Introduction to Engineering Experimentation / Edition 3

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Overview

KEY BENEFIT: An up-to-date, practical introduction to engineering experimentation. Introduction to Engineering Experimentation, 3E introduces many topics that engineers need to master in order to plan, design, and document a successful experiment or measurement system. The text offers a practical approach with current examples and thorough discussions of key topics, including those often ignored or merely touched upon by other texts, such as modern computerized data acquisition systems, electrical output measuring devices, and in-depth coverage of experimental uncertainty analysis.

The book includes theoretical coverage and selected applications of statistics and probability, instrument dynamic response, uncertainty analysis and Fourier analysis; detailed descriptions of computerized data acquisition systems and system components, as well as a wide range of common sensors and measurement systems such as strain gages and thermocouples. Worked examples are provided for theoretical topics and sources of uncertainty are presented for measurement systems.

For engineering professionals looking for an up-to-date, practical introduction to the field of engineering experimentation.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
An introduction to experiment design and measurement systems, describing common measurement systems for factors such as humidity and flow rate; computerized data acquisition systems; statistical techniques; experimental uncertainty analysis; and guidelines for planning and documenting experiments. Includes problems and answers, chapter summaries, a glossary, and appendices of computational methods and properties of substances. For engineering students in a semester course of up to three lectures with one lab per week, assuming a prior course in statistics. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131742765
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 12/8/2009
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 480
  • Sales rank: 607,790
  • Product dimensions: 7.28 (w) x 9.36 (h) x 1.26 (d)

Meet the Author

Anthony J. Wheeler received a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from Stanford University in 1971. Dr. Wheeler is a licensed Professional Engineer in the State of California. He is currently Emeritus Professor of Engineering at San Francisco State University where he taught courses in Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, and lectures and laboratories in Experimental Methods. His development activities in laboratories in experimentation were the precursors to the present textbook.

Professor Ahmad R. Ganji received his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley in 1979. He is a professional engineer in the State of California. He has served as a faculty member at San Francisco State University since 1987, teaching courses in the areas of thermal-fluids, experimentation, and air pollution, and publishing over 40 works. Dr. Ganji has been the director of Industrial Assessment Center–a US DOE sponsored project since 1992. In this capacity he has managed hundreds of energy assessments of manufacturing facilities. As a consultant in energy efficiency projects, he has directed and managed numerous measurement and verification (M&V) projects that involve the formulation of detailed measurement protocols based on national and international standards.

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Table of Contents

Previous Edition TOC

CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Applications of Engineering Experimentation and Measurement 1

