Introduction to Educational Research / Edition 7

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Overview

This non-technically written, hands-on introductory text is supported by up-to-date technology to augment students’ comprehension and interpretation of both qualitative and quantitative techniques in educational research methods.

Introduction to Educational Research, Sixth Edition, guides learners through eight research methods to help plan and compose their first educational research project. Through chapter contents and in-text exercises, readers simultaneously learn how to prepare a research plan, gather and analyze data, address research questions and hypotheses, and organize a report of their projects. In keeping with the main purpose of helping students clearly understand and apply research concepts, the language of the text is non-technical and there are are many pedagogical features throughout the text.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780137013449
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 1/15/2010
  • Series: Pearson Custom Education Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 432
  • Sales rank: 96,298
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.70 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Craig A. Mertler is currently a Professor and Director of the Doctoral Program in School Improvement in the College of Education at the University of West Georgia. He teaches doctoral courses focused on the application of action research to promote school improvement and reform, and also teaches quantitative research methods, introductory statistical analysis, multivariate statistical analysis, and educational assessment methods. He is the author of 5 books, 2 invited book chapters, 15 refereed journal articles, 2 instructors’ manuals, and numerous nonrefereed articles and manuscripts. He has also presented numerous research papers at professional meetings around the country, as well as internationally. He conducts workshops for inservice educational professionals on classroom-based action research and on the broad topic of classroom assessment. His primary research interests include classroom-based action research, professional learning communities, and assessment practices of classroom teachers. Before teaching and researching at the university level, he taught high school biology and earth science, and also coached track and volleyball. In his leisure time, he enjoys travelling with his family and playing golf.

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Table of Contents

Preface

PART ONE: Orientation to Educational Research

CHAPTER 1 Educational Research: Its Nature and Rules of Operation

Preview

Targeted Learnings

Chapter Information Organizers

An example: New Questions about Elmwood’s Schools

Seeking Answers to Questions

The Scientific Method

Research and the Scientific Method

The Meaning of Research

The Process of Educational Research

Research and Educational Research

Rules of Operation in Educational Research

Legal Principles

Ethical Principles

Philosophical Principles

Procedural Principles

Why Study Educational Research?

Educators as Researchers

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Guiding Principles of Research

Chapter Summary

List of Important Terms

Your Current Status

Activities for Thought and Discussion

Answers to Chapter exercises

References and Recommended Readings

CHAPTER 2 Types of Educational Research and Corresponding Sources of Data

Preview

Targeted Learnings

Types of Educational Research

Types of Research Categorized by Usefulness

Types of Research Differentiated by Tradition

Types of Research Based on Practicality

Primary and Secondary Sources of Research Data

Specific Sources of Research Data

Procedures and Tools Used in Collecting Data

Qualities Required in Research Data

Authenticity and Believability of Qualitative Data

Validity and Reliability of Quantitative Data

Treatment and Presentation of Data

Additional Terminology Related to Data

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY More about Variables and Questions

Participants, Samples, and Populations

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Type of Research

Chapter Summary

List of Important Terms

Your Current Status

Activities for Thought and Discussion

Answers to Chapter Exercises

References and Recommended Readings

Part Two: Preliminary Skills Needed for Conducting Research

CHAPTER 3 Selecting, Refining, and Proposing a Topic for Research

Preview

Targeted Learnings

Where to Find Good Research Topics

Topics for Teachers, Counselors, and Other Educators

Topics for Administrators

Topics for Other Educators

Preliminary Considerations in Selecting Topics

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Sources for Research Topics

Refining the Research Topic

Some Necessary Terminology

Variables and Educational Research

Continuous, Discrete, and Dichotomous Variables

Independent and Dependent Variables

Regulating the Size of Research Topics

Foreseeing the Research Report Format

The Value of Conventional Procedures and Reports

Refining the Topic: An Illustrative Case

Jan’s Concern about Students’ Entry Age to Kindergarten

Preparing a Research Proposal

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Research Topic Refinement

Chapter Summary 60

List of Important Terms 60

Your Current Status 61

Activities for Thought and Discussion 61

Answers to Chapter Exercises 61

References and Recommended Readings 62

CHAPTER 4 Locating Published Research

Preview

Targeted Learnings

Using the Research Library

Secondary Sources in the Library

Locating Secondary Sources

Primary Sources in the Library

Specific Directories of Primary References

Locating Primary Sources

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Electronic Journals

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Searching ERIC Online

Not Just for Conducting Research–Valuable Sources for Professional Development

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Locating Published Research

Chapter Summary

List of Important Terms

Your Current Status

Activities for Thought and Discussion

Answers to Chapter exercises

References and Recommended Readings

CHAPTER 5 Interpreting and Summarizing Published Research

Preview

Targeted Learnings

Reading Research Reports

Summarizing the Reports

Interpreting the Statistical Information You Encounter

Status Reports

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Writing a Review of Literature

