Introduction to Flight / Edition 6

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Noted for its highly readable style, the new edition of this bestseller provides an updated overview of aeronautical and aerospace engineering. Introduction to Flight blends history and biography with discussion of engineering concepts, and shows the development of flight through this perspective.

Anderson covers new developments in flight, including unmanned aerial vehicles, uninhabited combat aerial vehicles, and applications of CFD in aircraft design. Many new and revised problems have been added in this edition. Chapter learning features help readers follow the text discussion while highlighting key engineering and industry applications.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780073529394
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  • Publication date: 10/25/2007
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 912
  • Product dimensions: 7.70 (w) x 9.40 (h) x 1.60 (d)

Meet the Author

John D. Anderson, Jr. is the Curator of Aerodynamics at the National Air & Space Museum Smithsonian Institute and Professor Emeritus at the University of Maryland.

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Chapter 2: Fundamental Thoughts

Let us pick up the thread of aeronautical engineering history from Chap. 1. After Orville and Wilbur Wright's dramatic public demonstrations in the United States and Europe in 1908, there was a virtual explosion in aviation developments. In turn, this rapid progress had to be fed by new technical research in aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and flight control. It is important to realize that then, as well as today, aeronautical research was sometimes expensive, always demanding in terms of intellectual talent, and usually in need of large testing facilities. Such research in many cases either was beyond the financial resources of, or seemed too out of the ordinary for, private industry. Thus, the fundamental research so necessary to fertilize and pace the development of aeronautics in the 20th century had to be established and nurtured by national governments. It is interesting to note that George Cayley himself (see Chap. 1) as long ago as 1817 called for "public subscription" to underwrite the expense of the development of airships. Responding about 80 years later, the British government set up a school for ballooning and military kite flying at Farnborough, England. By 1910, the Royal Aircraft Factory was in operation at Farnborough with the noted Geoffrey de Havilland as its first airplane designer and test pilot. This was the first major government aeronautical facility in history. This operation was soon to evolve into the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE), which today is still conducting viable aeronautical research for the British government.

In the United States, aircraft development as well as aeronautical researchlanguished after 1910. During the next decade, the United States embarrassingly fell far behind Europe in aeronautical progress. This set the stage for the U.S. government to establish a formal mechanism for pulling itself out of its aeronautical "dark ages." On March 3, 1915, by an act of Congress, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was created, with an initial appropriation of $5000 per year for 5 years. This was at first a true committee, consisting of 12 distinguished members who were knowledgeable about aeronautics. Among the charter members in 1915 were Professor Joseph S. Ames of Johns Hopkins University (later to become president of Johns Hopkins) and Professor William F. Durand of Stanford University, both of whom were to make major impressions on aeronautical research in the first half century of powered flight. This advisory committee, NACA, was originally to meet annually in Washington, District of Columbia, on "the Thursday after the third Monday of October of each year," with any special meetings to be called by the chair. Its purpose was to advise the government on aeronautical research and development and to bring some cohesion to such activities in the United States.

The committee immediately noted that a single advisory group of 12 members was not sufficient to breathe life into U.S. aeronautics. Their insight is apparent in the letter of submittal for the first annual report of NACA in 1915, which contained the following passage:

There are many practical problems in aeronautics now in too indefinite a form to enable their solution to be undertaken. The committee is of the opinion that one of the first and most important steps to be taken in connection with the committee's work is the provision and equipment of a flying field together with aeroplanes and suitable testing gear for determining the forces acting on full-sized machines in constrained and in free flight, and to this end the estimates submitted contemplate the development of such a technical and operating staff, with the proper equipment for the conduct of full-sized experiments.

It is evident that there will ultimately be required a well-equipped laboratory specially suited to the solving of those problems which are sure to develop, but since the equipment of such a laboratory as could be laid down at this time might well prove unsuited to the needs of the early future, it is believed that such provision should be the result of gradual development.

So the first action of this advisory committee was to call for major government facilities for aeronautical research and development. The clouds of war in EuropeWorld War I had started a year earlier-made their recommendations even more imperative. In 1917, when the United States entered the conflict, actions followed the committee's words. We find the following entry in the third annual NACA report: "To carry on the highly scientific and special investigations contemplated in the act establishing the committee, and which have, since the outbreak of the war, assumed greater importance, and for which facilities do not already exist, or exist in only a limited degree, the committee has contracted for a research laboratory to be erected on the Signal Corps Experimental Station, Langley Field, Hampton, Virginia." The report goes on to describe a single, two-story laboratory building with physical, chemical, and structural testing laboratories. The building contract was for $80,900; actual construction began in 1917. Two wind tunnels and an engine test stand were contemplated "in the near future." The selection of a site 4 mi north of Hampton, Virginia, was based on general health conditions and the problems of accessibility to Washington and the larger industrial centers of the east, protection from naval attack, climatic conditions, and cost of the site.

