Introduction to Flight / Edition 6

Introduction to Flight / Edition 6

by John Anderson
     
 

Noted for its highly readable style, the new edition of this bestseller provides an updated overview of aeronautical and aerospace engineering. Introduction to Flight blends history and biography with discussion of engineering concepts, and shows the development of flight through this perspective.

Anderson covers new developments in flight, including

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Overview

Noted for its highly readable style, the new edition of this bestseller provides an updated overview of aeronautical and aerospace engineering. Introduction to Flight blends history and biography with discussion of engineering concepts, and shows the development of flight through this perspective.

Anderson covers new developments in flight, including unmanned aerial vehicles, uninhabited combat aerial vehicles, and applications of CFD in aircraft design. Many new and revised problems have been added in this edition. Chapter learning features help readers follow the text discussion while highlighting key engineering and industry applications.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780073529394
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date:
10/25/2007
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
912
Product dimensions:
7.70(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.60(d)

Table of Contents

About the Authorv
Preface to the Fifth Editionxv
Preface to the First Editionxvii
Chapter 1The First Aeronautical Engineers1
1.1Introduction1
1.2Very Early Developments4
1.3Sir George Cayley (1773-1857)--The True Inventor of the Airplane6
1.4The Interregnum--From 1853 to 189113
1.5Otto Lilienthal (1848-1896)--The Glider Man17
1.6Percy Pilcher (1867-1899)--Extending the Glider Tradition20
1.7Aeronautics Comes to America21
1.8Wilbur (1867-1912) and Orville (1871-1948) Wright--Inventors of the First Practical Airplane27
1.9The Aeronautical Triangle--Langley, the Wrights, and Glenn Curtiss36
1.10The Problem of Propulsion45
1.11Faster and Higher46
1.12Summary49
Bibliography50
Chapter 2Fundamental Thoughts52
2.1Fundamental Physical Quantities of a Flowing Gas56
2.1.1Pressure56
2.1.2Density57
2.1.3Temperature58
2.1.4Flow Velocity and Streamlines59
2.2The Source of All Aerodynamic Forces61
2.3Equation of State for a Perfect Gas63
2.4Discussion of Units65
2.5Specific Volume70
2.6Anatomy of the Airplane76
2.7Anatomy of a Space Vehicle87
2.8Historical Note: The NACA and NASA95
2.9Summary98
Bibliography98
Problems98
Chapter 3The Standard Atmosphere101
3.1Definition of Altitude103
3.2Hydrostatic Equation104
3.3Relation Between Geopotential and Geometric Altitudes106
3.4Definition of the Standard Atmosphere107
3.5Pressure, Temperature, and Density Altitudes114
3.6Historical Note: The Standard Atmosphere117
3.7Summary119
Bibliography120
Problems120
Chapter 4Basic Aerodynamics122
4.1Continuity Equation126
4.2Incompressible and Compressible Flow127
4.3Momentum Equation130
4.4A Comment134
4.5Elementary Thermodynamics141
4.6Isentropic Flow147
4.7Energy Equation152
4.8Summary of Equations155
4.9Speed of Sound156
4.10Low-Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnels162
4.11Measurement of Airspeed168
4.11.1Incompressible Flow171
4.11.2Subsonic Compressible Flow174
4.11.3Supersonic Flow178
4.11.4Summary182
4.12Some Additional Considerations183
4.12.1More on Compressible Flow183
4.12.2More on Equivalent Airspeed185
4.13Supersonic Wind Tunnels and Rocket Engines187
