An Introduction to Early Childhood Special Education / Edition 1

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This book provides an overview of the variety of special needs children have and reasons that they may place a child at risk. A unique aspect of this book is the extended discussion of the importance of professional collaboration and professional-parent partnerships. Each chapter has been written by an expert in the discipline, all of whom are individuals working with young children with special needs. This text focuses on the whole child rather than focusing on the child's disability and includes in-depth coverage of contemporary problems such as AIDS/HIV, FAS/FAE, and alcohol abuse. For professionals working in the field of special education.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205184408
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 1/27/1997
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 368
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Linda Dunlap is a professor of psychology. She has taught psychology and education courses since receiving her Ph.D. from the University of Iowa in 1980. She served as a part-time faculty member at State University of New York at New Paltz, Dutchess Community College, and Ulster Community College in New York from 1980 to 1984. Since 1984, she has served as a full-time faculty member and chair of the psychology department (1984-2005) at Marist College in Poughkeepsie, New York. In addition, she served as a child development specialist for the Saint Francis Hospital Preschool Program in Poughkeepsie from 1986 to 1994. This program provides services for children 2 to 5 years old who have developmental delays. Dr. Dunlap served as a board member and executive officer for the Dutchess County Child Development Council. She frequently contributes to articles in national newspapers and magazine focusing on child development, teacher education, and parenting issues. She has also served as a consultant for local school districts. In addition, she has written two other textbooks, What All Children Need and Theory and Application,(University Press, 2nd ed. 2005)and Psychological Testing Across the Lifespan. (Prentice Hall, 2008).

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Table of Contents

Each chapter begins with “Introduction,” and concludes with “Chapter Summary,” “Suggested Student Activities,” “Additional Readings,” and “References.”

1. Early Intervention Services for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers, Linda L. Dunlap. Ph.D.

Overview of Programs for Young Children.

Overview of Federal Laws.

History of Special Education Federal Laws Related to Early Childhood Special Education Referral for Developmental Assessment.

The Assessment Process.

Types of Assessment Developmental Screening Individualized Family Service Plan and Individualized Education Program.

Services for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers.

Descriptions of Team Members.

Psychologists Nurses Pediatricians Audiologists Nutritionists Early Childhood Teachers Music Therapists Teacher Assistants Day Care Providers.

Team Collaboration.

Early Intervention Program Attributes.

Effective Interaction with Parents Providing Programming for Varying Needs Recognizing Each Child's Individuality Children as Active Participants in Learning Development of Attitudes and Emotions Providing Activities that Enhance Physical Development Daily Schedules.

High Scope: One Program Model.


Review Questions.

2. Typical Stages of Early Childhood Development, Melinda A. Sage, M.A.

Chapter Key Points.

The Field of Child Development.

Piaget's Theory The Behaviorist Perspective.

Roles of Heredity and Environment.

Cognitive Development.

Basis Cognitive Processes.

Communication Skills.

Motor Development.

Gross Motor Development Fine Motor Development.

Social-Emotional Development.

Play Self-Concept Emotions Morality.

Review Questions.

Additional Resources.

3. Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers with Developmental Delays, Linda L. Dunlap, Ph.D.

Chapter Key Points.

Possible Causes for Developmental Delays.

Indicators of Developmental Delays.

Cognitive Delays.

Mental Retardation Learning Disabilities Traumatic Brain Injury.

Social-Emotional Disabilities.

Conduct Disorders Anxiety Disorders Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

Physical Disabilities.

Deafness and Hearing Impairments Visual Impairments Orthopedic Impairments.

Health Impairments.

Epilepsy Cystic Fibrosis Cancer Congenital Heart Defects Diabetes Hemophilia Asthma Cytomegalovirus.


Multiple Disabilities.

Interactions With Children Who Have Developmental Delays.


Review Questions.

Additional Resources.

4. Deadly Epidemics: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Cocaine, and AIDS, Sherry Dingman, Ph.D., Awilda Velez, M.A., and Melanie A. Gardner, B.A.

Chapter Key Points.

Overview of Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol, Cocaine, and HIV/AIDS.

Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol.