Thus, the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Research Laboratory was born. It was to remain the only NACA laboratory and the only major U.S. aeronautical laboratory of any type for the next 20 years. Named after Samuel Pierpont Langley (see Sec. 1.7), it pioneered in wind tunnel and flight research. Of particular note is the airfoil and wing research performed at Langley during the 1920s and 1930s. We return to the subject of airfoils in Chap. 5, at which time the reader should note that the airfoil data included in App. D were obtained at Langley. With the work which poured out of the Langley laboratory, the United States took the lead in aeronautical development. High on the list of accomplishments, along with the systematic testing of airfoils, was the development of the NACA engine cowl (see Sec. 6.19), an aerodynamic fairing built around radial piston engines which dramatically reduced the aerodynamic drag of such engines.

In 1936, Dr. George Lewis, who was then NACA Director of Aeronautical Research (a position he held from 1924 to 1947), toured major European laboratories. He noted that NACA's lead in aeronautical research was quickly disappearing, especially in light of advances being made in Germany...

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Table of Contents

About the Author v
Preface to the Fifth Edition xv
Preface to the First Edition xvii
Chapter 1 The First Aeronautical Engineers 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Very Early Developments 4
1.3 Sir George Cayley (1773-1857)--The True Inventor of the Airplane 6
1.4 The Interregnum--From 1853 to 1891 13
1.5 Otto Lilienthal (1848-1896)--The Glider Man 17
1.6 Percy Pilcher (1867-1899)--Extending the Glider Tradition 20
1.7 Aeronautics Comes to America 21
1.8 Wilbur (1867-1912) and Orville (1871-1948) Wright--Inventors of the First Practical Airplane 27
1.9 The Aeronautical Triangle--Langley, the Wrights, and Glenn Curtiss 36
1.10 The Problem of Propulsion 45
1.11 Faster and Higher 46
1.12 Summary 49
Bibliography 50
Chapter 2 Fundamental Thoughts 52
2.1 Fundamental Physical Quantities of a Flowing Gas 56
2.1.1 Pressure 56
2.1.2 Density 57
2.1.3 Temperature 58
2.1.4 Flow Velocity and Streamlines 59
2.2 The Source of All Aerodynamic Forces 61
2.3 Equation of State for a Perfect Gas 63
2.4 Discussion of Units 65
2.5 Specific Volume 70
2.6 Anatomy of the Airplane 76
2.7 Anatomy of a Space Vehicle 87
2.8 Historical Note: The NACA and NASA 95
2.9 Summary 98
Bibliography 98
Problems 98
Chapter 3 The Standard Atmosphere 101
3.1 Definition of Altitude 103
3.2 Hydrostatic Equation 104
3.3 Relation Between Geopotential and Geometric Altitudes 106
3.4 Definition of the Standard Atmosphere 107
3.5 Pressure, Temperature, and Density Altitudes 114
3.6 Historical Note: The Standard Atmosphere 117
3.7 Summary 119
Bibliography 120
Problems 120
Chapter 4 Basic Aerodynamics 122
4.1 Continuity Equation 126
4.2 Incompressible and Compressible Flow 127
4.3 Momentum Equation 130
4.4 A Comment 134
4.5 Elementary Thermodynamics 141
4.6 Isentropic Flow 147
4.7 Energy Equation 152
4.8 Summary of Equations 155
4.9 Speed of Sound 156
4.10 Low-Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnels 162
4.11 Measurement of Airspeed 168
4.11.1 Incompressible Flow 171
4.11.2 Subsonic Compressible Flow 174
4.11.3 Supersonic Flow 178
4.11.4 Summary 182
4.12 Some Additional Considerations 183
4.12.1 More on Compressible Flow 183
4.12.2 More on Equivalent Airspeed 185
4.13 Supersonic Wind Tunnels and Rocket Engines 187
4.14 Discussion of Compressibility 195
4.15 Introduction to Viscous Flow 196
4.16 Results for a Laminar Boundary Layer 205
4.17 Results for a Turbulent Boundary Layer 210
4.18 Compressibility Effects on Skin Friction 213
