Introduction to Forensic Science and Criminalistics / Edition 1

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Overview

Written by authors with close to one hundred years of forensic experience combined, this introductory text features comprehensive coverage of the types of forensic work done by crime laboratories for criminal cases and by private examiners for civil cases. The book’s unifying vision of the role of forensic science in the justice system and of the role of the professional forensic scientist is clearly introduced in the first two chapters and reinforced throughout the text. Each chapter discusses a key case in the field and references other "real world" applications of the techniques described. The text’s premise is that being a scientist is not required for understanding and using forensic science, but that a greater understanding of science lends itself to better use of the techniques of forensic science.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780072988482
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  • Publication date: 1/23/2007
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 448
  • Sales rank: 397,205
  • Product dimensions: 8.80 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Howard A. Harris is currently a full-time faculty member of the Forensic Science Program at the University of New Haven. From fall 1996 through fall of 2003 he was the Director of the Forensic Science Program.

His educational background is in chemistry (A.B. Western Reserve University, M.S. and Ph. D. Yale University) and law (J.D. St. Louis University). He was admitted to and has maintained his membership in the Missouri Bar.

Dr. Harris was a research chemist for seven years for the Shell Oil Company, before entering the forensic field as the Director of the New York City Police Department Police Laboratory in January of 1974. He held that position for just under twelve years. During that time he was active in the field both locally and nationally. He was one of the founding members of the Northeastern Association of Forensic Scientists. He held offices in the American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors (ASCLD) culminating in the Presidency. He was active in the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS), having presented many papers and an invited Plenary Lecture, and was elected a Fellow. In addition to his scientific activities he was also active in the business of Criminalistics section of the AAFS and held a number of positions culminating in Chairmanship. He was awarded the Mary Cowan Award for distinguished service to the Criminalistics Section in 1997

After the twelve years in New York City, he moved upstate to become the Director of the Monroe County Public Safety Laboratory in Rochester New York. Throughout that period he remained active in forensic organizations and was deeply involved with the laboratory accreditation project of ASCLD. He was in the first inspector class and inspected over twenty laboratories while a laboratory Director in New York State. He was also active in the New York State Crime Laboratory Advisory Committee (NTCLAC) and its chair for several years. When New York formed its Crime Laboratory Commission to regulate forensic laboratories in the State, he was appointed to the first Commission and served until his retirement. He held the position as Director in Monroe County for eleven years before taking early retirement to make a career change to academics.