1.1.1 Measurement in Engineering Experimentation 1

1.1.2 Measurement in Operational Systems 3

1.2 Objective and Overview 3

1.3 Dimensions and Units 3

1.4 Closure 5

CHAPTER 2 General Characteristics of Measurement Systems 6

2.1 Generalized Measurement System 6

2.2 Validity of Measurement 7

2.2.1 Measurement Error and Related Definitions 8

2.2.2 Calibration of Measurement Systems 15

2.3 Dynamic Measurements 23

2.4 Closure 27

References 27

Problems 28

CHAPTER 3 Measurement Systems with Electrical Signals 34

3.1 Electrical Signal Measurement Systems 34

3.2 Signal Conditioners 35

3.2.1 General Characteristics of Signal Amplification 36

3.2.2 Amplifiers Using Operational Amplifiers 42

3.2.3 Signal Attenuation 48

3.2.4 General Aspects of Signal Filtering 50

3.2.5 Butterworth Filters Using Operational Amplifiers 53

3.2.6 Circuits for Integration, Differentiation, and Comparison 57

3.3 Indicating and Recording Devices 58

3.3.1 Digital Voltmeters and Multimeters 58

3.3.2 Oscilloscopes 59

3.3.3 Strip-Chart Recorders 61

3.3.4 Data Acquisition Systems 62

3.4 Electrical Transmission of Signals Between Components 63

3.4.1 Low-Level Analog Voltage Signal Transmission 63

3.4.2 High-Level Analog Voltage Signal Transmission 65

3.4.3 Current-Loop Analog Signal Transmission 66

3.4.4 Digital Signal Transmission 66

References 67

Problems 68

CHAPTER 4 Computerized Data-Acquisition Systems 70

4.1 Introduction 70

4.2 Computer Systems 71

4.2.1 Computer Systems for Data Acquisition 71

4.2.2 Components of Computer Systems 72

4.2.3 Representing Numbers in Computer Systems 74

4.3 Data-Acquisition Components 77

4.3.1 Multiplexers 77

4.3.2 Basics of Analog-to-Digital Converters 78

4.3.3 Practical Analog-to-Digital Converters 85

4.3.4 Digital-to-Analog Converters 88

4.3.5 Simultaneous Sample-and-Hold Subsystems 89

4.4 Configurations of Data-Acquisition Systems 90

4.5 Software for Data-Acquisition Systems 92

4.5.1 Commercial Software Packages 92

References 92

Problems 93

CHAPTER 5 Discrete Sampling and Analysis of Time-Varying Signals 95

5.1 Sampling-Rate Theorem 95

5.2 Spectral Analysis of Time-Varying Signals 100

5.3 Spectral Analysis Using the Fourier Transform 105

5.4 Selecting the Sampling Rate and Filtering 110

5.4.1 Selecting the Sampling Rate 110

5.4.2 Use of Filtering to Limit Sampling Rate 111

References 115

Problems 115

CHAPTER 6 Statistical Analysis of Experimental Data 118

6.1 Introduction 118

6.2 General Concepts and Definitions 120

6.2.1 Definitions 120

6.2.2 Measures of Central Tendency 122

6.2.3 Measures of Dispersion 123

6.3 Probability 124

6.3.1 Probability Distribution Functions 125

6.3.2 Some Probability Distribution Functions

with Engineering Applications 129

6.4 Parameter Estimation 139

6.4.1 Interval Estimation of the Population Mean 140

6.4.2 Interval Estimation of the Population Variance 146

6.5 Criterion for Rejecting Questionable Data Points 149

6.6 Correlation of Experimental Data 151

6.6.1 Correlation Coefficient 151

6.6.2 Least-Squares Linear Fit 155

6.6.3 Outliers in xy Data Sets 159

6.6.4 Linear Regression Using Data Transformation 163

6.6.5 Multiple and Polynomial Regression 164

6.7 Linear Functions of Random Variables 168

6.8 Applying Computer Software for Statistical Analysis

of Experimental Data 169

References 169

Problems 170

CHAPTER 7 Experimental Uncertainty Analysis 180

7.1 Introduction 180

7.2 Propagation of Uncertainties–General Considerations 180

7.3 Consideration of Systematic and Random Components

of Uncertainty 184

7.4 Sources of Elemental Error 190

7.5 Uncertainty of the Final Results for Multiple-Measurement

Experiments 195

7.6 Uncertainty of the Final Result for Single-Measurement

Experiments 199

7.7 Step-by-Step Procedure for Uncertainty Analysis 202

7.8 Interpreting Manufacturers’ Uncertainty Data 203

7.9 Applying Uncertainty Analysis in Digital

Data-Acquisition Systems 204

7.10 Additional Considerations for Single-Measurement

Experiments 208

7.11 Closure 210

References 211

Problems 211

CHAPTER 8 Measurement of Solid-Mechanical Quantities 222

8.1 Measuring Strain 222

8.1.1 Electrical Resistance Strain Gage 222

8.1.2 Strain Gage Signal Conditioning 227

8.2 Measuring Displacement 232

8.2.1 Potentiometer 232

8.2.2 Linear and Rotary Variable Differential Transformers 233

8.2.3 Capacitive Displacement Sensor 237

8.2.4 Digital Encoders 239

8.3 Measuring Linear Velocity 239

8.3.1 Linear Velocity Transducer 239

8.3.2 Doppler Radar Velocity Measurement 240

8.3.3 Velocity Determination Using Displacement

and Acceleration Sensors 241

8.4 Measuring Angular Velocity 242

8.4.1 Electric Generator Tachometers 242

8.4.2 Magnetic Pickup 243

8.4.3 Stroboscopic Tachometer 244

8.4.4 Photoelectric Tachometer 245

8.5 Measuring Acceleration and Vibration 245

8.5.1 Piezoelectric Accelerometers 245

8.5.2 Strain-Gage Accelerometers 248

8.5.3 Servo Accelerometer 249

