Introduction to Genetic Analysis (Loose-Leaf) / Edition 10

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Overview

The author team welcomes a new coauthor, Sean B. Carroll, a recognized leader in the field of evolutionary development, to this new edition of Introduction to Genetic Analysis (IGA). The authors’ ambitious new plans for this edition focus on showing how genetics is practiced today. In particular, the new edition renews its emphasis on how genetic analysis can be a powerful tool for answering biological questions of all types.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781429272773
  • Publisher: Freeman, W. H. & Company
  • Publication date: 12/24/2010
  • Edition description: Tenth Edition
  • Edition number: 10
  • Pages: 800
  • Sales rank: 733,232
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Anthony Griffiths is Professor Emeritus at the University of British Columbia, where he taught Introductory Genetics for 35 years. The challenges of teaching that course have led to a lasting interest in how students learn genetics. His research interests center on the developmental genetics of fungi, using the model fungus Neurospora crassa. He also loves to dabble in the population genetics of local plants. Griffiths was President of the Genetics Society of Canada from 1987 to 1989, receiving its Award of Excellence in 1997. He has recently served two terms as Secretary-General of the International Genetics Federation.

Susan Wessler is Regents Professor of Plant Biology at the University of Georgia, where she has been since 1983. She teaches courses in introductory biology and plant genetics to both undergraduates and graduate students. Her interest in innovative teaching methods led to her selection as a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Professor in 2006. She is coauthor of The Mutants of Maize (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press) and of more than 100 research articles. Her scientific interest focuses on the subject of transposable elements and the structure and evolution of genomes. She was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences in 1998.

Richard Lewontin is the Alexander Agassiz Research Professor at Harvard University. He has taught genetics, statistics and evolution at North Carolina State University, the University of Rochester, the University of Chicago and Harvard University. His chief area of research is population and evolutionary genetics; he introduced molecular methods into population genetics in 1966. Since then, he has concentrated on the study of genetic variation in proteins and DNA within species. Dr. Lewontin has been President of the Society for the Study of Evolution, the American Society of Naturalists, and the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution, and for some years, he was coeditor of The American Naturalist.

Sean Carroll is Professor of Molecular Biology and Genetics and Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where he teaches genetics and evolutionary developmental biology. Dr. Carroll's research has centered on genes that control body patterns and play major roles in the evolution of animal diversity. He is the author of the several books, including The Making of the Fittest (2006, W.W. Norton) and Endless Forms Most Beautiful: The New Science of Evo Devo (2005, W.W. Norton). The latter was a finalist for the 2005 Los Angeles Times Book Prize (Science and Technology) and the 2006 National Academy of Sciences Communication Award. He is also co-author with Jen Grenier and Scott Weatherbee of the textbook From DNA to Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design (2nd ed; Blackwell Scientific) and the author or coauthor of more than 100 research articles.

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Table of Contents

Contents Preface
TRANSMISSION GENETICS CHAPTER 1 THE GENETIC APPROACH TO BIOLOGY
1.1 Genetics and the Questions of Biology
1.2 The Molecular Basis of Genetic Information Specifying the amino acid sequence of a protein Gene regulation
1.3 The Program of Genetic Investigation Starting with variation: Forward genetics Starting with DNA: Reverse genetics
1.4 Methodologies Used in Genetics Detecting specific molecules of DNA, RNA, and protein
1.5 Model Organisms Lessons from the first model organisms The need for a variety of model organisms

1.6 Genes, the Environment, and the Organism Model I: Genetic determination Model II: Environmental determination Model III: Genotype-environment interaction The use of genotype and phenotype Developmental noise Three levels of development