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Table of Contents


Introduction     1
Introduction to Forensic Science     3
What Is Forensic Science?     7
Science in the Service of the Law     7
Value of Forensic Science     7
Corpus Delicti-Elements of a Crime     7
Support or Disprove Statements by Witnesses, Victims, or Suspects     8
Identify Substances or Materials     9
Identify Persons     9
Provide Investigative Leads     9
Establish Linkages or Exclusions     10
A Brief History of Forensic Science     10
Development of Forensic Science Laboratories and Professional Organizations     13
Nature of Science and the Scientific Method     15
Careful Observation     16
Make Logical Suppositions to Explain the Observations     16
Hypothesis Testing-Controlled Experiments     16
Refining the Hypothesis-Theories and Natural Laws     17
The Scientific Method and Its Applicability to Forensic Science and to Investigation     18
Forensic Science Specialties     19
Forensic Pathology     19
Forensic Entomology     19
Forensic Odontology     20
Forensic Anthropology     20
Forensic Toxicology     20
Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology     21
Forensic Engineering     22
Forensic Computer Science     22
Forensic/Investigative Technologies     22
Criminalistics     22
Elements of Forensic Evidence Analysis-The Types of Results Forensic Scientists Produce     23
Evidence Recognition     24
Classification (Identification)     25
Individualization     26
Reconstruction     27
Physical Evidence and the Legal System     31
How Physical Evidence Is Produced     33
Changes Induced at a Scene     33
Imprints or Indentations     33
Striations     35
Damage     35
Exchange of Material upon Contact     36
Deposits     36
Classification of Physical Evidence     37
Utilization of Physical Evidence     39
Provide Investigative Leads-Helping Develop MO and Leads from Databases     39
Establish Linkages or Exclusions     40
Corroboration-Credibility-Supporting or Disproving Statements     42
Identification of Persons     42
Identification of Substances or Materials     43
Establishing a Basis for a Crime and Criminal Prosecution-Corpus Delicti     43
The Physical Evidence Process     44
Recognition-Most Critical and Requires a Trained Observer     44
Documentation and Marking for Identification     44
Collection, Packaging, and Preservation     44
Laboratory Analysis     45
Reporting and Testimony     46
Origin of Legal Systems     47
The Criminal Justice System and Process     48
Scientific and Technical Evidence Admissibility and the Expert Witness     52
Crime Scene Procedures, Techniques, and Analysis     57
Crime Scene Processing and Analysis     59
Processing versus Analysis     61
Types of Scenes     62
Initial Actions and Scene Security     62
Steps in Scene Processing and Analysis     64
Scene Survey and Evidence Recognition     64
Scene Searches     64
Documentation     64
Evidence Collection and Preservation     65
Release of the Scene     65
Scene Survey and Evidence Recognition     65
Scene Searches     66
Documentation     67
Notes     67
Sketches      67
Photography     70
Video Recording     74
Duty to Preserve     75
Evidence Collection and Preservation     75
Collection Methods     76
Numbering and Evidence Description Methods     76
Packaging Options     77
Proper Controls and Comparison Standards     78
Laboratory Submission     79
Crime Scene Analysis and Reconstructions     80
Laboratory Analysis and Comparisons of Evidence     80
Medical Examiner's Reports in Death Cases     80
Reconstruction: Putting It All Together     80
Reconstruction versus Reenactment     81
Digital Evidence and Forensic Computer Science     81
Examination and Interpretation of Patterns for Reconstruction     85
Pattern Evidence: Reconstruction Patterns and Individualization Patterns     87
Most Reconstruction Patterns Are Crime Scene Patterns     87
Importance of Documentation of Reconstruction Patterns     87
Blood Spatter Patterns     88
Basis of Blood Pattern Interpretation     88
Velocity and Impact Angle     88
Various Blood Spatter Patterns     90
Factors Affecting Blood Patterns and Their Interpretation      92
Glass Fracture Patterns     94
Determining the Side of the Glass Where Force Was Applied     94
Determining the Order of Gunshots Fired Through Glass     94
Track and Trail Patterns     96
Tire and Skid Mark Patterns     96
Clothing and Article or Object Patterns     97
Gunshot Residue Patterns     97
Projectile Trajectory Patterns     99
Fire Burn Patterns     101
Modus Operandi Patterns and Profiling     101
Wound, Injury, and Damage Patterns     102
Physical Pattern Evidence and Technological Examinations     105
Examination of Physical Pattern Evidence     107
Classification/Types of Physical Patterns for Comparison     109
Physical Matches     109
Impression and Striation Mark     109
Shape and Form     109
General Principles in Physical Pattern Comparisons     110
The Process of Identification     110
Physical Matching     111
Exclusions, Inconclusives, and Insufficient Detail     112