Review of Terminology Used in Status Reports

Comparison Reports

Review of Terminology Used in Comparison Reports

Correlational Reports

Review of Terminology Used in Correlational Reports

The Concept of Significance

D EVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Reviewing Published Research

Chapter Summary

List of Important Terms

Your Current Status

Activities for Thought and Discussion

Answers to Chapter Exercises

References and Recommended Readings

PART THREE: Conducting Your Own Research Project

CHAPTER 6 Procedures and Tools for Gathering Data

Preview

Targeted Learnings

Types of Research and Their Typical Foci

Types of Data Needed

Sources of Data for Various Types of Research

Samples and Their Selection

Are Samples Necessary in Research?

Can Small Samples Represent Large Populations?

Probability Sampling

Non probability Sampling

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Probability and Nonprobability Sampling

Samples and Their Selection

Size of Samples

Relationships among Research Focus, Data, Source, and Sample

Validity and Reliability in Data Collection

Validity of Data

Determining Validity of Test Data

Determining Validity of Non-Test Data

Reliability of Data

Determining Reliability of Test Data

Determining Reliability of N on Test Data

Relationship between Validity and Reliability

Procedures in Data Collection

Notation

Description

Analysis

Questioning

Testing

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Survey Construction

A PPLYING TECHNOLOGY Searchable Online Test Locators

Measurement

Relationships between Types of Research and Data Collection

A Composite of Research Types and Data Collection Procedures

Data Collection Profiles

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Data Collection Decisions

Chapter Summary

List of Important Terms

Your Current Status

Activities for Thought and Discussion

Answers to Chapter Exercises

References and Recommended Readings

CHAPTER 7 Analyzing Research Data and Presenting Findings

Preview

Targeted Learnings

Qualitative Data and Quantitative Data

An Example of Qualitative Analysis

An Example of Quantitative Analysis

Analyzing Ethnographic Data

Cautions and Reminders in Qualitative Data Analysis

Analyzing Quantitative Data

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Software Programs for Analyzing Qualitative Data

Populations and Parameters; Samples and Statistics

What Statistics Are Used For

Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY More about Statistics

Cautions in Using Statistics

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY Software Programs for Analyzing Quantitative Data

Presenting Your Findings

A PPLYING TECHNOLOGY Selecting an Appropriate Statistical Test

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Statistical Analysis Decisions

Chapter Summary

List of Important Terms

Your Current Status

Activities for Thought and Discussion

Answers to Chapter exercises

References and Recommended Readings

CHAPTER 8 Designing a Research Project

Preview

Targeted Learnings

How Planning Should Be Done

The Approach to Planning Advocated in This Book

Tasks to Be Accomplished When Planning Research

Task 1. State the Title, Topic, Problem, and Questions and/or Hypotheses

Task 2. Identify Keywords or Desciptors and Outline the Library Search for Related Information

Task 3. Identify Needed Data and Sources

Task 4. List the Steps You Will Need to Carry Out to Complete the Study

Task 5. Specify the Procedures and Tools You Will Employ in Collecting Data

Task 6, Foresee How Data Can Best Be Analyzed and Interpreted

Task 7. Anticipate the Appropriate Report Format for Your Research

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY More Guidelines for Reports

Illustrative Example of Planning a Research Project

Topic and Problem

Examination of the Literature

Required Data and Data Sources

Appraisal of Holly’s Plan

An example of a Research Proposal

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Planning for Your Research

Chapter Summary

List of Important Terms

Your Current Status

Activities for Thought and Discussion

References and Recommended Readings

CHAPTER 9 Preparing a Research Report

References and Recommended Readings

Preview

Targeted Learnings

Conventions in Research and Reporting

Style Guides

Conventions of Style

Title

Person and Voice

Tense

Tentative versus Definitive Statements

Simplicity of Language

Consistency

Conventions of Format

Introduction

Review of Related Literature

Procedures or Method

Findings or Results

Conclusions or Discussion

Front and Back Material

A Composite Outline of Format Conventions

Sample Pages

For Research Papers and Journal Articles

For Masters’ Theses

For a Thesis That Reports Action Research

Thesis Format for Other Types of Research

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Preparing to Write Your Report