Developmental Disabilities Related to Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol Characteristics of Children with FAS and FAE.

Possible Effects of Cocaine Use.

Use of Cocaine Direct Impact of Prenatal Exposure to Cocaine Indirect Impact of Cocaine Use On Children.

The Effects of Pediatric HIV/AIDS.

Progression of the HIV Epidemic Direct Impact of HIV on Children Indirect Impact of HIV on Children Impact on the Families of Children with HIV Impact of HIV on Society.

Educational Needs and Intervention Services.


Review Questions.

Additional Resources.

5. Service Coordination and the Role of the Social Worker, Eileen Taylor Appleby Ph.D.

Chapter Key Points.

Service Coordination for Children with Special Needs and Their Families.

Role of the Social Worker as Service Coordinator Major Tasks of the Service Coordinator.

Assessment of Needs.

Family Needs Social Networks Social Services.

Planning Services.

Types of Teams Major Team Goals Team Members Roles Parental Involvement.

Intervention Services.

Direct Intervention Use of Stage Theory to Understand Family Emotional Responses Indirect Services.

Monitoring Service Plans.

Using Organizational Skills Determining Service Productivity Evaluation Tools.


Review Questions.

Additional Resources.

6. Parents and Professionals Working Together, Lorraine Hedrick, M.A.

Chapter Key Points.

Parent-Professional Collaboration.

Changing Perceptions.

Attitudes and Expectations of Parents and Professionals.

Conflicts Between Parents and Professionals.

Assumptions Concerning Conflict Conflict as a Destructive or Constructive Force Three Faces of Conflict.

Effective Communication.

Components of Communication Nonverbal Communication Verbal Communication Listening.

Preparing for a Meeting.


Review Questions.

Additional Resources.

7. Special Education Services, Kathleen Ryan, M.S. Ed. and Majorie Delforno. A.S.

Chapter Key Points.

Philosophy of Early Childhood Special Education.

Special Education Teachers.

Overview of Early Childhood Special Education.

Intervention Service Location Attending a Regular Preschool Program.

Varied Responsibilities of the Special Education Teacher.

Using Knowledge About Typical Rates of Development Participating in a Collaborative Team Service Coordination Assessing a Child's Strengths and Needs Developing and Implementing an IFSP or IEP Developing and Implementing Curriculum Encouraging Active Exploration Choosing Behavior Management Techniques Working with Family Members.


Chapter Review Questions.

Additional Resources.

8. Speech and Language Services, Susan Karnes Hecht, M.S., CCC-sp.

Chapter Key Points.

The Speech and Language Pathologist.

Overview of Communication Skills.

Indicators of Speech and Language Delays.

Possible Causes for Speech and Language Delays.

Overview of Speech and Language Delays.

Specific Areas of Speech and Language Development.

General Behavior and Ability to Pay Attention Prelinguistic Skills Receptive Language Skills Expressive Language Skills Articulations Skills Oral-Motor Skills Voice Fluency Hearing Play Skills Problem Solving Skills.

Referrals for Speech and Language Evaluations.

The Speech and Language Evaluation.

The Importance of Early Intervention.

Speech and Language Therapy.

Parents' Role in Speech and Language Therapy.


Review Questions.

Additional Resources.

9. Services for Children with Hearing Impairments, Mary Scalise-Annis, M.A.

Chapter Key Points.

Describing Hearing Loss.

Tests for Hearing Loss.

Identification of Hearing Loss.

The Effect of Hearing Impairments.

Language Development Speech Development Cognitive Development Social-Emotional Development.

Educational Intervention.

Technology Appropriate Preschool Placement Staff In-Service Training Parent Education and Support.


Review Questions.

Additional Resources.

10. Motor Development and Occupational Therapy Services, Allyson Burns, OTR/L,B.S. and Nancy M. Pate, OTR/L,B.S.

Chapter Key Points.

Overview of Motor Development.

Gross Motor Development Fine Motor Development.

Overview of Occupational Therapy.

Description of Occupational Therapists Development Areas Addressed by Occupational Therapy.

Types of Disabilities.

Visual Impairments Cerebral Palsy Muscular Dystrophy Multiple Sclerosis Spina Bifida Amputations.