CHAPTER 2 SINGLE-GENE INHERITANCE

2.1 Genes and Chromosomes
2.2 Single-Gene Inheritance Patterns Mendel’s law of equal segregation
2.3 The Chromosomal Basis of Single-Gene Inheritance Patterns Single-gene inheritance in haploids The molecular basis of single-gene segregation and expression
2.4 Identifying Genes by Observing Segregation Ratios Discovering a gene active in the development of flower color Discovering a gene for wing development Discovering a gene for spore production The results of gene discovery Forward genetics Predicting progeny proportions or parental genotypes by applying the principles of single-gene influence
2.5 Sex-Linked Single-Gene Inheritance Patterns Sex-linked patterns of inheritance X-linked inheritance
2.6 Human Pedigree Analysis Autosomal recessive disorders Autosomal dominant disorders Autosomal polymorphisms X-linked recessive disorders X-linked dominant disorders Y-linked inheritance Calculating risks in pedigree analysis

CHAPTER 3 INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT OF GENES
3.1 Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment
3.2 Working with Independent Assortment Predicting progeny ratios Using the chi-square test on monohybrid and dihybrid ratios Synthesizing pure lines Hybrid vigor
3.3 The Chromosomal Basis of Independent Assortment Independent assortment in diploid organisms Independent assortment in haploid organisms Independent assortment of combinations of autosomal and X-linked genes Recombination
3.4 Polygenic Inheritance
3.5 Organelle Genes: Inheritance Independent of the Nucleus Patterns of inheritance in organelles Cytoplasmic segregation Cytoplasmic mutations in humans

CHAPTER 4 MAPPING EUKARYOTE CHROMOSOMES BY RECOMBINATION
4.1 Diagnostics of Linkage Using recombinant frequency to recognize linkage How crossovers produce recombinants for linked genes Linkage symbolism and terminology Evidence that crossing over is a breakage-and-rejoining process Evidence that crossing over takes place at the four-chromatid stage Multiple crossovers can include more than two chromatids
4.2 Mapping by Recombinant Frequency Map units Three point testcross Deducing gene order by inspection Interference Using ratios as diagnostics
4.3 Mapping with Molecular Markers Single nucleotide polymorphisms Mapping by using SNP haplotypes Simple sequence length polymorphisms
4.4 Centromere Mapping with Linear Tetrads
4.5 Using the Chi-Square Test for Testing Linkage Analysis
4.6 Using Lod Scores to Assess Linkage in Human Pedigrees
4.7 Accounting for Unseen Multiple Crossovers A mapping function The Perkins formula

4.8 Using Recombination-Based Maps in Conjunction with Physical Maps

CHAPTER 5 THE GENETICS OF BACTERIA AND THEIR VIRUSES
5.1 Working with Microorganisms
5.2 Bacterial Conjugation Discovery of conjugation Discovery of the fertility factor (F)
Hfr strains Mapping of bacterial chromosomes F plasmids that carry genomic fragments R plasmids
5.3 Bacterial Transformation Chromosome mapping using transformation
5.4 Bacteriophage Genetics Infection of bacteria by phages Mapping phage chromosomes by using phage crosses
5.5 Transduction Discovery of transduction Generalized transduction Specialized transduction Mechanism of specialized transduction
5.6 Physical Maps and Linkage Maps Compared

FROM DNA TO PHENOTYPE CHAPTER 6 GENE INTERACTION
6.1 Interactions Between the Alleles of a Single Gene: Variations on Dominance Complete dominance and recessiveness Incomplete dominance Codominance Recessive lethal alleles
6.2 Interaction of Genes in Pathways Biosynthetic pathways in Neurospora Gene interaction in other types of pathways
6.3 Inferring Gene Interactions Defining the set of genes by using the complementation test Analyzing double mutants of random mutations
6.4 Penetrance and Expressivity