8.5.4 Vibrometer 249

8.6 Measuring Force 250

8.6.1 Load Cells 250

8.6.2 Proving Rings 252

8.7 Measuring Rotating Shaft Torque 253

References 255

Problems 256

CHAPTER 9 Measuring Pressure, Temperature, and Humidity 261

9.1 Measuring Pressure 261

9.1.1 Traditional Pressure-Measuring Devices 261

9.1.2 Pressure Transducers 268

9.1.3 Measuring a Vacuum 270

9.2 Measuring Temperature 274

9.2.1 Thermocouples 274

9.2.2 Resistance-Temperature Detectors 281

9.2.3 Thermistor and Integrated-Circuit Temperature Sensors 285

9.2.4 Mechanical Temperature-Sensing Devices 286

9.2.5 Pyrometers and Infrared Thermometers 289

9.2.6 Common Temperature-Measurement Errors 293

9.3 Measuring Humidity 298

9.3.1 Hygrometric Devices 299

9.3.2 Dew-Point Devices 299

9.3.3 Psychrometric Devices 299

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Contents vii

9.4 Fiber-Optic Devices 301

9.4.1 Optical Fiber 301

9.4.2 General Characteristics of Fiber-Optic Sensors 303

9.4.3 Fiber-Optic Displacement Sensors 304

9.4.4 Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensors 305

9.4.5 Fiber Optic Pressure Sensors 307

9.4.6 Other Fiber-Optic Sensors 307

References 308

Problems 309

CHAPTER 10 Measuring Fluid Flow Rate, Fluid Velocity, Fluid Level,

and Combustion Pollutants 313

10.1 Systems for Measuring Fluid Flow Rate 313

10.1.1 Pressure Differential Devices 313

10.1.2 Variable-Area Flowmeters 329

10.1.3 Turbine Flowmeters 332

10.1.4 Mass Flowmeters 333

10.1.5 Positive-Displacement Flowmeters 336

10.1.6 Other Methods of Flow Measurement 336

10.1.7 Calibrating Flowmeters 340

10.2 Systems for Measuring Fluid Velocity 341

10.2.1 Pitot-Static Probe 341

10.2.2 Hot-Wire and Hot-Film Anemometers 343

10.2.3 Fluid Velocity Measurement Using the

Laser-Doppler Effect 345

10.3 Measuring Fluid Level 347

10.3.1 Buoyancy Devices 348

10.3.2 Differential-Pressure Devices 349

10.3.3 Capacitance Devices 350

10.3.4 Conductance Devices 351

10.3.5 Ultrasonic Devices 351

10.3.6 Weight Methods 352

10.4 Measuring Air Pollution Species 352

10.4.1 Nondispersive Infrared Detectors 353

10.4.2 Chemiluminescent Analyzers 354

10.4.3 Flame Ionization Detectors 355

10.4.4 Other Gas-Analysis Devices 356

10.4.5 General Considerations about Sampling and

Measuring Pollutant Gases 357

References 358

Problems 359

CHAPTER 11 Dynamic Behavior of Measurement Systems 363

11.1 Order of a Dynamic Measurement System 363

11.2 Zero-Order Measurement Systems 364

11.3 First-Order Measurement Systems 364

11.3.1 Basic Equations 365

11.3.2 Step Input 365

11.3.3 Ramp Input 366

11.3.4 Sinusoidal Input 368

11.3.5 Thermocouple as a First-Order System 368

11.4 Second-Order Measurement Systems 373

11.4.1 Basic Equations 373

11.4.2 Step Input 374

11.4.3 Sinusoidal Input 376

11.4.4 Force Transducer (Load Cell) as a Second-Order System 377

11.4.5 Pressure-Measurement Devices as Second-Order Systems 380

11.4.6 Second-Order Systems for Acceleration and Vibration 388

11.5 Closure 393

References 394

Problems 394

CHAPTER 12 Guidelines for Planning and Documenting Experiments 397

12.1 Overview of an Experimental Program 397

12.1.1 Problem Definition 397

12.1.2 Experiment Design 398

12.1.3 Experiment Construction and Development 398

12.1.4 Data Gathering 399

12.1.5 Data Analysis 399

12.1.6 Interpreting Data and Reporting 399

12.2 Common Activities in Experimental Projects 399

12.2.1 Dimensional Analysis and Determining

the Test Rig Scale 399

12.2.2 Uncertainty Analysis 403

12.2.3 Shakedown Tests 403

12.2.4 Test Matrix and Test Sequence 404

12.2.5 Scheduling and Cost Estimation 408

12.2.6 Design Review 412

12.2.7 Documenting Experimental Activities 413

12.3 Closure 421

References 421

Answers to Selected Problems 422

APPENDIX A Computational Methods for Chapter 5 425

APPENDIX B Selected Properties of Substances 429

Glossary 434

Index

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Preface

This book is an introduction to many of the topics that an engineer needs to master in order to successfully design experiments and measurement systems. In addition to descriptions of common measurement systems, the book describes computerized data acquisition systems, common statistical techniques, experimental uncertainty analysis, and guidelines for planning and documenting experiments. It should be noted that this book is introductory in nature. Many of the subjects covered in a chapter or a few pages here are the subjects of complete books or major technical papers. Only the most common measurement systems are included—there exist many others that are used in practice. More comprehensive studies of available literature and consultation with product vendors are appropriate when engaging in a significant real-world experimental program. It is to be expected that the skills of the experimenter will be enhanced by more advanced courses in experimental and measurement systems design and practical experience.