Physical Pattern Comparisons and the Daubert Criteria     113
Impression and Striation Mark Comparisons     113
Impressions: Imprints and Indentations      113
Striations     114
Collection and Preservation of Impressions     114
Footwear, Tire, and Other Impressions     116
Clarification and Contrast Improvement Techniques     117
Weapon, Tool, and Object Marks     118
Shape and Form Comparisons     119
Other Patterns     119
Concluding Comments     119
Fingerprints and Other Personal Identification Patterns     123
Fingerprints-An Old and Traditionally Valuable Type of Evidence     125
About Fingerprints-Their Nature and the History and Development of Their Use     126
Nature of Fingerprints     126
History and Development of the Use of Fingerprints     127
Fingerprint Classification, Management of Large Files, AFISs     128
Classification and Large Files     129
Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFISs)     130
Collection and Preservation of Fingerprint Evidence     132
Latent Prints and Their Development     132
Types of Evidentiary Fingerprints     132
Development of Latent Fingerprints     133
Fingerprint Comparison and Identification     141
The Fingerprint Identification Profession     142
Other Patterns for Person Identification     143
Palm and Sole Prints     143
Bite Marks     144
Skeletal Features     145
Lip and Ear Prints     145
Voice Identification     145
Biometrics     146
Identification of Human Remains-Handling of Mass Disasters     146
Questioned Document Examination     151
Types of Document Evidence     153
Development of Handwriting     155
Writing Process     156
Recognition, Collection, and Preservation of Document Evidence     159
Handwriting Comparison     161
Class and Individual Characteristics     162
Importance of Known Standards     163
Writing Mechanics     164
Handprinting     165
Legal Status of Underlying Science     165
Nonhandwriting Document Examinations     165
Typewriter and Printer Comparisons     165
Copying Machines     167
Reconstruction of Document Events     167
Alterations and Erasures     168
Charred Documents and Indented Writing     170
Age Determination     172
Toolmarks and Firearms     177
Toolmark-Definition      179
Class and Individual Characteristics     179
Residue from Softer Object on Tool     179
Types of Toolmarks     180
Collection of Toolmarks     180
Examination and Comparison of Toolmarks     181
Firearms Examination-Background     182
Firearms Function-the Firing Train     183
Types of Firearms     187
Collection and Preservation of Firearms Evidence     192
Firearms Evidence Examination and Comparison     193
Physical Examination of Firearm for Safety and Physical Condition     193
Test for Functionality and to Obtain Control Bullets and Cases     194
Bullet and Cartridge or Shotshell Case Comparisons-the Comparison Microscope     195
Association of Cartridges or Bullets to Firearm or Maker Using Databases     198
Comparison of Badly Damaged Projectiles or Cases     198
Use of Firearms Evidence for Reconstruction     198
Recovered Firearm and Fired Evidence in Reconstruction     198
Muzzle to Target Distance-Powder Pattern     199
GSR on Hands-Dermal Nitrate, Lift, Swab, Tape     199
Serial Number Restoration     202
Serial Number Obliteration Methods-Defacing     203
Recovery of Serial Number-Clean, Smooth, Etch     204
The Firearms and Toolmark Examiner Profession     205
Biological Evidence     209
Blood and Physiological Fluid Evidence: Evaluation and Initial Examination     211
How Biological Evidence Analysis Has Changed Because of DNA Typing     213
Nature of Blood     214
Collection, Preservation, and Packaging of Biological (Including Blood) Evidence     215
Blood or Buccal Swab from Known Person     216
Biological Evidence from Scenes     216
Test Controls, Substratum Comparison Specimens, and Contamination Issues     218
Know (Exemplar or Reference) Controls     218
Alibi (Alternative) Known Control     218
Blank Control     218
Substratum Comparison Specimens     218
Initial Examination of and for Biological Evidence     220
Forensic Identification of Blood     221
Preliminary or Presumptive Tests for Blood     222
Confirmatory Tests for Blood     222
Species Determination     223
Forensic Identification of Body Fluids     224
Identification of Semen     225
Identification of Vaginal "Secretions," Saliva, and Urine     227
Forensic Investigation of Sexual Assault Cases     227
Coordination of Effort-SANEs and SARTs     228
Initial Investigation     228
The Forensic Scientist's Role     229
Medical Examination     229
Evidence Collection and Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kits     230
Types of Sexual Assault Cases and Their Investigation     231
Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault-"Date-Rape" Drugs     232
Blood and Body Fluid Individuality: Traditional (pre-DNA) Approaches     233
The Classical or Conventional (pre-DNA) Genetic Markers     233
How Does Typing Genetic Markers Help "Individualize" a Biological Specimen?     234
DNA Analysis and Typing     241