Chapter Summary

List of Important Terms

Your Current Status

Activities for Thought and Discussion

Answers to Chapter Exercises

PART FOUR: Procedures and Exemplars of Research as Differentiated by Tradition

CHAPTER 10 Qualitative Research Methods

Preview

Targeted Learnings

Characteristics of Qualitative Research

The Qualitative Research Process

Qualitative Data Collection Techniques

Characteristics of Qualitative Data: Accuracy, Credibility, and Dependibility

Qualitative Data Analysis Techniques

Approaches to Qualitative Research

The Nature of Ethnographic Research

Topics in Ethnographic Research

Procedures in Ethnographic Research

The Richness of Ethnographic Research

Strengths and Concerns in ethnographic Research

An Example of Ethnographic Research

Organizing for Ethnographic Research

The Nature of Narrative Research

Procedures in Narrative Research

Strengths and Concerns in Narrative Research

An Example of Narrative Research

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY More about Qualitative Research

Chapter Summary

List of Important Terms

Activities for Thought and Discussion

Answers to Chapter Exercises

References and Recommended Readings

CHAPTER 11 Survey Research

Preview

Targeted Learnings

Characteristics of Survey Research

Types of Surveys

Types of Survey Questions

Survey Design Considerations

The Survey Research Process

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY More about Survey Research

Strengths and Concerns in Survey Research

An Example of Survey Research

Chapter Summary

List of Important Terms

Activities for Thought and Discussion

Answers to Chapter Exercises

References and Recommended Readings

CHAPTER 12 Nonexperimental Quantitative Research

Preview

Targeted Learnings

Weather and the Process of Education

Correlations

The Nature of Correlational Research

Cautions Concerning Cause and Effect

Topics for Correlational Research

Hypotheses and Questions in Correlational Research

Correlational Research Design

Data Sources and Collection

What Can Be Correlated and How

Product-Moment Correlation

Biserial Correlation and Point-Biserial Correlation

Phi Correlation and Tetrachoric Correlation

Correlations from Rankings

Multivariate Correlations

Partial Correlation

Multiple Regression

Discriminant Analysis

Factor Analysis

An Example of Correlational Research

Organizing for Correlational Research

Selecting the Variables

Stating Questions or Hypotheses

Assessing and Quantifying the Variables

Selecting a Sample

Collecting Data

Analyzing the Data

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY More about Correlational Research

Organizing for Correlational Research

Causal-Comparative Research

The Nature of Causal-Comparative Research

Conducting Causal-Comparative Research

An Example of Causal-Comparative Research

Chapter Summary

List of Important Terms

Activities for Thought and Discussion

Answers to Chapter Exercises

References and Recommended Readings

CHAPTER 13 Experimental, Quasi-Experimental, and Single-Subject Designs

Targeted Learnings

The Search for Causation

Experimental Research

Quasi-Experimental Research

Fundamentals of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research

Cause and effect

Random Selection and Assignment

Use of Experimental Research

Experimental Designs

Quasi-experimental Designs

The Commonality of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs

Single-Subject Designs

Threats to Internal and External Validity

An Example of Quasi-Experimental Research

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY More about Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research Designs

An Example of Single-Subject Research

Chapter Summary

List of Important Terms

Activities for Thought and Discussion

Answers to Chapter Exercises

References and Recommended Readings

CHAPTER 14 Mixed-Methods Research Designs

Preview

Targeted Learnings

Characteristics of Mixed-Methods Research

Mixed-Methods Research Designs

The Mixed-Methods Research Process

Strengths and Concerns in Mixed-Methods Research

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY More about Mixed-Methods Research

An Example of Mixed-Methods Research

Chapter Summary

List of Important Terms

Activities for Thought and Discussion

Answers to Chapter Exercise

References and Recommended Readings

PART FIVE: Procedures and Exemplars of Research as Differentiated by Practicality

CHAPTER 15 Action Research

Preview

Targeted Learnings

Action Research

The Importance of Action Research

Characteristics of Action Research

An Example

The Action Research Process

An Example of Action Research

Review of Action Research

Organizing for Action Research

Strengths and Cautions in Action Research

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY: More about Action Research

Chapter Summary

Activities for Thought and Discussion

Answers to Chapter Exercise

References and Recommended Readings

CHAPTER 16 Evaluation Research

Preview

Targeted Learnings

Evaluation Research

Types of Evaluation Research

Evaluating Methods, Materials, and Programs

An Example of Evaluation Research: “insert title of new article”

Organizing for Evaluation Research

Chapter Summary

Activities for Thought and Discussion

Answers to Chapter Exercise

References and Recommended Readings

APPENDIX A Overview of Statistical Concepts and Procedures

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