The design of an experimental or measurement system is inherently an interdisciplinary activity. For example, the instrumentation and control system of a process plant might require the skills of chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, and computer engineers. Similarly, the specification of the instrumentation used to measure the earthquake response of a large structure will involve the skills of civil, electrical, and computer engineers. Based on these facts, the topics presented in this book have been selected to prepare engineering students and practicing engineers of different disciplines to design experimental projects and measurementsystems.

This book was conceived when a decision was made at San Francisco State University to upgrade the laboratory of our first experimental course from using primarily mechanical instruments to using electrical output devices, and to introduce the students to the acquisition and processing of the data with computer systems. The lecture was upgraded at the same time to include the new topics. A survey was made of available texts, and none was found to provide complete coverage of the material in the revised course. The primary deficiencies were in the coverage of computerized data acquisition systems, statistics, and the design and documentation of experiments. Consequently, we created a course reader, which was subsequently expanded to become this book.

The book first introduces the essential general characteristics of instruments, electrical measurement systems, and computerized data acquisition systems. This introduction gives the students a foundation for the laboratory associated with the course. The theory of discretely sampled systems is introduced next. The book then moves into statistics and experimental uncertainty analysis, which are both considered central to a modern course in experimental methods. It is not anticipated that the remaining chapters will necessarily be covered either in their entirety or in the presented sequence in lectures—the instructor will select appropriate subjects. Descriptions and theory are provided for a wide variety of measurement systems. There is an extensive discussion of dynamic measurement systems with applications. Finally, guidance for planning experiments, including scheduling, cost estimation, and outlines for project proposals and reports, are presented in the last chapter.

There are some subjects included in the introductory chapters that are frequently of interest, but are often not considered vital for an introductory experimental methods course. These subjects include the material on circuits using operational amplifiers (Sections 3.2.2, 3.2.5 and 3.2.6), details on various types of analog-to-digital converters (Section 4.3.3), and the material on Fourier transforms (Section 5.3). Any or all of these sections can be omitted without significant impact on the remainder of the text.

The book has been designed for a semester course of up to three lectures with one laboratory per week. Depending on the time available, it is expected that only selected topics will be covered. The material covered depends on the number of lectures per week, the prior preparation of students in the area of statistics, and the scope of included design project(s). The book can serve as a reference for subsequent laboratory courses.

Our introductory course in engineering experimentation is presented to all undergraduate engineers in civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering. The one-semester format includes two lectures per week and one three-hour laboratory. In our two-lecture-per-week format, the course content is broken down as follows:

  1. General aspects of measurement systems (2 lectures)
  2. Electrical output measurement systems (2 lectures)
  3. Computerized data acquisition systems (3 lectures)
  4. Fourier analysis and the sampling rate theorem (4 lectures)
  5. Statistical methods and uncertainty analysis (10 lectures)
  6. Selected measurement devices (4 lectures)
  7. Dynamic measurement systems (3 lectures)

Additional measurement systems and the material on planning and documenting experiments are covered in the laboratory. The laboratory also includes an introduction to computerized data acquisition systems and applicable software; basic measurements such as temperature, pressure, and displacement; statistical analysis of data; the sampling rate theorem; and a modest design project. A subsequent laboratory-only course expands on the introductory course and includes a significant design project.

There is sufficient material for a one-semester, three-lecture-per-week course even if the students have taken a prior course in statistics. Areas that can be covered in greater detail include operational amplifiers, analog-to-digital converters, spectral analysis, uncertainty analysis, measurement devices, dynamic measurements, and experiment design.

In this second edition, Chapter 6 on statistics has been significantly enhanced to include the Poisson distribution, multiple and polynomial regression, outlier analysis for x-y data sets, and linear functions of random variables. Chapter 7 on uncertainty analysis has been extensively modified to make it compatible with the latest ASME standard and to provide a simpler path through the material for large data samples. Chapter 5 has been modified to include the folding diagram for predicting alias frequencies and to make the nomenclature for Fourier series consistent with common current usage. Numerous lesser alterations have been made throughout the book to clarify, update, or enhance the material. Finally, the number of homework problems has been increased by 50%.