4.19 Transition 216
4.20 Flow Separation 219
4.21 Summary of Viscous Effects on Drag 224
4.22 Historical Note: Bernoulli and Euler 225
4.23 Historical Note: The Pitot Tube 226
4.24 Historical Note: The First Wind Tunnels 229
4.25 Historical Note: Osborne Reynolds and His Number 235
4.26 Historical Note: Prandtl and the Development of the Boundary Layer Concept 239
4.27 Summary 242
Bibliography 244
Problems 245
Chapter 5 Airfoils, Wings, and Other Aerodynamic Shapes 251
5.1 Introduction 251
5.2 Airfoil Nomenclature 253
5.3 Lift, Drag, and Moment Coefficients 257
5.4 Airfoil Data 263
5.5 Infinite Versus Finite Wings 271
5.6 Pressure Coefficient 273
5.7 Obtaining Lift Coefficient from C[subscript p] 278
5.8 Compressibility Correction for Lift Coefficient 282
5.9 Critical Mach Number and Critical Pressure Coefficient 283
5.10 Drag-Divergence Mach Number 294
5.11 Wave Drag (at Supersonic Speeds) 302
5.12 Summary of Airfoil Drag 310
5.13 Finite Wings 312
5.14 Calculation of Induced Drag 315
5.15 Change in the Lift Slope 321
5.16 Swept Wings 329
5.17 Flaps--A Mechanism for High Lift 342
5.18 Aerodynamics of Cylinders and Spheres 348
5.19 How Lift Is Produced--Some Alternate Explanations 352
5.20 Historical Note: Airfoils and Wings 362
5.20.1 The Wright Brothers 363
5.20.2 British and U.S. Airfoils (1910 to 1920) 363
5.20.3 1920 to 1930 364
5.20.4 Early NACA Four-Digit Airfoils 364
5.20.5 Later NACA Airfoils 365
5.20.6 Modern Airfoil Work 366
5.20.7 Finite Wings 366
5.21 Historical Note: Ernst Mach and His Number 369
5.22 Historical Note: The First Manned Supersonic Flight 372
5.23 Historical Note: The X-15--First Manned Hypersonic Airplane and Stepping-Stone to the Space Shuttle 376
5.24 Summary 379
Bibliography 380
Problems 380
Chapter 6 Elements of Airplane Performance 385
6.1 Introduction: The Drag Polar 385
6.2 Equations of Motion 392
6.3 Thrust Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight 394
6.4 Thrust Available and Maximum Velocity 402
6.5 Power Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight 405
6.6 Power Available and Maximum Velocity 410
6.6.1 Reciprocating Engine-Propeller Combination 410
6.6.2 Jet Engine 413
6.7 Altitude Effects on Power Required and Available 414
6.8 Rate of Climb 419
6.9 Gliding Flight 428
6.10 Absolute and Service Ceilings 432
6.11 Time to Climb 435
6.12 Range and Endurance--Propeller-Driven Airplane 436
6.12.1 Physical Considerations 437
6.12.2 Quantitative Formulation 438
6.12.3 Breguet Formulas (Propeller-Driven Airplane) 440
6.13 Range and Endurance--Jet Airplane 444
6.13.1 Physical Considerations 445
6.13.2 Quantitative Formulation 446
6.14 Relations Between C[subscript D,0] and C[subscript D,i] 450
6.15 Takeoff Performance 458
6.16 Landing Performance 464
6.17 Turning Flight and the V-n Diagram 467
6.18 Accelerated Rate of Climb (Energy Method) 474
6.19 Special Considerations for Supersonic Airplanes 481
6.20 Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) 485
6.21 A Comment, and More on the Aspect Ratio 494
6.22 Historical Note: Drag Reduction--The NACA Cowling and the Fillet 494
6.23 Historical Note: Early Predictions of Airplane Performance 499
6.24 Historical Note: Breguet and the Range Formula 500
6.25 Historical Note: Aircraft Design--Evolution and Revolution 501
6.26 Summary 507
Bibliography 509
Problems 510
Chapter 7 Principles of Stability and Control 513
7.1 Introduction 513
7.2 Definition of Stability and Control 519
7.2.1 Static Stability 520
7.2.2 Dynamic Stability 521
7.2.3 Control 523
7.2.4 Partial Derivative 523
7.3 Moments on the Airplane 524
7.4 Absolute Angle of Attack 525
7.5 Criteria for Longitudinal Static Stability 527
7.6 Quantitative Discussion: Contribution of the Wing to M[subscript cg] 532