4.14Discussion of Compressibility195
4.15Introduction to Viscous Flow196
4.16Results for a Laminar Boundary Layer205
4.17Results for a Turbulent Boundary Layer210
4.18Compressibility Effects on Skin Friction213
4.19Transition216
4.20Flow Separation219
4.21Summary of Viscous Effects on Drag224
4.22Historical Note: Bernoulli and Euler225
4.23Historical Note: The Pitot Tube226
4.24Historical Note: The First Wind Tunnels229
4.25Historical Note: Osborne Reynolds and His Number235
4.26Historical Note: Prandtl and the Development of the Boundary Layer Concept239
4.27Summary242
Bibliography244
Problems245
Chapter 5Airfoils, Wings, and Other Aerodynamic Shapes251
5.1Introduction251
5.2Airfoil Nomenclature253
5.3Lift, Drag, and Moment Coefficients257
5.4Airfoil Data263
5.5Infinite Versus Finite Wings271
5.6Pressure Coefficient273
5.7Obtaining Lift Coefficient from C[subscript p]278
5.8Compressibility Correction for Lift Coefficient282
5.9Critical Mach Number and Critical Pressure Coefficient283
5.10Drag-Divergence Mach Number294
5.11Wave Drag (at Supersonic Speeds)302
5.12Summary of Airfoil Drag310
5.13Finite Wings312
5.14Calculation of Induced Drag315
5.15Change in the Lift Slope321
5.16Swept Wings329
5.17Flaps--A Mechanism for High Lift342
5.18Aerodynamics of Cylinders and Spheres348
5.19How Lift Is Produced--Some Alternate Explanations352
5.20Historical Note: Airfoils and Wings362
5.20.1The Wright Brothers363
5.20.2British and U.S. Airfoils (1910 to 1920)363
5.20.31920 to 1930364
5.20.4Early NACA Four-Digit Airfoils364
5.20.5Later NACA Airfoils365
5.20.6Modern Airfoil Work366
5.20.7Finite Wings366
5.21Historical Note: Ernst Mach and His Number369
5.22Historical Note: The First Manned Supersonic Flight372
5.23Historical Note: The X-15--First Manned Hypersonic Airplane and Stepping-Stone to the Space Shuttle376
5.24Summary379
Bibliography380
Problems380
Chapter 6Elements of Airplane Performance385
6.1Introduction: The Drag Polar385
6.2Equations of Motion392
6.3Thrust Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight394
6.4Thrust Available and Maximum Velocity402
6.5Power Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight405
6.6Power Available and Maximum Velocity410
6.6.1Reciprocating Engine-Propeller Combination410
6.6.2Jet Engine413
6.7Altitude Effects on Power Required and Available414
6.8Rate of Climb419
6.9Gliding Flight428
6.10Absolute and Service Ceilings432
6.11Time to Climb435
6.12Range and Endurance--Propeller-Driven Airplane436
6.12.1Physical Considerations437
6.12.2Quantitative Formulation438
6.12.3Breguet Formulas (Propeller-Driven Airplane)440
6.13Range and Endurance--Jet Airplane444
6.13.1Physical Considerations445
6.13.2Quantitative Formulation446
6.14Relations Between C[subscript D,0] and C[subscript D,i]450
6.15Takeoff Performance458
6.16Landing Performance464
6.17Turning Flight and the V-n Diagram467
6.18Accelerated Rate of Climb (Energy Method)474
6.19Special Considerations for Supersonic Airplanes481
6.20Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)485
6.21A Comment, and More on the Aspect Ratio494
6.22Historical Note: Drag Reduction--The NACA Cowling and the Fillet494
6.23Historical Note: Early Predictions of Airplane Performance499
6.24Historical Note: Breguet and the Range Formula500
6.25Historical Note: Aircraft Design--Evolution and Revolution501
6.26Summary507
Bibliography509
Problems510
Chapter 7Principles of Stability and Control513
7.1Introduction513
7.2Definition of Stability and Control519
7.2.1Static Stability520
7.2.2Dynamic Stability521