Read More Show Less

Introduction

This book is an introduction to many of the topics that an engineer needs to master in order to successfully design experiments and measurement systems. In addition to descriptions of common measurement systems, the book describes computerized data acquisition systems, common statistical techniques, experimental uncertainty analysis, and guidelines for planning and documenting experiments. It should be noted that this book is introductory in nature. Many of the subjects covered in a chapter or a few pages here are the subjects of complete books or major technical papers. Only the most common measurement systems are included—there exist many others that are used in practice. More comprehensive studies of available literature and consultation with product vendors are appropriate when engaging in a significant real-world experimental program. It is to be expected that the skills of the experimenter will be enhanced by more advanced courses in experimental and measurement systems design and practical experience.

The design of an experimental or measurement system is inherently an interdisciplinary activity. For example, the instrumentation and control system of a process plant might require the skills of chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, and computer engineers. Similarly, the specification of the instrumentation used to measure the earthquake response of a large structure will involve the skills of civil, electrical, and computer engineers. Based on these facts, the topics presented in this book have been selected to prepare engineering students and practicing engineers of different disciplines to design experimental projects andmeasurement systems.

This book was conceived when a decision was made at San Francisco State University to upgrade the laboratory of our first experimental course from using primarily mechanical instruments to using electrical output devices, and to introduce the students to the acquisition and processing of the data with computer systems. The lecture was upgraded at the same time to include the new topics. A survey was made of available texts, and none was found to provide complete coverage of the material in the revised course. The primary deficiencies were in the coverage of computerized data acquisition systems, statistics, and the design and documentation of experiments. Consequently, we created a course reader, which was subsequently expanded to become this book.

The book first introduces the essential general characteristics of instruments, electrical measurement systems, and computerized data acquisition systems. This introduction gives the students a foundation for the laboratory associated with the course. The theory of discretely sampled systems is introduced next. The book then moves into statistics and experimental uncertainty analysis, which are both considered central to a modern course in experimental methods. It is not anticipated that the remaining chapters will necessarily be covered either in their entirety or in the presented sequence in lectures—the instructor will select appropriate subjects. Descriptions and theory are provided for a wide variety of measurement systems. There is an extensive discussion of dynamic measurement systems with applications. Finally, guidance for planning experiments, including scheduling, cost estimation, and outlines for project proposals and reports, are presented in the last chapter.

There are some subjects included in the introductory chapters that are frequently of interest, but are often not considered vital for an introductory experimental methods course. These subjects include the material on circuits using operational amplifiers (Sections 3.2.2, 3.2.5 and 3.2.6), details on various types of analog-to-digital converters (Section 4.3.3), and the material on Fourier transforms (Section 5.3). Any or all of these sections can be omitted without significant impact on the remainder of the text.

The book has been designed for a semester course of up to three lectures with one laboratory per week. Depending on the time available, it is expected that only selected topics will be covered. The material covered depends on the number of lectures per week, the prior preparation of students in the area of statistics, and the scope of included design project(s). The book can serve as a reference for subsequent laboratory courses.

Our introductory course in engineering experimentation is presented to all undergraduate engineers in civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering. The one-semester format includes two lectures per week and one three-hour laboratory. In our two-lecture-per-week format, the course content is broken down as follows:

  1. General aspects of measurement systems (2 lectures)
  2. Electrical output measurement systems (2 lectures)
  3. Computerized data acquisition systems (3 lectures)
  4. Fourier analysis and the sampling rate theorem (4 lectures)
  5. Statistical methods and uncertainty analysis (10 lectures)
  6. Selected measurement devices (4 lectures)
  7. Dynamic measurement systems (3 lectures)

Additional measurement systems and the material on planning and documenting experiments are covered in the laboratory. The laboratory also includes an introduction to computerized data acquisition systems and applicable software; basic measurements such as temperature, pressure, and displacement; statistical analysis of data; the sampling rate theorem; and a modest design project. A subsequent laboratory-only course expands on the introductory course and includes a significant design project.

There is sufficient material for a one-semester, three-lecture-per-week course even if the students have taken a prior course in statistics. Areas that can be covered in greater detail include operational amplifiers, analog-to-digital converters, spectral analysis, uncertainty analysis, measurement devices, dynamic measurements, and experiment design.

In this second edition, Chapter 6 on statistics has been significantly enhanced to include the Poisson distribution, multiple and polynomial regression, outlier analysis for x-y data sets, and linear functions of random variables. Chapter 7 on uncertainty analysis has been extensively modified to make it compatible with the latest ASME standard and to provide a simpler path through the material for large data samples. Chapter 5 has been modified to include the folding diagram for predicting alias frequencies and to make the nomenclature for Fourier series consistent with common current usage. Numerous lesser alterations have been made throughout the book to clarify, update, or enhance the material. Finally, the number of homework problems has been increased by 50%.

Read More Show Less

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