7.7 Contribution of the Tail to M[subscript cg] 536
7.8 Total Pitching Moment About the Center of Gravity 539
7.9 Equations for Longitudinal Static Stability 541
7.10 Neutral Point 543
7.11 Static Margin 544
7.12 Concept of Static Longitudinal Control 548
7.13 Calculation of Elevator Angle to Trim 553
7.14 Stick-Fixed Versus Stick-Free Static Stability 555
7.15 Elevator Hinge Moment 556
7.16 Stick-Free Longitudinal Static Stability 558
7.17 Directional Static Stability 562
7.18 Lateral Static Stability 563
7.19 A Comment 565
7.20 Historical Note: The Wright Brothers Versus the European Philosophy on Stability and Control 566
7.21 Historical Note: The Development of Flight Controls 567
7.22 Historical Note: The "Tuck-Under" Problem 569
7.23 Summary 570
Bibliography 571
Problems 571
Chapter 8 Space Flight (Astronautics) 573
8.1 Introduction 573
8.2 Differential Equations 580
8.3 Lagrange's Equation 581
8.4 Orbit Equation 584
8.4.1 Force and Energy 584
8.4.2 Equation of Motion 586
8.5 Space Vehicle Trajectories--Some Basic Aspects 590
8.6 Kepler's Laws 597
8.7 Introduction to Earth and Planetary Entry 601
8.8 Exponential Atmosphere 604
8.9 General Equations of Motion for Atmospheric Entry 604
8.10 Application to Ballistic Entry 608
8.11 Entry Heating 614
8.12 Lifting Entry, with Application to the Space Shuttle 621
8.13 Historical Note: Kepler 625
8.14 Historical Note: Newton and the Law of Gravitation 627
8.15 Historical Note: Lagrange 629
8.16 Historical Note: Unmanned Space Flight 629
8.17 Historical Note: Manned Space Flight 634
8.18 Summary 636
Bibliography 637
Problems 637
Chapter 9 Propulsion 639
9.1 Introduction 639
9.2 Propeller 642
9.3 Reciprocating Engine 650
9.4 Jet Propulsion--The Thrust Equation 660
9.5 Turbojet Engine 663
9.6 Turbofan Engine 668
9.7 Ramjet Engine 670
9.8 Rocket Engine 674
9.9 Rocket Propellants--Some Considerations 681
9.9.1 Liquid Propellants 681
9.9.2 Solid Propellants 684
9.9.3 A Comment 686
9.10 Rocket Equation 687
9.11 Rocket Staging 688
9.12 Electric Propulsion 692
9.12.1 Electron-Ion Thruster 693
9.12.2 Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster 694
9.12.3 Arc-Jet Thruster 694
9.12.4 A Comment 694
9.13 Historical Note: Early Propeller Development 695
9.14 Historical Note: Early Development of the Internal Combustion Engine for Aviation 698
9.15 Historical Note: Inventors of Early Jet Engines 700
9.16 Historical Note: Early History of Rocket Engines 703
9.17 Summary 709
Bibliography 710
Problems 710
Chapter 10 Flight Vehicle Structures and Materials 713
10.1 Introduction 713
10.2 Some Physics of Solid Materials 714
10.2.1 Stress 714
10.2.2 Strain 716
10.2.3 Other Cases 717
10.2.4 Stress-Strain Diagram 718
10.3 Some Elements of an Aircraft Structure 721
10.4 Materials 724
10.5 Fatigue 728
10.6 Some Comments 729
Bibliography 729
Problems 730
Chapter 11 Hypersonic Vehicles 731
11.1 Introduction 731
11.2 Physical Aspects of Hypersonic Flow 735
11.2.1 Thin Shock Layers 735
11.2.2 Entropy Layer 736
11.2.3 Viscous Interaction 737
11.2.4 High-Temperature Effects 738
11.2.5 Low-Density Flow 739
11.2.6 Recapitulation 743
11.3 Newtonian Law for Hypersonic Flow 743
11.4 Some Comments on Hypersonic Airplanes 749
11.5 Summary 758
Bibliography 758
Problems 758
Appendix A Standard Atmosphere, SI Units 760
Appendix B Standard Atmosphere, English Engineering Units 770
Appendix C Symbols and Conversion Factors 778
Appendix D Airfoil Data 779
Index 808
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  • Posted October 26, 2010

    Best textbook ever.

    Actually a joy to read. Very interesting historical view on aerospace engineering as well as a great technical introduction to the topic. A must for any good Aero curriculum.

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