7.2.3Control523
7.2.4Partial Derivative523
7.3Moments on the Airplane524
7.4Absolute Angle of Attack525
7.5Criteria for Longitudinal Static Stability527
7.6Quantitative Discussion: Contribution of the Wing to M[subscript cg]532
7.7Contribution of the Tail to M[subscript cg]536
7.8Total Pitching Moment About the Center of Gravity539
7.9Equations for Longitudinal Static Stability541
7.10Neutral Point543
7.11Static Margin544
7.12Concept of Static Longitudinal Control548
7.13Calculation of Elevator Angle to Trim553
7.14Stick-Fixed Versus Stick-Free Static Stability555
7.15Elevator Hinge Moment556
7.16Stick-Free Longitudinal Static Stability558
7.17Directional Static Stability562
7.18Lateral Static Stability563
7.19A Comment565
7.20Historical Note: The Wright Brothers Versus the European Philosophy on Stability and Control566
7.21Historical Note: The Development of Flight Controls567
7.22Historical Note: The "Tuck-Under" Problem569
7.23Summary570
Bibliography571
Problems571
Chapter 8Space Flight (Astronautics)573
8.1Introduction573
8.2Differential Equations580
8.3Lagrange's Equation581
8.4Orbit Equation584
8.4.1Force and Energy584
8.4.2Equation of Motion586
8.5Space Vehicle Trajectories--Some Basic Aspects590
8.6Kepler's Laws597
8.7Introduction to Earth and Planetary Entry601
8.8Exponential Atmosphere604
8.9General Equations of Motion for Atmospheric Entry604
8.10Application to Ballistic Entry608
8.11Entry Heating614
8.12Lifting Entry, with Application to the Space Shuttle621
8.13Historical Note: Kepler625
8.14Historical Note: Newton and the Law of Gravitation627
8.15Historical Note: Lagrange629
8.16Historical Note: Unmanned Space Flight629
8.17Historical Note: Manned Space Flight634
8.18Summary636
Bibliography637
Problems637
Chapter 9Propulsion639
9.1Introduction639
9.2Propeller642
9.3Reciprocating Engine650
9.4Jet Propulsion--The Thrust Equation660
9.5Turbojet Engine663
9.6Turbofan Engine668
9.7Ramjet Engine670
9.8Rocket Engine674
9.9Rocket Propellants--Some Considerations681
9.9.1Liquid Propellants681
9.9.2Solid Propellants684
9.9.3A Comment686
9.10Rocket Equation687
9.11Rocket Staging688
9.12Electric Propulsion692
9.12.1Electron-Ion Thruster693
9.12.2Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster694
9.12.3Arc-Jet Thruster694
9.12.4A Comment694
9.13Historical Note: Early Propeller Development695
9.14Historical Note: Early Development of the Internal Combustion Engine for Aviation698
9.15Historical Note: Inventors of Early Jet Engines700
9.16Historical Note: Early History of Rocket Engines703
9.17Summary709
Bibliography710
Problems710
Chapter 10Flight Vehicle Structures and Materials713
10.1Introduction713
10.2Some Physics of Solid Materials714
10.2.1Stress714
10.2.2Strain716
10.2.3Other Cases717
10.2.4Stress-Strain Diagram718
10.3Some Elements of an Aircraft Structure721
10.4Materials724
10.5Fatigue728
10.6Some Comments729
Bibliography729
Problems730
Chapter 11Hypersonic Vehicles731
11.1Introduction731
11.2Physical Aspects of Hypersonic Flow735
11.2.1Thin Shock Layers735
11.2.2Entropy Layer736
11.2.3Viscous Interaction737
11.2.4High-Temperature Effects738
11.2.5Low-Density Flow739
11.2.6Recapitulation743
11.3Newtonian Law for Hypersonic Flow743
11.4Some Comments on Hypersonic Airplanes749
11.5Summary758
Bibliography758
Problems758
Appendix AStandard Atmosphere, SI Units760
Appendix BStandard Atmosphere, English Engineering Units770
Appendix CSymbols and Conversion Factors778
Appendix DAirfoil Data779
Index808

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