CHAPTER 7 DNA: STRUCTURE AND REPLICATION
7.1 DNA: The Genetic Material Discovery of transformation Hershey-Chase experiment
7.2 The DNA Structure DNA structure before Watson and Crick The double helix
7.3 Semiconservative Replication Meselson-Stahl experiment The replication fork DNA polymerases
7.4 Overview of DNA Replication
7.5 The Replisome: A Remarkable Replication Machine Unwinding the double helix Assembling the replisome: replication initiation
7.6 Replication in Eukaryotic Organisms The eukaryotic replisome Eukaryotic origins of replication DNA replication and the yeast cell cycle Replication origins in higher eukaryotes
7.7 Telomeres and Telomerase: Replication Termination Telomeres, cancer, and aging

CHAPTER 8 RNA: TRANSCRIPTION AND PROCESSING
8.1 RNA Early experiments suggest an RNA intermediate Properties of RNA Classes of RNA
8.2 Transcription Overview: DNA as transcription template Stages of transcription
8.3 Transcription in eukaryotes Transcription initiation in eukaryotes Elongation, termination, and pre-mRNA processing in eukaryotes
8.4 Functional RNAs Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs): The mechanism of exon splicing Self-splicing introns and the RNA world Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs)

CHAPTER 9 PROTEINS AND THEIR SYNTHESIS
9.1 Protein Structure
9.2 Colinearity of gene and protein
9.3 The Genetic Code Overlapping versus nonoverlapping codes Number of letters in the codon Use of suppressors to demonstrate a triplet code Degeneracy of the genetic code Cracking the code Stop codons
9.4 tRNA: The Adapter Codon translation by tRNA Degeneracy revisited
9.5 Ribosomes Ribosome features Translation, initiation, elongation, and termination Nonsense suppressor mutations
9.6 The Proteome Alternative splicing generates protein isoforms Posttranslational events

CHAPTER 10 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN BACTERIA AND THEIR VIRUSES

10.1 Gene Regulation The basics of prokaryotic transcriptional regulation: Genetic switches A first look at the lac regulatory circuit

10.2 Discovery of the lac System: Negative Control Genes controlled together Genetic evidence for the operator and repressor Genetic evidence for allostery Genetic analysis of the lac promoter Molecular characterization of the lac repressor and the lac operator Polar mutations

10.3 Catabolic Repression of the lac Operon: Positive Control The basics of catabolite repression of the lac operon: Choosing the best sugar to metabolize The structure of target DNA sites A summary of the lac operon
10.4 Dual Positive and Negative Control: The Arabinose Operon
10.5 Metabolic Pathways and Additional Levels of Regulation: Attenuation Transcription of the trp operon is regulated at two steps
10.6 Bacteriophage Life Cycles: More Regulators, Complex Operons Molecular anatomy of the genetic switch Sequence-specific binding of regulatory proteins to DNA
10.7 Alternative Sigma Factors Regulate Large Sets of Genes

CHAPTER 11 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN EUKARYOTES
11.1 Transcriptional Regulation in Eukaryotes: An Overview
11.2 Lessons from Yeast: the GAL System Gal4 regulates multiple genes through upstream activation sequences The Gal4 protein has separable DNA-binding and activation domains Gal4 activity is physiologically regulated Gal4 functions in most eukaryotes Activators recruit the transcriptional machinery

11.3 Dynamic Chromatin and Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Chromatin-remodeling proteins and gene activation Histones and chromatin remodeling
11.4 Enhancers: Cooperative Interactions, Combinatorial Control, and Chromatin Remodeling The b-interferon enhanceosome The control of yeast mating type: Combinatorial interactions DNA-binding proteins combinatorially regulate the expression of cell-type-specific genes Enhancer-blocking insulators
11.5 Genomic Imprinting But what about Dolly and other cloned mammals?
11.6 Chromatin Domains and Their Inheritance Mating-type switching and gene silencing Heterochromatin and euchromatin compared Position-effect variegation in Drosophila reveals genomic neighborhoods Genetic analysis of PEV reveals proteins necessary for heterochromatin formation Silencing an entire chromosome: X-chromosome inactivation The inheritance of epigenetic marks and chromatin structure