Referral for Occupational Therapy.

Assessment of Occupational Therapy Needs.

Overview of Occupational Therapy.

Specific Goals of Occupational Therapy Intervention.

Upper-Extremity Proximal Stability Visual-Perceptual Motor Skills Cognitive-Adaptive Skills Sensory-Integration Skills Self-Care Skills.

Use of Adaptive Equipment.

Use of Technology and Switches Other Adaptive Equipment The Use of Splints Other Environmental Modifications.

The Importance of Seating and Positioning.


Additional Resources.

11. Physical Therapy Services, Suzanne J. Ward, P.T., B.S. and Linda G. Seto, M.S.

Chapter Key Points.

Overview of Physical Therapy.

Using The Blueprint for Gross Motor Development.

Physical Therapy Assessment.

Physical Therapy Screening Delays that May Be Observed During Assessment Full Formal Assessment.

Common Parental Concerns About Physical Therapy.

Physical Therapy Services.

Developmental Models of Physical Therapy.

Top-Down Model of Physical Therapy.

Physical Therapy Early Intervention Services.

Specific Skills Addressed through Physical Therapy Providing Physical Support During Therapy Physical Therapy During Daily Activities.


Review Questions.

Additional Resources.

12. The Importance of Play, Susan M. Covel, M.Ed.

Chapter Key Points.

Overview of the Importance of Play.

Cognitive Development Motor Development Social Development Self-Help Skills Development.

Stages of Play.

Exploratory Play (birth to 12 months) Pretend Play (9 to 18 months) Solitary Play (18 to 24 months) Parallel Play (24 to 36 months) Associative Play (36 to 48 months) Cooperative Play (48 months to 60 months).

Using Play to Assess Children With Special Needs.

Play Skills of Children with Special Needs.

Autistic or Autistic-Like Characteristics Deaf or Hearing Impaired Speech and Language Impaired Cognitive Delays Physically Impaired Visually Impaired.

The Special Needs Preschool.

Skill Development in Play Areas.

Arrangement of the Classroom.

Block Area House and Dramatic Play Area Sensory Area Art Area Quiet Area Movement and Music Areas Science Area.

Play Time at Home.

Clean-Up Time.

Types of Toys.


Review Questions.

13. Art for Children with Special Needs, Mary E. Thompson, B.S.

Chapter Key Points.

The Value of Art Activities.

Using Art to Enhancing Areas of Development.

Cognitive Development Speech and Language Development Motor Development and Self-Help Skills Social-Emotional Development.

The Art Area.

Location Furniture Art Supplies Portable Art Kit.

Factors to Consider When Choosing Art Activities.

Grouping for Art Activities.

Individual Art Activities Small-Group Art Activities Large-Group Art Activities.

Instructional Strategies for Art Activities.

Direct Instruction Indirect Instruction.

Art Integrated Into a Theme.

Art Activities for Observation and Evaluation.

Art Activities for Informal Assessment Art Activities for Formal Assessment.

Art Therapy.


Review Questions.

Additional Resources.

14. Behavior Management, Linda L. Dunlap, Ph.D.

Chapter Key Points.

The Importance of Developing Desired Behavior.

General Principles for Behavior Management.

Determining Behavior to Attempt to Modify.

Behavior Management Techniques.

Reinforcement Redirection Time-Out Extinction Punishment.

Strategies for Common Behavioral Problems.

Temper Tantrums Aggression Whining Overdependency Fears Finicky Eaters Short Attention Span Self-Stimulating Behavior Toilet Training.


Review Questions.

15. Transitions: Preparing for the Next Step, Linda L. Dunlap, Ph.D.

Chapter Key Points.

Dealing with Transitions.

Transition to New Programs.

The Role of Staff Members in the Child's Current Program Role of the New Program in Transitions.

Determining Whether a Child is Ready for Kindergarten.

Characteristics of Kindergarten Programs Preschool Program's Role Parents' Role.

Helping Children Believe in Themselves.

Providing Unconditional Positive Regard Development of a Positive Self-Esteem Setting Realistic Expectations.


Review Questions.

Additional Resources.

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