Genetics, Inheritance, Genetic Markers     243
DNA-Nature and Functions     243
Where DNA Is Found in the Body-Nuclear (Genomic) and Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)     247
Collection and Preservation of Biological Evidence for DNA Typing     249
Development and Methods of DNA Analysis     250
Isolation (Extraction) of DNA     250
The Beginning-RFLP     251
The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-The First PCR-Based DNA Typing Methods     253
Current DNA Typing Methods-Short Tandem Repeats (STRs)     254
The Power of DNA to Individualize Biological Evidence     256
Databasing and CODIS     258
Applications of Forensic DNA Typing     260
Newer DNA Technologies     264
Strengths, Limitations, Promise, Hype     265
Chemical and Materials Evidence     271
Arson and Explosives     273
Fire and Arson     275
The Combustion Reaction-Flaming Combustion and Glowing Combustion     275
Necessary Components for Combustion-Fuel, Oxygen, and Ignition     275
Nature of Fuels-Gaseous, Liquid, and Solid     276
Characteristics of Fuels-Measures of Combustibility     278
Investigating Suspicious Fires-Arsonists' Motives     281
Economic Motives     281
Revenge, Vandalism, Intimidation, and Other Motives     282
Investigation of Fire Scenes     283
Burn Patterns     283
Search for Point or Points of Origin     283
Search for Causes     283
Recovery of Ignitable Liquid Residues from Suspicious Fire Scenes     283
Reasons for Finding Accelerant Residues     283
Search for Places to Collect Debris-Sniffers and Arson Dogs     284
Collection of Debris Samples and Proper Packaging     284
Collection of Samples Other Than Debris     285
Collection of Other Physical Evidence     285
Laboratory Analysis of Debris and Other Samples-Recovery of Ignitable Liquid Residues     286
Preparation of Liquid Samples     286
Four Primary Techniques for Preparation of Debris Samples     286
Laboratory Examination of Prepared Samples     289
Examination of Criminalistics Evidence Collected     294
Explosives and Explosion Incidents     295
Characteristics of Explosives and Explosions     296
Exothermic     296
Molecular Fragmentation to Produce Gaseous Products     296
Rapid Expansion     296
Containment     297
The Three Major Classes of Explosives     297
Low Explosives     297
Primary High Explosives     298
Secondary High Explosives     299
The Explosive Train or Device     300
The Role of the Scene Investigator     301
Laboratory Analysis of Explosives and Explosive Residues     302
Examination of the Unexploded Device     302
Examination of the Exploded Device and Associated Debris     303
Examination of the Device or Debris for Other Physical Evidence     305
Drugs and Drug Analysis and Forensic Toxicology     311
Nature of Drugs and Drug Abuse     313
Working Definition of a Drug     313
Nature of Drug Dependence     314
Drugs and Society-Controlled Substances     315
Major Classes of Abused Drugs     315
Opiates or Narcotic Drugs     316
Stimulants     317
Hallucinogens     318
Depressants, Hypnotics, and Tranquilizers     321
Club Drugs     322
Athletic Performance Enhancers     323
Controlled Substance Laws     324
Analysis of Controlled Substances in the Forensic Laboratory     325
Screening Tests     325
Isolation and Separation     326
Microcrystal Tests     327
Chromatography (Separations)     328
Spectroscopy/Spectrometry     329
Qualitative versus Quantitative Analysis     330
Forensic Toxicology-Antimortem and Postmortem     331
Forensic Toxicology on Samples from the Living     331
Postmortem Toxicology     331
Classes of Poisons     332
Alcohol and Drugs and Driving     332
Driving While Impaired by Alcohol     333
Other Drugs and Driving      334
Materials Evidence     339
Introduction to Materials Evidence     341
Transfer Materials Evidence Is Used to Establish or Disprove Connections     342
Materials Evidence Can Be Transferred or Deposited     343
Clothing and Vehicles Are the Most Common Sources of Materials Evidence     343
Collection Methods for Materials Evidence     344
Collection Without Sampling     344
Use of Forceps-Always the First Approach in the Lab     344
Mechanical Dislocation-Shaking or Scraping of Surface Material     345
Tape Lifts-Sticky but Not Too Sticky     345
Laboratory Examination of Trace and Transfer Evidence     345
Initial Physical Examination-Stereomicroscope, Hand Lens Microscopy     346
Instrumental Comparison and Identification-Micro FTIR and SEM/EDX     347
Materials Evidence Comparisons-Individualization, Inclusion, and Exclusion     349
Some Common Types of Materials Evidence     349
Fibers     350
Biological Materials     350
Wood and Paper     350
Building Materials     351
Metallic Residues     352
Paint and Other Coatings     352
Cosmetics and Beauty Products      352
Soil and Dust     353
Discussion of Major Categories of Materials Evidence     353
Fibers     353
Human and Animal Hair     362
Paint     367
Glass     371
Soil     375
Appendix     385
Glossary     397
Photo Credits     405
Index     406
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