CHAPTER 12 THE GENETIC CONTROL OF DEVELOPMENT
12.1 The Genetic Approach to Development
12.2 The Genetic Toolkit for Drosophila Development Classification of genes by developmental function Homeotic genes and segmental identity Organization and expression of Hox genes The homeobox Clusters of Hox genes control development in most animals
12.3 Defining the Entire Toolkit The anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes Expression of toolkit genes
12.4 Spatial Regulation of Gene Expression in Development Maternal gradients and gene activation Drawing stripes: Integration of gap-protein inputs Making segments different: Integration of Hox inputs
12.5 Posttranscriptional Regulation of Gene Expression in Development RNA splicing and sex determination in Drosophila Regulation of mRNA translation and cell lineage in C. elegans Translational control in the early embryo miRNA control of developmental timing in C. elegans and other species
12.6 The Many Roles of Individual Toolkit Genes From flies to fingers, feathers, and floor plates
12.7 Development and Disease Polydactyly Holoprosencephaly Cancer as a developmental disease

CHAPTER 13 GENOMES AND GENOMICS

13.1 The Genomics Revolution
13.2 Creating the Sequence Map of a Genome Turning sequence reads into a sequence map Establishing a genomic library of clones Sequencing a simple genome by using the whole-genome shotgun approach Using the whole-genome shotgun approach to create a draft sequence of a complex genome Using the ordered-clone approach to sequence a complex genome Filling sequence gaps
13.3 Bioinformatics: Meaning from Genomic Sequence The nature of the information content of DNA Deducing the protein-encoding genes from genomic sequence
13.4 The Structure of the Human Genome
13.5 Comparative Genomics Of mice and humans Comparative genomics of chimpanzees and humans Conserved and ultraconserved noncoding elements Comparative genomics of non-pathogenic and pathogenic E. coli
13.6 Functional Genomics and Reverse Genetics Ome, Sweet Ome Reverse genetics

MUTATION, VARIATION, AND EVOLUTION CHAPTER 14 THE DYNAMIC GENOME
14.1 Discovery of transposable elements in maize McClintock’s experiments: the Ds element Autonomous and nonautomous elements Transposable elements: only in maize?
14.2 Transposable elements in bacteria Bacterial insertion sequences Prokaryotic transposons Mechanism of transposition
14.3 Transposable elements in eukaryotes Class I: retrotransposons DNA transposons Utility of DNA transposons for gene discovery
14.4 The dynamic genome: more transposable elements than ever imagined Large genomes are largely transposable elements Transposable elements in the human genome The grasses: LTR retrotransposons thrive in large genomes Safe havens

CHAPTER 15 MUTATION, REPAIR, AND RECOMBINATION
15.1 Phenotypic consequences of DNA alterations Types of point mutation The molecular consequences of point mutations in a coding region The molecular consequences of point mutations in a noncoding region
15.2 The Molecular Basis of Spontaneous Mutations Luria and Delbrück fluctuation test Mechanisms of spontaneous mutations Spontaneous mutations in humans—trinucleotide repeat diseases
15.3 The Molecular Basis of Induced Mutations Mechanisms of mutagenesis The Ames test: Evaluating mutagens in our environment
15.4 Cancer: An Important Phenotypic Consequence of Mutations How cancer cells differ from normal cells Mutations in cancer cells
15.5 Biological Repair Mechanisms Direct reversal of damaged DNA Homology-dependent repair systems Postreplication repair: mismatch repair Error-prone repair: Translesion DNA synthesis Repair of double-strand breaks
15.6 The Mechanism of Meiotic Crossing-Over Programmed double-strand breaks initiate meiotic recombination Genetic analysis of tetrads provides clues to the mechanism of recombination The double-strand break model for meiotic recombination

CHAPTER 16 LARGE-SCALE CHROMOSOMAL CHANGES
16.1 Changes in Chromosome Number Aberrant euploidy Aneuploidy The concept of gene balance
16.2 Changes in Chromosome Structure Deletions Duplications Inversions Reciprocal translocations Robertsonian translocations Applications of inversions and translocations Rearrangements and cancer Identifying chromosome mutations by genomics

