reflected with shining bronze shields, were redirected to selected points called estiai or foci. Furthermore, concentrated rays had so much energy that they could warm up things or burn them. Soon thereafter, the glassy optical lens was produced.

It was found that rays passing through a spherical lens did not create the best focal point; today, this imperfection is known as lens sphericity. It was also discovered that shapes based on hyperbolas or parabolas were better suited to optical applications than those based on circles or spheres.

Simple experiments and observations of the past have helped our understanding about the nature of things. Yesterday's science fiction is today's reality. The electronic properties of conductors and semiconductors help to create or detect light. Three crystals, each with different impurities and fused together, created a transistor, which within a few years revolutionized the way we live. The wrist-size communicator is no longer just fantasy in comic books. Pocket-size powerful computers and credit-card-size communication devices are a reality. Low earth orbit satellite (LEOS) communication networks are not "pie in the sky," but they are roaming the silent skies. At the click of a button, one can access virtuallyany part of the globe and hear and see events as they happen. Optical fiber has wrapped around the globe like a ball of yam connecting all continents and transporting data at the speed of light. Direct-to-satellite communication enables anytime-wireless connectivity between any two places in the world, as well as providing global positioning services with accuracy of a few feet or inches! A single optical fiber can transport the information of hundreds of thousands of volumes within a second.

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously
Sort by: Showing 1 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted August 19, 2003

    'Introduction to DWDM Technology' needs serious editing

    This is one of the most poorly written and edited books I have ever read. The author's grasp of English grammar is nil, and some of the erroneous technical statements demonstrate his poor grasp of optical and semiconductor physics. Nevertheless, there are some good, if poorly explained, descriptions of several aspects of fiber optics, if one can put up with the poor grammar and editing. A much better book on the topic is Hecht's 'Understanding Fiber Optics'.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
Sort by: Showing 1 Customer Reviews

If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
Why is this product inappropriate?
Comments (optional)