16.3 Overall Incidence of Human Chromosome Mutations

CHAPTER 17 POPULATION GENETICS
17.1 Variation and Its Modulation Observations of variation Protein polymorphisms DNA structure and sequence polymorphism
17.2 Effect of Sexual Reproduction on Variation Meiotic segregation and genetic equilibrium Heterozygosity Random mating Inbreeding and assertive mating

17.3 Sources of Variation Variation from mutation Variation from recombination Variation from migration
17.4 Selection Two forms of selection Measuring fitness differences How selection works Rate of change in gene frequency
17.5 Balanced Polymorphism Overdominance and underdominance Balance between mutation and selection
17.6 Random Events

CHAPTER 18 QUANTITATIVE GENETICS
18.1 Genes and Quantitative Traits
18.2 Some Basic Statistical Notions Statistical distributions Statistical measures
18.3 Genotypes and Phenotypic Distribution The critical difference between quantitative and Mendelian traits Gene number and quantitative traits

18.4 Norm of Reaction and Phenotypic Distribution
18.5 Determining Norms of Reaction Domesticated plants and animals Studies of natural populations Results of norm-of-reaction studies
18.6 The Heritability of a Quantitative Character Familiarity and heritability Phenotypic similarity between relatives
18.7 Quantifying Heritability Methods of estimating H2
The meaning of H2
Narrow heritability Estimating the components of genetic variance Artificial selection The use of H2 in breeding
18.8 Locating Genes Marker-gene segregation Quantitative linkage analysis

CHAPTER 19 EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS
19.1 Darwinian Evolution
19.2 A Synthesis of Forces: Variation and Divergence of Populations
19.3 Multiple Adaptive Peaks Exploration of adaptive peaks
19.4 Genetic Variation Heritability of variation Variation within and between populations
19.5 Mutation and Molecular Evolution The signature of purifying selection on DNA
19.6 Relating Genetic to Functional Change: Protein Evolution The signature of positive selection on DNA sequences Morphological evolution Gene inactivation
19.7 Regulatory Evolution Regulatory evolution in humans
19.8 The Origin of New Genes Polyploidy Duplications Imported DNA
19.9 Genetic Evidence of Common Ancestry in Evolution Comparing the proteomes among distant species Comparing the proteomes among near neighbors: Human-mouse comparative genomics
19.10 The Process of Speciation Genetics of species isolation

TECHNIQUES CHAPTER 20 GENE ISOLATION AND MANIPULATION
20.1 Mutant screens
20.2 Generating Recombinant Molecules Type of donor DNA Cutting genomic DNA Attaching vector DNA and vector DNA Amplification inside a bacterial cell Entry of recombinant molecules into the bacterial cell Recovery of amplified recombinant molecules Making genomic and cDNA libraries Finding a specific clone of interest Determining the base sequence of a DNA segment
20.3 DNA Amplification in Vitro: the Polymerase Chain Reaction
20.4 Zeroing in on the Gene for Alkaptonuria: Another Case Study
20.5 Detecting Human Disease Alleles: Molecular Genetic Diagnostics Diagnosing mutations on the basis of restriction-site differences Diagnosing mutations by probe hybridization Diagnosing with PCR tests
20.6 Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genetic engineering in plants Genetic engineering in animals Human gene therapy

A Brief Guide to Model Organisms

Appendix A: Genetic Nomenclature Appendix B: Bioinformatics Resources for Genetics and Genomics Glossary Answers to Selected Problems Index

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    Great introductory textbook for genetics! If you need the soluti

    Great introductory textbook for genetics! If you need the solutions to the end of the chapter problems they can be found at meetyourbrain dot com. Just go to the homework section and then click the biology link. You can view the solutions for no cost.

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